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SXIAS \\RK;Hr 1)1 NMN(. 








<* THK 







Under Govermnent Orders, 





72^' ^"^^y 

The chief contiibufeors Me Mr.W. Bamsay, O.S., who prepared draft 
accoonl^ of Deecription, FrodnctioD, Hiatdty, Surrey Hietory, and 
the D^ga, and Mr. John PoUen, C.S., the District Compiler, who, 
hesidee many corrections and additions, faniiahed the hulk of the^ 
materials for the Popolation, Trade, and Capital chapters, and a masft. 
of detuls for History and I^cea of Interest. A manascript acconnt. 
of the district, written in 1869 l^ Mr. A. Crawley-&>evey, G.S., 
was of great vtOtafi especially in preparing the History chapter. 
Mr. Whitcombe'a Sab-dirisional Acoouats and vety complete Barrey 
fignres for the Land Administration chapter, and Mr. Stormont's 
paper on Agrictdtiire, are also most valnalole cofltribations. 

Since the district map was prepared the official speUing of a few 
names has been altered. The change is in no case so great as to cause 
eonfuBioQ. , 

'Vecemlor 1880. 





OapCn L— SMcr^tlgn. * p^uu 

PosltatmAnd Are* i Bonnclarieq ; Snb-dinnona ; AqieDt •.. 1-8 

- HOla ; Bivera ; XAfces ..• ... ... J. 4-11 

Ooologj ; Hot iimiigB I OlimBte _ h. ... ... 18>1S 

Chftptar IL— FradoBtioa. 
Umemh ; Torata ; Trees ... .„ ... 16-27 

Aiiiinal0iBudi;7uh — ... ... ... S8>87 

\/ (Ajvter xn.— FopitlcttaB. 

iDtrodmition ; Tjagtmgo; Oennu DetailiXlSTfl) .» 38 -4S 

Bace DiTisiona ... ... ... ... 49-138 

Villages; Houses; CommimitieB ; Movemente ... ... 129-135 

Chapter VI.— Agrienltnre. o 

Caltivatora ; Holding ; Crop Ai«a ; "Soil ; Irrigation ... 136 - 139 

" Watef Wo rkfl ; Fidd Too la ; Field Operatioiu ; Crop pnttarn 140 - 148 

^^ Crops ; Oardening ; Oovenuneot Farm ... ... 149 • 181 

Blights ; Locnste ; Famines ... ... ...182-190 

Chapter T.— Capital 

Capitalists ; Exchange Bilk ; Saving Classes ; Traders ; 

Acconnt Books ; Correnc^ ; Interest ... ... 191 - 195 

Moneylenders ; Land Mortgages ; Bhils ; ArtisaoB ; La^oiu-ars ; 

Labonr Mortgage ; Wages ; Prices j WeiRhts and Meae nres. 196 - 206 

Chapter VL-Trade. 

Sec, I. — Rontee ; Passes ; Bailway ; Bridges ; Ferries ; Best- 

hoDses ; Post and Telegraph Ofacra ... ... 206-213 

Bee. n.— Trade (247-1880); Centres; Markets; Faiie; 
Village Shopkeepers ; Peddlers ; Carriers ; Imports ^d 
Exports ... ... ... ; ... 214-223 

Sec. III.-CraftB;Crftft Guilds ... ... ' ...224-23? 



EM-ly Hihdn (16 00 B.o. • 1300 a.d.) ; Mii»l niAiiJ189Ji-1760^ j 
Mardtha (17 60-1818)'; Britui (1818;J880) ... 286-263 

Chapter TIZL— Lui Adrntniitration. 

See. I,— STArr ... ... ... ... 264-265 

- Sao. XL— BiTiKDi HiSTOBT : Earl; Hindn ; Moghal ; Haritiia . 266 • 271 
Sec, in. — Bbitisb Maniqeuent ; Condition and Staff (1818) ; 
BeToaoe Settlement (1821); Sammai? (1618-1852) ; 
Survey (1852 - 1870) ; Surrey Besulto (1852 - 1878) ; 
Development (1846-1880) ... ... ...272-297 

Sec. IV.— Skasoh Bbpobts ... ... ... 298-303 

Chi^teT XZ.-^iiitioe. ** 

Maritba ; British ; Staff ; pivil Justice ... ** ... 304- 307 

Bie^tration ; Criminal JoBtice ; Criminal Tribes; Police ; * 

Bba Corps ; Jails ... ... ... ... 308-819 

Chapter X— Berenoe and Vinattoe. 

BalanosSheet ... ... ... ...320-325 

Local Funds ; Mnnicipalitiefl ..■ ... ... 326 - 328- 

Chaptn XL— InitmBtum. 

Schools { Persons able to Bead and Write ; Bace of Pupils ; 

School Betam; Town and Village Education; Libraries] 

Newspapers y ...- ... ... ...329-335 

Chapter ZIL— Bealth. 
Diseases ; Hospitals and DlBpensariea ; Vaccination ; Births 
and Deaths ... ... 336-341 

Chapter Zin.-8ub-diviiioiia — — — 342-430 

Chapter XIT.-Kaoai of Interart -^^ ...i3l-594 

8t*t<a .^ .^ ... ... 595- ete- 

UrDKZ ... ... ... ... ... 015-624 











, Eha'ndos^,' Ijing betvreen 20° 8* anS 22" 7* nAi-llt lotitade aod 
r 42' auJ 7C' 28" caet iongilude, wiili a total ar ea of 10.481 
Ituirc milcj, had, in 187i, a population of l,OiB,IHi soabi or 
iiiety.oigliL to thu eqaarc milo, und iu 1879, « land reretme of 
"lO.OOy (lie. 31,00,090). 

StrctwhinK nearly 160 m!Ies along tl«J TApfei, and Tftryinff in 
I breadth from sovuut-y to ninety milvs, KluUittis'^u rornw tm uplan d 
bftJMn, the moiit nortlioHy soclnm of tho l)oc<?(ui table -land. A.long 
tins frliolu uorthorn frontier, the di!^tT^^t U bouuJed by ihu 8&1i>udil 
raugo, a mountain tract trom thirty to forty niilos wide. !■ r>.tn 
tho north-east eoraw, M far an the Sind^^g&s «n tho Agra 
HMil . nxc'opt two or throe of tho Boutlit'r?n(Igc^"ilic ^11 coimlty 
belonjfa t*> Hla Highness lialfeflT- furilicr we«t, in ShAh.-ida, 
the Khitndesh InMindary akirtet tho base of tho hillH ; thoa, 
iuclutling tho AkrAni torritorv , it Btrikae north, rij^ht into the heart 
of tho hilU, to wliijre, lu ii dc-op narrow chaunel, tho Wlrbada foirta 
ita w»y (hrouph tho StUpudtU. From this to it« norCh-wont oorucr, 
tho Nitrbit(n\ rumHins tho iiorthom iK>iiudiii-y of the district. .Oafho 
cast andsTiuth-eaat, a row of pillara and sodid convoniout streams, 
wi tbonfa ny marko d natural jtf ftpjftr T . Bopamte KbAndesh from tho 
C entoid ffovi^M , ftn J Hi 'nt'. To tho south the Ajania, fidtoutla 
or" diiAn^or mofre may nmjfhJy bo said to mark the lino betwocn 
Elutu(U-sfa and tlio Nii^n's territory. On tho i!oiitb-wcKt, the Arva 
or Laliiij;, and Giilna hills itepuratv Khdnde^h from NAaik. Thenco 
tho frontier crosseii the Sahyddris, and runs north-west altHig a woll 
. » 

< rron uutctU* nimilM tf thr W. Ramiay, C-&., uul Ur. J. C- Wbiteottbs^ 
AMuUnt Snrtvy ^ferlaUmdtat, 

* Aeowdtiu toAbul Ful (Olwlwb'i Aln-iAklMri, H. ffT). tlienMiie Klutodoh^s 
dorivrd Inm Kltin tho llUa jlTea Il4i;> hy Aluaail L of aujMdt (1411>14431 to • 
bftdik Nulr tbo MEOBd or tli« Anikl Ungi{Bngg>'FeriibU,IV. 2tL1). TlMfMittlwt 
Feruht* (BndgK, I. SC7-309) «p«*]EM of tfcocbwu «f Kliiiidwb tn huocoowit of tbo 
flnt UtUBlmio o«fiq«C4t (lt^,M), /aconni iba viaw tlMt tke nMno w«a older tlun 
UtuklmlB tiiMN, uKl Vim pouililjr cluuuFod by tbttn to aiut Um titl« of tliu Famki 
kinin. Mr. Sinclur, C.S.. htt vagmattA (lad. Ant. IV. IDS] £«nA<iJr«V m the UaA 
at KfUlini. ui tlic oii^iBkl tana. Aooontiiu to ■oitk oVI vom Khtadeah i* tlia 
KkltHluTforut 'if •! x< .' "hlmitlBdoSllicti K. a Uu«thc, Sulionltuiita Jad^oof 
Aaulner) -. «»i ^^ .tJi.Arat Lut nf Peopla asd FUo«* : Wurka. VTI. IM) 

mentioni tbe Kti-i uids* next iKforo tlw poo|i)e of Viilarbhu'ox Btdar, 

^(«(Rop. BiU. At. lajf, 237} derive* the u^flfroaiMaiKl or iAiW,* g^ar 

■ ■.0 (MM. 



[Bombay Qaal 

ipter I. 


■di virion!. 



marked weatom spar ot that mnge, as far as the town and Eo 
Songad. vFrom*Songad the TApti »ivor and a line of masonry pt 
carry the bonndary north-east back to the S^tpndas at the weiat 
of the Akr&ni territory. Within these limits, except that in sfli 
places along the soa th bou ndary the N izAm's terr itory runanOT 
th e A ianta ramge, and^hat in the extreme south a group of tha 
KhAndeiili vHI^es lies isolated on the Deccau table-land, Kh^ 
is a compact diBtrict with none of its lands subject to any i 

For administrative purposes KbAndoBh is distributed 
sixtipen sub -divisions, with, on an average, an area of C52 ac 
miles, 215 villages, and 6+,250 inhabitants. Of these sub-divie 
Amalner, Bhusaval, PAchora, and Pimpalher have, each of them, 
and S&vda has tw( petty divisions.^ 

Khdndt^ AdminiilTtUiee Dett^, 1879. 


OovArnmoiiL AlienKUjd. 

Total . 
























Atnnlnflr ,, 












BhllUrnl ,. 
























Chop^ ... 





















Er^indot .. 


































Nodiabod . 






• •• 







Vlehorn .. 













Pit I'M a r 



71 JIO 








. *H 



l£B 1 









Hlliliidl „ 



13 ... 










Sbtrpur .. 



Ida 1 







Talnela ,. 



IK . : 









Vlrdel .. 



30 { 1 










ibviivn m 











An upland basin, draining into the T^pti with a gentle wo: 
b1«^, KhAndeah includes most varied tracts of country, wil 
ana f«rest, rich garden and grove, stretches of barren plain 
low rolling rocky hills. From east to west, parallel with tho "i 
are three well marked belts of country, in the contro the 
TApti valleyj^n the north the high and wild SAtpudAs, and i 
Bonth and south-west bare ridges and rich well watered vi 
flanked by the A japta and SahyAdri hills. 

The TApti banks are high and bare, and the land on both 
is seamed by tributary rivers and streams. Now and again fi-oi 

' The Arailner petty division is Pirolu ; th»t of Bhiisdval, RUnliwl ; t 
PAohora, Blmdgaun ; that of PiinuolDcr, flixiinuur: luiil tliusu of Sdvda KAv 


, sptir» of theSdtpuiUit sln.^tcIx'toisoU} Uio nrcr bank, and od 

ith riso somolow bamtu hil^ paiigt-ii. With [h<^-«u nKCOjitwiia, 

Jour cti ntraJ plai n ia, for al»ut 150 miles tniia UurliiUipur 

N»ndnrtKir, uu uiiliP^kun rirotch of dpop alluvial soil. The oast 

ml centre are rick ami wdl liltud. "TIm LoViu a'a<l unJ ' 

I aad proeperoua, HurHKiDded by tnaii^ gi-ovos and ganlcav 

[Dzr«pt wuon baked by the ra^ii^ winds of tbo hot season, 

BotdK itrt! (rr(M>ii with vanod tillagR, Oil t>»th »idvM of tin; river 

ration ia widt^-inivAd. Southward it stn-tcbes to the hi);rher 

la and bnrron hill sides, and north to tbo lino of deep forest 

Mt fhvtV^B th« biwo of Oxv SiitptiJjis. InihjMvjyfi, tliuuKb thu 

>i| ia no lona rich , parts of NaaJnrliSr, Skitluida, and 'I'aloda'aro 

rergrown wit li forest BOit bruahwood. the climate ia unhealthy, 

ad th« pcopk^oro few luid poor, 7 • 

North of the Tiipti, tho wholo length of tlw rich allnrtat plain ik 

innded by the flte«p southern face of tho SjltpuiUK, a bull oK 

ooutaiu land from twonty to thirty miles broad. Modi of this hil l 

UDtry, now with only u fow Kcattvrcd Bhil h»mlet«, was oaco we ll 

At every (yw miloit in the foreat of yiM TM|p aftiniiim i.f 

with rcmama of sngar and oil mill s, further west, Anilia, 

toy wide tniHcys of the Ant-r nnd thi.- Aru;jj^Tnt i, i» dotiyj w ith 

bruRhwtiod-corored rtiin-s uMBa. »ell». a nd 

tper-storied hoases of wSat i i ».... i...... ...:un considerable 

Thouf;h HO mnch is doBertod, in tbo north-west the cool 

irixtg AkrAai nnlanths are well tilled and proi^pcroiil, pooplod by 

ivria, bOIuT anil hardworking peasants, whuMJ homt:Hloail.t, cnvh 

it« plot of tieldfl, arc aboltorea by well kept mango and rnoha, 

nia I at if ol in, groves. 

South of (he rieh T&pti valley, the connti«r is more varied thaa 

tther in tha cuntrc or in tho nortb. In the nxlrcmo eaat, the Piima 

^le Vj K'lween the Haiti failU on the caal and mllnif; liroKe'npnHmil 

ko toe west, fltrecohes south, much of it, from the fear tit wild 

Btfl.^l &sfa) or oovcred with brnshw Dod. Fnrthor west, drained 

ihe VA yhnrJ jjm Girnit^ wid tho l^ori. wide 8t<iny thorny plains 

so in low brood-topped basaltic ridges, or sink in rich valley;* 

'studded irith uianKo m^vcs and largfv proitporona villages. Weal of 

*Lni Uori, Uielaud, ae it drnwy ne<>rcr tlu' Siihy a dr is , ffluws wJl'ler an d 

lore picturesque. ItanffCfl of quaiut'l^j'Vut hillSf'separated by tho rich 


th^ fi y ifi"- ^trfltcb 
wclil w wild and 

a watopod v " " ,: Pfinjhni. 

MiKt Mcroa )i pliiin. Tlio extreme 

Uy ; the air, tlKiu^ii cuvi and pleasant, ia, except in the hoi Hca.-«<>n, 
!uu with fevov ; tbo puoplo are jxwr and nnsettlod ; and tho lull 
idc», Ixiru in the cast and well woodud in the went, yield only scanty ' 
:)pa of c<uu«« grain. 

Down the western Sahy£ilri alopca the district atretcbc« into the 
broken tnu? t crot^acd by endless lines of petty billii, umcb 
■I, with a deadly climate, a {KKir and wretched peuple, and 
tudcbt t iilage. 

Within KbiimlL'sb liuiilj. iin! foil' iigew, thu Bitpodfa 

tbu uorlh, thu II1L1I4 hill.i iu uiiet, the AjUBta or 




Kpter 1 

D » 


SAtiiulIft rnngo in the mttUi, vid tbe BiJiyitlria in tbo 
HjlTftm ^. a Irfond bolt of tDrratftaia \nif1 
lino Monjf Uw north biutk of tho Tdjili, ii 
hills, riilgc lichinil riiljpv U> tho wutnil civaL u 
untl Lheu »\tipv ^^ntty to tlu> Narlmda. Aii> . ^ -i- 
riao from 3000 to aSOO imt, tho chiisf are, in ibo t 
I'torla and AtotiilliiinuU lorjking dowu on T&va], 
CO m moil il tug Iwitli tho TApti and tho Narbcidn vall>'yH. 
farther west, and in AJcnini, Tanuim tl' tho crani]- 
mngo. ThJB, imoo a »c-ttL of the niJCTa ot Mlodu , a long r j 

tel^Q-bind, ii^iV) (i!bt liixh anil nboat scictDt^n sqnuri! i 
rises, in Duitb latitiuk' 21* G'i' and ivwl \nngllot\e V 
twL'uty niiK<s noiih of KtiltAnpnr nnt^uiittitj from Ubotia. 
Iiin nidoM, of trflj) and lautolt with I'm! ircin cl^v, tuv I 
fituddod frith karwmd, Cariasa corondaa, and turan, 8 VKvnbujt r 
IiiibIkis, luid with wild mnni^, Inuiinn, Mod j-hnt-nl, Sji 

{'uuilHilBunni, trec-if. The hill top titixitches in small fl&t [>L 
irokun by irropular linos of bills from 100 to lo" ' 

Nuar iIki aonth-wpat comor, a Inrifo laVe of bean : . 
luiil ciHil w-iitcr, niKxit a milo and fix furlongs RHOid tioO 
kniad and tbirty-four feet deep in the ocntre, partly form 
liloppinK o Rurffo botwcMi two small hills, in flanked by a 
tiAsurod tiui)ft.i about -100 fcot high. Tho dam, earth fueod 
Btono, a work of immense laboar and Btifn;rlh, ia oltan 
yurdK loTigy forty foot ht^h, niid about Iwvnty-ttijrht fwl i 
tbe top and from 170 to 200 fwt bmiul at tho bs">.' Thf 
the dam, with r^>om for a small booHO or tent, is r 
niacli of it shndcd by treos and cxwlcd by tho 
during (ho hot months blowg Htrong and Kteady across tbo 
At Olio side tho EurpAtM waters are, through a rock-cut pa 
taken 4<J0 yards to a snudlor lake almut thirty ftrot biwcr, aui 
carriod to a prt^-ipioo from four to fire hundred feet-' ■ 
cU'iiH drop of 2 i;J fwt.* Bxcopt sbrimpa, tbo lako iscnl ■ 
fish. In »dditiim to the lake and \t» great dam »ro the ffittiai 
iniuiy temples and walls, all of tliom, acoiinltng lo the local t 
tbe work of tho wiint Gorakhn^th. Tho walls, »trflchin( 
miles, Htilt wtn-ngthcn tho WMk parts of lb*i hill top, but tbo tei 
ant fallen in utter detny. On tbo »outh aide of the bill is n ti 
fwt wjuure rock-cut temple, with an imago of I'Arastulth, in i 
honoiu- crory October a fair is held. Other remains of 
scitlpturcH seem to bave Ixvn uii<><l in building more mixlom ton 
Kxix*[it Hhila and I'ivriia, of whom tlionj are some scattered Till 
the hill ia without iuliabitaote. In tbo wet neason (July-Octo 
(hu rain is constant^ and sometitooa to heavy that for days it 1 
cvorytbing » few yards o&. In tho'oold woather frosts aro oom 

* TnmimAI, OT th« tvnm't pUtctn, takoa ita nauo Irani (nnca, Syxjrpfaaa mg 
)ar):u *liltuliijmiil •timk ^ 

* UhuIMiiidI C. r, Kt^b) {IViin. lie". Hum.--. t\. 3) ulvm ililGmmt Sgnm : 440] 



tiic hot SWV9.1I1 {Marcli-Jmio), tht^Uko, llio noifirlilwnrinK forosts, 
1 a stfug Btcatly soutli-woiii rfiud oimhiuQ to make Uili diiiinlti 

llghtful, with, during May, a mean ton]p<>niturc of abont aeveoty- 

'00 iU^gnMii*.' Tlio lutit way ap tho lull from SallAnpar wsw 

tnerly paasable only to very ligblly laden beasta of burdon. lii 

"'', it vra'5 much imnrovoa by clouring the firet twelve of the 

ty-foiir itiilo.1 from lliiogar on the Shdhidasidc. Tho rcmAining 

reive offer no great difficulty. 

,o H^fTi liillg^ boMpding tliq Pnrtia valley o n the east, nm 

.h-w08t mid south-twwt, aiiJ for tiWtit twouty milvs pass 

roiitirh lli« Hf>utb-eaal cerDerof Kbiudesb. Rising gradually f/om 

T^pti valleyt id thuir tisbt twenty miles they are rather l ow and 

«. Furtbor cant, forming tho northern fronticrr of Bonir, 

ly rise U> nearly -WOO (eot, and linaHy merge in tbo NABn>ur 

lis. At first ban) and rocky, as thoy near the sonthern limit of 

cfh, tboir xidoi^ nnj iu pliux>« ttomuvrhut thickly covorod 

brushwood and timI>or, aud give aheltvr to wild Iwaats. 

The f^yaXu k, also known as th eCbAndoror Ajanta rang e, breaking 
* sharply from (ho Sahyitdm in tho north'Wi'st. of N&sik, rana 
about fifty miloH eiutl in » series of qount biutalt piouaoW luid 
ilge». Near ManmAd, after a gontlo depression, it again rises 
Hjl t jQlJ fcut ahuYo tlic plain, and forms a iwmvwhat monotonona 
l-likt^ IxHiiniary l)etwoon KIittndc«h and the Dcccan. lliou^h, 
ot'pt forab-iut fifteea milea in the w&§t, ggt actually within ita limi ta, 
ir.tTiia' skirts tho iwnr.h of KhAndoah for ubunt Vtgh^' iniltM. A 
luili'.s bovoud Ajanta it turns nouth, merging iul^i tho highlnndt) 
form \\\o Bouihem frontier of Itenlr. As they are a narro w 
little more than the bIoop norlhem hco of tho Uocoao 
ml, tho S^tmAlAa oonlain f ew forett trad e. Their sides, 
cly bare or with a few scattorod irecs, Imvo horo and there, on 
banks wd in tho licdti of 8tre«in», timber and bruiibw4x>d thiL-kpts 
■gcoiiitugljto shelter tigop** and other wild aiumals. Of latfe years, 
lage hrtv spread to tho sides of many of the uorthcni spurs, and 
siiijio [ilinxw annus i^liKW to tho f<j'it of till) iniiiu nvngu, Uewidc* 
I piiHHiv.-n|uoHe*a uf itit wegCern peak:4, the chief interest in tho 
tniAla range aro tlio rock-cnt BuddhUt tcmplw and mouaatc rigB 
Apmta, I'l'vtni^ an'l CTiAndo r. Witbiu KbAndflab Limita, bewidea 
sveriil iiiuI-piiihB, two cart roods cross the hills, one throagh tho 
Wpjanpn ■ • '•■■••--•- - n. vi near CbtUiBK UOP, Ewd tbo othor by iJio 
Aj anta j ur. 

Tlio S^HTAnni hills bound the south-neat oomor of Kbindesi). 

'Phen, at tKe northern extremity of the range, they torn shai-ply 

to tho cost, leaving thti broii'l Tfipt) plain botwcon them and tlio 

udiis. Withont any well marked peaks, many of tho Sahylldri 

-t have curious and picturet^qno outlines. Tnoy nro scattered 

le Miind tliu otlior, chiefly nnining narth-eajit and south-west 

at with many tipun starting eastwards nearly at right angles to 


I Thm aw 111 IS.V!. In ItlSO Ibc hiolwi ttmpetatura «h e!t, Uk nusu 77° anil 
) dMiy nu^ 16*. 


OhKptoT L 





Innk iu\! imatl. and nf littlo tub for iiriftntion or for otb 

Tboy luiVb tbt! pcculinril; tlint nt\T thu luU'^ - ~ ' 

milM before thoy full iutn tbn Tuiiti, thntr str 

tlie joftr, wliile is a middle bcli the nrat-: . . 

ptUBM ondergmaad lonving tbti liml prrf>^ r . ji v. Tbui 

the loft bank dnuDing niui'li Mjdrr LmL'tn "f coutitry 

mm Mid cuDMqnouce. tCicopt ihe l'iu'n.-i, wtiich fron 

hUa into llu.' Tiipti alwul gixicva n it tintvn 

and tbo Vi^hitr. about twenlymili :.. i- waxt aftcrj 

oonno of uaoat forty miles fittm tlta S&tnulla hUU tunr 
tliQ left bank Htrcams tuvn tlivir Moiirccit among tbu f 
Id thfir clmmcU'r nod ooun4> iW Sahyiitlri mu-muas 
oomnion. StarlmiEr beiumed in by spun at i-iirht anf^left I 
tiiw of the BahydBris, tbuy piutt un»l> nnltl, ns i1k> \i^~ 
KhiiDilfHli plain, tln-y arc. free tu follnw tlio uaUirol 
uiid turn m^rtb to tiib T&nti. Uf thcao th«« are foi 
the tiima falling iuto tbo Tllpti aboal twituty-livo 
Viighqr , tbp Bori uKmt twenty iii)Ie«4 furtlicr woHt, l' 
i«iz milea I be I'itojbra , and tho Borai a Hmallsr elream 
milea f ui-tber. 

The Gibs Aj rising in the westoni hills of thcKalnm*nt 
Niisik, HU(i \iiiX by Htrcains from the nurthem alopea uf 
or SftplaHhring range, aft«r a coanw of about 150 miloa, 
Tipti near Ni'mdur. lu cuiirxe lid* id iirarly CHpial 
and Kb£iiiSe!(b. Hasuing tbroggh N&sik aimoat in 
eastwards, in Kbdndesh it« oonnso changm to north-f 
JalgsoD, it beodii north und (hen nurth-w^Ht lloivinK' 
mil en with itiany windings ulmoat paruUet to tho 
Kbiindcsh, Dx<^i>))t in o^ieortwo places wbt>re it is hemmed ii 
hills, th<! Oimn, over a broad sundy bwl, tiowii ihrotigU a 
vnlloy grndiuilly Hprwidiiig iuto tbo great central plain. It 
Ixitb jn Kfiaik and Khiindiwh, are much used for iirij; 
Kiiiik lately n;i»aired danifl and vlianncls water many ii(_ 
valli-YH, and in Kbindcsh, fi-oiu KuhAl alx^ut ten uiiles 
C'b^lisgaon, the JAmdn csuals etretch caai for about tw« 
niiivs on the left tutd twvlro miles on tbo right bonk. 

The BoEi. with a oounw of about nixty miW, rii ^ 
M^Iegaon sub-dimion of M^sik, ontera KbiiuleHh aljotdl 
qjiluS north of tho Gima. For about twcnty-firo miles it M 
esst&ly course, and thun, with rather a suddi^n turn, flonj 

^Btv nKnii£ tanuiftsJtvA milda ivli&na 4*Uih4r anAtl«a» l^uk^^^M 






In fttrmor times, (bo DDliro upper oouraca ot the Pudjlirn luiil its Chapt^ 
tn'buUiry the Kiiii, wore ft succvsrfon of dums and canal* lu (ho DeKripUq 
jreara of misrule during the wirly part o( llio prcBi'ut wmtiiry muiiy 
'ell out of repair; but stead; proffreaa lias of Into beeu iiiadu in 
iigiug nuarly k11 of tbum into ordor. 

Iiolkm^ the Wl ittrcitni oF an; tiiko thnt pasHOB cost from tw 

by&driB, aboat twelve milea aorth of the P&njhra, flows eaat f<tf 

one for^ milcsi and tWn pussiDg m^rih for ten miloa falls inuy. 

ke Tapti about twelve miles Ixttuw ThlUucr. Liko thv Bon and 

r^njhra ita waters in the upland valleya are luucli used for 
rifJiii""- , ' / \ " 

rhe N ^vK g ApA. for nlMut (nj^y-Bvd miles, skirts thonortlfwttst oomci ?- iTAe JVar 
itl»? dlfitrict. Its chief conneeiioo with Khnnd^sb ia that it has*—' 
pu lately (IWT) found nsofiil iu corryioff timber to tbo coast. It 

thought ibat thi.- (-banii<.d waa too rocky to allow of ibo |Kis«age 
linilxr. Bot in April and May 1877, thougli tbo river waa 
jUNimlly low, a flotilla of iVio loga and 6O0O rafters was, after n 
|tnth'B pasaaee, safely and witlioat accident floated from tlur norl li- 
lt of Akrnni to Itroacb, where it fetcbed more than three times 

atopuut wpent on foiling, draKyi^Ki Hfld lloaUuK it down. 

aix flooda, in 1822, 1829, 1837, 1872, 1875, and 1876, antae 

I haw been obtained In 1822, at nn OBtimntcl Iohs of £25,000 titt.] 

2,50,000), »ixty.l)VO Tiljiti villaf^ wcm ontiivly, and (iffy wuro 

|)art]y washed away. In 1829, iti Nandurlwir, for three miles on 

gtb banks of the 'Kpti the conntry waa flooded. 'I'ne land waa 

ler water for t}irco days, and much of it< wna injunxl by a thick 

sjl of aaodaud ^mve).' In IH37, in tlieBamellood(2{)th Augunt) 

did fiQch doma^ in Surat, several villages built on the lower or 

'miil Ixiukof tlif TAptiweix- swept away.* The deatructidu nf lifo 

arty wa.t, and those of tbo inhabitants that had the 

ilo escape were left de*titwt<.'. As nlitio^t all tlie villagoa 

^^ ■ bank fuffon-d and many wore entirely swept away, Iho 

new vilTa,r«i were in several cases built on the black soil of the hiffher 

l,.«i- ^i.j,.h had not been flooded. In lH7i, on Suwlny the l5tli '*?* 

', the districts iHirdenug on the Girna and the I*^jtira 

I] from a severe flood. At Dhniia, on the Paujhra, tbo 

l.«g&ii to fall stMidily about noon on i''mlay (lio |:3th, fuid 

^■Ifaiied heavily the whrjie of Satunlny and the greater port of 

P^^Biiy. Before Sunday momini; the river wan in very bi(.'b f1o«d, 

Fnreppiug oviT tb« AjfTii n^ad bridge, carrying away llui s<)iiu wtono 

r>:»r:,i>ot and the whole of the roadway, and in Dhulia destroyinc 

oiuM-s chiefly in tbo division of tbo town known as Brigg«* 

• 1 .u. A re«t-tioQan eloao to the bridge, built at a cost of £200 

(Re. 20<H^), was entirely destroyed, and another was mnch damagtMl. 

The vilUgo of Dovpur on the otlivr xido of the river uulirely 

diBti|ip«ared, and one inan, a fioaivi, was drowned. A telegraph post 

ittar tho luiuk "f the river on tbo Dhulia Bide, wiw wiwhod away and 

comtnuniialii-n stopped. At si-ven in the morning the flood was at 

il« bigbca^ standtng about forty-five feet above the level of (lie river 


■ Bom. Gov. s«L XCIII. ICS. 


(Botnbftjr OMettter, 

liaptor I. 





bttnk arc smatlj and of iiiilo u* for irrigation or for othor piirpospa. 
They liaifb tUo peculiarity ibni iidhr liw liilU und afpuu fur aovoral , 
mitoH bvfuro tliuv fnll iuto tJta I'ltpLi, tlieJr Mreftmn Sow througboutd 
the jroar, wbilo iu a mitldls belt the water, during the fair sikmuu^ 
paBseB underground leaving thi? 1k:»1 perfectljf dry. 'Hie Mlroami* oq 
ihc left lioak draining inueb wider tnicl« of country ai-e of greater 
Kisc and oonaeqnence. KxLiept tho I'urna, which from the Boiilh>ea»t 
falls into the TApti abotit «ixt«cu milcx after it t-uters iho dUtri^t 
and the V ^jthu r. about twenty niileo further weal after a windit 
course of about forty miles from the Siitm&la bills near Ajantn, s 
tb(i Ivft liHuk i^tTfamii haw lliuir AourccH atuoitg thu S»hyAdri billsi 
In their clukmct«r and oouKte the S&byidri streams have much U 
common. Starting hemmod in by epora at right angles to ibo matri 
line uf ihu Siilt>'(fllri», they piuw ea»l, ontil, un the lii)l» »iiik into 
Khtodi»h pluin, they are free to follow tho uatund line of drnina 
and torn north to the Tapti. Of these there are four chiuf ittrcuin 
tho Gimft falling into ttie Tiipli ulxml twcnty-fivo mites' l*Uiw tl 
Vii (t&ur , the Bori aboot twenty miles further weat, then after abon 
BIX miloH tho t'Jtn^hrn , and tho Bomi a cmaller stream about twct' 
inilciH further. — — — 

Th^ -G'-BH** riaing in the weatorn hills of tlie Kalran Rnh-diviaion i 
Mtuik, anttled by streams from the northern slopes of the ChAndor 
or SapUuihring mogv, after a countc of about 1 50 miles, full.s itfl'i tho 
T&uti near Jj^nder. Its course lies in nearly c^ual parta in K&xik 
a»U Khtindesb. Passing through Ntiaik ouiHwt in a Htraight line 
eiUftwards, iu KhAndeah its oourM changus to north-oMt, till, near 
Jalgaon, it bends north and then nortb>weKt Sowing for several 
miloti with many windiugs almost parallel to the Tdpti. In, (jxivpt iuojieor Ivro phtcxs where it is licmmwfl in l\y rwfcj 
hiiis, tho llirua, over n Ims^ul fliunly \Kti, fi<iw» through a woU tilleJ 
valley gradually sproiuliug into tho great central plain. Its waters, 
lx>th 4u N&iik and Kbiudbuh, are much used for irrigation. In 
N&sik lately n?[iaire4] dams and chaunels water many of^t« uplanil 
valloya, aud iu Khiin<le.4h, from IttdiAl utxtut ten miles north of 
Chiilisgaon, the J&mda canals sireteb east for about twenty-seven 
miles on tbc! left and twelve miles on ihu right bank. 
I'he BoEij with a courw of about sixty mileii, rising in 

M&legaou sub-division of N&sik, enters Kb&ndcsh about fif 

iqiles north of thv Girua. For abont twenty-five mile« it kwps i^ 
eaatdVly course, and thou, wiUi rather a sudden turn, Bows nor 
for about twenty-five miles, where, taking another bond, it aet« 
• the nnrlh-we^L fulling into tho T<tpti about twenty miles belt 
the Gima. Like the Oinm, iu its uphtnd valleys, tJio watern of i ' 
Beri are much used for irrigation. 

The I'AnjHmr iacg in Pimpalaor from tho crest of tho Sah5_^ 
hills, and after H owing eaftt for idiotit twenty-five mih's, is fr()m tlip 
West jiiiuoil by tho Kin. Thon, l>i;twiM>ii ruuges of wild lnwidt hills, 
it keeps east for al»ut tweuly-five miles, passing Dhulia ou ib.; 
right. » Almnl five miles below Dhulin, it takes a aharp torn to t )k 
north, and for the twenty of ita eighty miles, runs noirL, 
falling into tie TSpti near Thalner, about five mUe8 west of the Bun! 

jBomtHiy A 


bed. About ihrec hours 1nl«r irbogan to fall »rn\ by noon mm 
water in fho towu luid oubnidpil. " Ou the Gima, raiu iHiRn. 
midntfilit of tliit 18th (Friday) and continwd ti)l t-^. '•-■■■■ 
ni^bt of tli» 1 4th, when a 7ioli<nt faurrivano Mct in. A : 
tho morning of tho U,th, r.h(> Girna begsn to ovi<r!' 
in<.'n»«od till, atxiut baU-past nine that niRht, ! 
feet hiffhor than it hml ever Ihx-u knuwu U> risv. I' 
diunnux'd by thd flfiod, fifty-six were allogetbor <1 
the whole number fifty wero on the I'lttijhm, thirly>lwi uf 
Dhcilin, six in Virdol, and twelve in Anmlner, The remaint 
wviy ou the Otma, forty of tUein in Pfit-kors, thirty-Eix in En 

and twenty^ix in Ch&Iiagoon. A vart amoniit of y~ ^' 

moTnblcnud immo^-nhlv wfttlost. NumbSm of dams, In 
water channeU, liStn, and sevenil lar)fe pondf. walcriq^ Iti'ju.'^ 
Belds, wore either coinplclt'ly dt-stroj-ed or badly divma^il. E: 
of duDUige to «i?il, It«m-!«, i-ni|M, mid ]n>h\ic wfirks, the fl< 
calculated to liETc caused a loRti of more tbau i)*iU,U0O(RE. I6,i 
Beeides Bhils and other forest tribea, 5493 families wi 
destitute. For the first fire or hix dwy-M, ihoy were bu 
private charity, those in and around Dliuiin recoiving eomo 
the shape of grain from the hoUuicv of tho KhiindcKh riod funi 
ropor(« of diHtrMS began to oome in from diiTerent parta 
district, apuhlic meeting was held at Dbulia, and nrvli 
conimiltou rormod. Govprnmout placed at the Collector's 
£2000 (Ra. JiO.OOO), £500 (Ha. WOO) to be disinbufed f: 
M500 CR:^. 15,000), to which a further sum of £IO,(KIO{R». I, 
was afterwards oddod, to be giren in adnutces, taii'tri. 
subscriptions amounted to aa much as £3543 lOa. (Ra. 
Of this sum iHiSO 10j>. (Ra. 34,805) wen} distributi-d nmoitj 
fauiilivs.and £60 (Rs. COO) were spent in cljaritv bv the Oollec: 
£G97;i 18*. (It«. 60,7310 were udvanc«l to 11114 persona. 
6th Jujy 1876 a sudden Iwal rainfall so swollml lh**» A 
a tributary of the Titjiti, that it flooditd thu town of Shirpi 
water in plaoeii Ntniiding "ix Uict doop, injuring fifty-two ho"" 
destroying property of the estimated value of £3200 (Ra. 
On the r,th Suptombwr 187(J, the back water from a heavy 
the 'Mpti overflowed its tribotapies, the Gima, the Anjaui, 
Amnt^vati, causing much damage to crops. 

Savo in XixAmpur in the west wliero lhf>ro is groat scarci 
dipnoi is on the whole fairly iiupjiliud with auiwre water, 
of the chief streams flow during almost the wholu year, bU! 
^renuStfor drinking, as near villager and towns thuirboda 
as latrinea, and their water is often polluted by the soaking of 
and othi^r fibrons planta. Fur thi' storage of water there wa 
1876, aeoO pouds and reservoirs, of which f.>ur were lal 
Considerable size. Much hiL-s Intely boon donu by sinking «< 
improve the Hupply of drinking wot<:r. The 1B(9.80 n^tu 
28,137 wolla, 028 of them with and 27,209 without etc 
ninet^r-seven water-Jifta, dhtkiuUt. 
— . ■ -__ 

' Tlda WM what rcmaiiwd at n tormar gnnt by tlia Uto Uf, g|MbUK)i • 
Jijitiltii, uf Bonbay, for tlic rdtd of Uiaiae. 




xcopt tlie Tapti and the Puma wboae banks are too high, frOin 

Mt all of thu wt-stom streAos nrigatioQ is carrieil od to a 

iilerable extoat. IMmti, futndharAii, have iMni IniiU- in great 

bors especially in Pimpalneraod Dhnlia. lliev are cliiolly found 

IV upper portums of the strcnms, as, near UieT4pti, the river beds 

me Icio (l«cp for ihvir con.tLructioii. Three largo lakes huvv lycea 

It or restored for irrigational purpoaea; one at uarUUa, two milea 

m EdlAlnd in BliuMLval, vovoring an aroi^ of 4-10 acros ; anotlior 

<wn as tha Uukti lake, three miles from Dhulia, covering an 

of 510 acres ; and a third at Uliasva, a mile and a half from 

In, coTvnng an arvs of 420 ocros. ll(!«id(;s thuKo there is th^old 

uilur lake with a Roialler one near it called Varibhokar, four 

,cs north-west of DhnliS, and the remains of two other ponds, 

of tlii-tn l^nwn a» Boyd's pond, in tho Ohdlin village lands. 

i! upper Mehruu lake, built by the Jalgaon municipality at a 

t of £7400 {Rb. 74,000) and covering an area of about 151 acres, 

ipItL'N tho town with good nod plontifu) wnt«r. All those 

ds are formed by earthen omiinnkuienla and provided witb 

ices. Of village ponds, those at Pdrola, DhanwgaoD, Nandurb&r, 

mdapur, and Mbaarad arc most n^marksblu. 

II tho varieties of sqU that come under each of the three ordeni, 

k kali, red mtil, ancf a tony bara d, are found tn this district. 

'central belt of Uio wide 1«pli vallny, about half of Uio wholo 

«, eonaista either of a b lack ullnvial clay highly retentiv e of 

' itare, or of a loam overlvintf a atratum ot y ellpwiB h'clay of good 

iu On thi:; deposit soil, which for richnosa cauoot^ surpassed, 

icMt i» u-xtciidivciy grown, in «omo plucea from ywir to yi»r, 

itbout the aid of manure or change of crop, y Skirting thia rick 

t>M^i along tlie baao of the Satpnd&s wb(>r%thi> K-vol is Komuwhnt 

r, tlio w>n i» inferior, and in the higher ridgea almoat 

iii-iiit|)earB. Along the baul^ of the river, whoro the land is much 

jont tnr doop 'ravinc a, the soil is mixed or ovvrlaid with IJmc^ noilu ica, 

land in sonM! placos the surface soil is eniimly waahe<i away, willl 

excsptioaal palches or strips of rich alluvial di-posit. On the 

■oat o-fiaat, rod so il, including brown and grt-y, pni^duminatcs with 

■Mt.4i£a of coarse black overlying Iran, deterioraiing towards the 

^Lih-weat, where it is found of less depth, most (u it light and 

^Rablo, much mixed with gravel or lime nodules. 

, Compared with other Bombay districts, Ehindeab ta remarkat)Io 
jfor its Urge tfacta of arable waeto. Tim chief, of those Ao Pil 
<,mtnoog tbo SdipudiU to tlic north of KAver, Amba in Shirpar, 
Dltwui in Cboiioa, and Nav&pur and other tracts in Piuipalnerv 
Ostoe highly tilled, they are now oovenxl with brushwood, and 
liave become so nuhi ^nlthy that, from Sopt«mbor to February, hardly 
aoy ooobnt fi! ' ' ''■ '' rtiat mb£a can live in them. 

TheDeelog^ -i^ been esaniiiiL'd only as far south 

as ihc Topfi. This, a mrip of varying brc:vlth botwpeu the TAjili 
and tbu Sitpml&o, is chiotly covered by aUnvinm. Trap, lb(^ only 



■ IbMnln of Un Uu»k«u^ 8vrr*y ut ladJ*. VI. Put Itl. 124, 182- 18B. 

* V • IBomlMjQia 

13 DISTHICys. 


iI>Ut I. other formation, fonns tbe hilla and sbows here and there a 
uiptioB. deeper ravinoa. The streams ruiAung from the SAtpnd^ hxi 
infra-trappoan pebbles. Trap probably occurs hero and the 
.*'' the bed of the TApti, as in many places to the soath, trap rock 

at no great distance from tha stream. Though allaviom atre 
fur some fifteen miles north, the rock appears near BbasiTal i 
the railway bridge crosses the TApti. About five miles 
BurhAnpur, and about a mile north-east of the village of Choll 
there is a singular compact patch of limestone about fifty feet 
It shows no signs of ory stall ization and appears to contain nof< 
At^no end there is a white Handy rock, like decomposed g 
standing on end as if part of a vertical bed. But as it contains roi 
grains it is probiibly sandstone. 'ITiis iBasa of sodimentary n 
evidently a portidh of some infra-trappean formation, very pro 
Lamota or BAgh, either brought up by a dyko or included in i 
flow. Tho traps in the low rises stretching across from Burh 
to near Raver appear to dip north at abont 5°. In the 
valley and near Daulet, north of Chopda, they appear to bo horiz 
and the same is the case to tho westward as far as the Bomba 
Agra road, whore, on the top of tho ascent leading to Siudvs 
beds stretch in distinct horizontal terraces. About SultAnpn 
alluvimn runs far up in a deep bay among tho hills. Tho tra 
Turanm&l are nearly horizontal. But contrary to the general 
the trap ridges lying further west are rarely flat-topped and 
very craggy. North-west of Turanmftl is a low east-north-ea* 
aud this, turning north.north-east, continues as far as tho Udai 
where the dip is about 6°. Along tho north boundary of Kh& 
tho traps have generally a low, not very regular, northerly dip 

To the Bonth' of th^ Tdpti, the strangely tilte<l peaks abor 
Bahy&dris and the steep and deep defiles running into the 
very curious and imposing. The columnar structure of tho roi 
peculiar especially on the range separating Nfeik from' Kh&i 
llie hilly portions are covered with a stratum of dark basalt 
felspar, hornblende and iron ore are also present. In the rangi 
passes by the town of Nandurbflr there is a striking peculiaritj 
runs east and west for about fifty miles and is composed of a 
of serrated peaks and ridges, in some places disappearing, in c 
breaking off into parallel ridges, yet on the whole maintain! 
course and peculiarity.' 

Springs.* In Kh&idesh there are fourhot springs, three, UnAbdov. Suni 

and Najhardev in Chopda, and tho fourth, Vadla in fSliirpur. 
UnAuduv hot springs lie abont three miles north-west of Adui 

' GononJ Report of tho Survey of IndU. 1877-78, 108. 

* Noar the woU known hilt of Bhimergaii are tvro poaka, RauUa Mii[ Janl 
their origin tlio story ia that tvro brothera, Kunhis by ca«t-o, oiio il.iy wiir 
the tiohl taw a woman coming townrda them. Kach said that alie \iiiB liia vr 
tho diaputo waxed hot. When tbo woman camo near, thuy founil iho wastliuir 
So asBamed were they of having called their aiiiter tboir wife, that they rua.l 
in the TieM, and jumping into it wore both burnt to iloath. To cnnniU-tn the a. 
thfe Biiiter jumped in fttter them. In honour of thin Bn|f-d«v"tion tbu iw„ pc.^t 
irec sprang up, ' From niatorialfl supplied by Mr. J. I'oUeu, 



CbapUr I. 



miilOlo or Ft)l)nuu7 to tlie middlo of Jane. Fmm Tnmtjroll 
(MMiitioa, nmll^bBTBcter, llii' i:Iinmlu ritrirs grei^' ^umilf 

thi« dulrict. Id tbo wBitUrrn biiU and funi«t->. i . . .iFiJ! b) 
BOQtb-weat motuuon is beaTy, and in Uie S&tpudoa tbt- 
coiuide ruble. But oror mach of the oeotn; sod soiii^ '— 
iK-Aotjr and ancvruin, tiud lu few seMoni it is in uJ I porta ^ 
'I'hrouglioul Kbftndesb it ib lea tiuM in the SouUun I 
Conntry, and titllo if at bU gnxlvr thxn io tbu Oeccan. 1 
reinoTiM] from ibe extremes of scnn.'v and nf ubundAat I 
bad, during the tvreDty-nine jraera ending \ft7'J, an arc 
uf 21-78 inchoD, tho amonnt TarpRg froia 10*04 in 1871 
t87S. Tlio foUowin^ tabtt gives the yeari; teturus : 

ZMmGh Kai^air, list . im. 










IM ... 



IHl ... 



nn .„ 

UM ... 



UM -. 


i*n „ 


iMa ... 



IM ... 



un _ 


UH ... 



UN - 





■Ml ._ 



M* _. 



WM _ 


UH ... 



H« ... 



UN ^ 


mi ~. 



um ... 



IWT „ 


UH .> 



UN ... 





UH ._ 



UM ... 



ll« .^ 


tM> ., 



IflO ... 




Excrjit friira Dhiilia rain rt-ltima are not availublo apti 

Mr. Chanibera Huiiplies' tlio fdUowiug avvragos tor tbu vim 

endioK 1871 : 

Slubulak Itai^ati. 1861.1S7J. 







AMHiMt _ 

BlWU ^ 

^••lnl*l ^ 





n>irin>i ... _ _ 
JtMBS _ „ ... 
NdMn .„ _ ._ 
CMUmim . _ ... 

I'fao cold season, from tbo niiildle of October to 
of February, in, except ou cloudy days, pleasant and br 
phuliu, iu the vigbl yean nodiug 1879, IX-cember and JaDiuU 
ilio *ct>ldest montlis with average miuimums of 52° and 4 
minimnniB of 40° and 41°. From themiddle of Piibmnry to tbe 
of Juno, exoopt tbo wo«t, tlio whole of Kh&udvxli i» sal 
an uxtremv of dry beat. At Dhulia, daring the eight year* 
1879, May was tho hottest month with un nrcmge maxin 
1U6^ and an uxtrcmv inaximum uf 111". In the Sfitpnd 
beat is somewhat tempenMl by the foresfat, but bohiw tint S£, 
especially in the east, tho 'T&p\i valley '\& llie hottest i 
tbo district, aomctimeii still and stiBing, at- otbvr timet 
boming winds blowing far into the nigbi with tbo Ihcrmon 

' l.liaa>b«n' Muloorahf; ItH, 219. 






* KnXKnKSii has littlo 'minenil wealth. Trap rock is 
everywliera, nad though much of it "is friable iwid useleBS t 
road-moD ding, there is pk-iity of Btoiio goi>d eoQugh foro 
building inirposea. Tlio tteat qiinrry iu the district is one in 
of the vighur rivor near Bhiisaval. It is convenieDtly plac 
has been much usod for railway works. There is no good lii 
handy for working, but iu all blikck soil, except in the deep 
landa of the Tapti valley, the small nodular limestono kit' 
kiinkar ia abundant, and yields excellent lime. Gravel, cs 
ordinary road purposes, is found all over the district. C 
brickmaking, occurs in all parts of the district, but the Kl 
potters and brtckmakers arc not remarkable for the oxcell 
their work. 

KMudftsh is one of the largest forest districts in the Pret 
Its Government reserves, stretching over 2326 square miles 
per cent of the entire area. Ho chiefly iu the hilly coantrj 
west, along the S&tpuda hills in the north, and in tho rough la 
the south-east corner. Besides these nmin ranges, Khtlndcsh 
in the central plain, is full of low hills, unauited for tillt^ 
these, at present bare even of brushwood, have been made 
the^rest department to bo re-clothed with trees. 'Of the 
forest area, 1G12 square miles have boon declared to be reserved 
and 714 protected forests under chapters II. and IV. of the 
Act.' Arrangements are now in progress for increasing t 
nnder conservation by transferring to the forest department 
the waste lands which have hitherto been held available for 
and to meet the demand for land to cultivate. 

> Except the Forest SeotioD coDtribnted by Mr, O. K. Dcthnm 

ConBerrator of Forests, »nd the Wild A DiniaU Section cniitri'iuttNl by Major 
District Superintendent of Police, this chapter is the work <if Mr. \V. Ranis 
' Under tbe Forest Act (VII, of 1B78), Government may {Hti:tion Sf cniis 
{or«at land or waste land, which is the propurty of Government, or 01 
Oovernmant hat proprietary righta, or to tlie wliole or any iiai-t of 1 
produce of which GoverDment la entitled, a rcaoned forest; and (Govern 
(section 2S) declani to be a protected forest, any forest laud or wn«tc land, 
not included tn a reaerred forest, but which is the property of <iuvuri 
orer which Govammcnt haa proprietary rights, or to the whole or uiiy { 
forest produce of which Government ia entitled. Reserved forastu arc ui 
coiiiervancy, and as a rule are not burdened by right*. The chapter 
protecttd forests, while giving power to reserve any class of treea, provid 
other things, for the exercise of rights to grass andwood, for permitting 
cut timber on the license syatein, and foi the olcftringkuil brealung up 1 
cnltivatioD and other pnrpotes. 



I the opitntug of the Onmt iDdian P«uiu8ala Railway (I860), 
hodesh timber supplies woi« ao diiiUuit from nny* f^eat 
ud bod to be brought Ihroii^^h so difHt-iilt a couolry, tbftt 
n in little doroaud. With (he i)|M.tHiiig ■>{ (he railway 
^Dgied. In mnlciQ^ the line, mach timber wm wanted, 
ioeeat*, bonded uvur to cuiitractonij w<;rci doBtroyed withoub 

'S, Kh&ndBsli And ALmedna^ror were made tbe join) rhargu 
ncipwin ofliwr. Ftir Kluliidi'-sh uu office and executive 
ment of two clerks, three in-ipeciom, three hwnd fonrKtcm, 
m foresters, at a total monthly poxt of lUb [lln. ;i&<>}, wui 
itjoned. lu 1870, Dr. ItnttiiliK, whu in hif towr tbrougb 
wa» unable to visit KlUudesh, couHued hia nn>p(>Mil.i ^^^ tho 
in that a«li!itrtct forest ufiicor should bo itppoiuted, 8inc4 

Khindoi«h forests have fonnod a M-juirnte chnrgu. The 
etttublipihmoul, at a mouihly cost of £75 H*. (K& 751), 

four writers, ihroe messen^rs, fonr ranj^-rs, oloven 
, nnd seventeen forest guards. A Hu|)plemouuil t«iu[xirmry 
nient is abo entertained. 

1870, tha work of ntarkinp* oat forest reserves has been 
nrcNtutd 00, tTp to the close of tho liwl iteaeon (1878-79), 
gBflerveii with a t*ital an>» uf l,028,t}23 acres have Iteeti 
^■3 marked bv pernmneDt boundary pillars. Besides these 

ttevpral Hinall isolated ("ihhul. Acacia unibi<ra, mw»dow8, 
a Jt&muer, llhiisixml, and NAsirabad, Hav» been dtKnari/uted, 
the toCa] forest area to 1,01^1,881) acres or lit 12 sqnai'e miles. 
B, w'Iki always prefer the life of ro%'ing woodtnon to that of 
usbuiidni«n, are the ohief tlifHciilty in the way of forming 
^aacrved forests in the S^tpnd^. Ig the tracts chosen is 
Bbf tho district there is little or do tilUg«. 
ther*ienmreaticm has been effeotod Kince .March 1879, when 
btion was puhli.nhed iu the Goyemmenl Oaastte, declaring 
an milea to bo reserved forest and 714 eqiium miles to be 
I fon*-«* andor Act VII. of 1S78. A settlement officer i« 
iiged in inquiriiiffinloanddiatyMiin^of thenrfhta which exist 
ands, in ascertamiii^wbatpnvile^s it will be necemaryfbr 
.ro of the people to p<frmil U> be cxereiited in thcso huids, 
BriDff what portion if any of the lands declared to be 
[ forest can bo removed into the catefj^ry of rverred fores^ 
ilermininjf how far it will be jw^siblo to include iu 
> lauda which hare hitherto been held available for grazing 
■ovide for the spread of tillage. 

1871), of tho 1,003,190 aen-H tinder forest conservancy, 
were included in firHt, and 273,412 iu second claaa reserves, 
aintng 33*j6 acres were small bdbkul meadows. Under 
mit conveyed in the late Governor, Sir Richard Temple's 
-Vth Jiino 1S78], and acting on the auggeiitions of the 
"areat committee which met in Poona in the latter part ol 
8, the following additions and chaogea have beenjuSde. 
reserves, all htihkul meadnwit, and all second clasa 
kloD^ tho lower slopes of the fi&tpadis, have bc«u outifiud 




. 18 


duptAr n. 




%is rmmrved foreits. It U intended lliatftlKnit ^A,t 
reserred and prot«ct<>d (nnwtk, wnat« land*, and 
should be added, niid 24,2^3 acrea of oocopiwl land takeii| 
purposM. More land is available, but tbo unil^'ing vil' 
Pimpalnpr and Nandiirbtir Bofa-divimona, where forut tniul ai 
(oaDd, cannot al present be takra up. The grass meadM 
ffreatlf in size, Taloe, and geneml sinToiitidin^. Sonw ■< 
3e6iied isoUted tracta of go<>d land, in vywj way fit &jr ■ 
timber. Othen are Tillage uplanda bn'keu herre and there ^ 
lau<lM. The latter, of no great ralae and liithvn<» nut iindtf 
manaf>«nient, have boon pro)>osud a« protected (oreRtii. h: "''' 
aSid unmrreyfid TillageK,*»ume truota hare been in 
■an ctioned reserved foreets. As tbedt'eaof thoeeunleinc tiur 
ioreets cannot 1m fizud, thoyharo not bwn tndudtwl iu tha g 
return. Man; single survey numlion* and koiaII waste patcfast 
river banks will, as reconunended tiy the foreet cotumitbM 
be chosen. It is also intended to chooeei and recununa 
DotiGcaiion a« protected foniTste, timbor-Dorered land IjiAjr 
the base of the Sitpoda hills in BiLvda, Chnpda, and 81 
Until nil thuso changes have been made, the final total bn 
caanot l)e Accurately fixed. 

Thoagb want of ci>nt<«rvan<-y, oombined with the pecolisr 
of the hill tribes, has greally reduced the sapply of tU 
valuable kinds of timber, the Kluiodesb forests wttl in tine 1| 
valoable. ^At present the hotter twrta of timbor are almo-tt M 
obtained troxa the borrilory of the Mehvijt chiefs in the 
Bortfa-west of the district. The forests of Kh&nde«h 
unable to supply even tlw VkmX demand. 

Th(! twenty Khdndosh forost r«»crve8 may Iw ronphly 
under three groups. In the north a Meries of forest* stn 
along the Hun of the Sittpudds from Akrtini in the ecttrtna* 
westto Siivdft in Iho enst : in the i»oiitb>eui<t and sooth, parts 
north slopedi of tliv tS&tiniit&:< and some outlying low hij) rang 
river bonlca j and in tlie west, the rouph hilly iract*, where 
aorUicru extremity of the range tli« Snhyiidris sweep eai 
acroea the KluVudc-sh plain. In the north or SAtpuda jn^uf 
between the TApti and the Narbado, are seven fortnt re 
Except scattered open plains or bare patchoa, some of them a 
extent, the whole of the hiti range is one vaat forest. Par 
ar« m wild and luni-ly that they cannot bo explored withoot h 
A Blrnngor might i>o I(>«t for days in the maze of waving hil 
. with tliick scrub and brushwood. In so rough a conntry onl, 
of the trees n-pi>y the cost of carriogv, and almost all tb 
vnluablo have been cut by Bhils and others, partlv for sale, pal 
their own ase, and aometimea to clew the ground for tillage. 
The carekM and tutn-slematic cutting of sleepers, dnr 
making of (he Great Indian Peninnala Railway, did much U 
the value of tho forexls. Still almost every trew known iu \ 
rndh ^is found in the Sitpuda hills, and when better m( 
coinniunication have been opened and oontiervanoy has seeured 
growth, these foreets will be of very great value. Il is a pec 

\oa,i M 


napter II. 





©ttT I 

of tho range tire toreet aim is ooafined to hill slopes and intersi 
rariiMa. The tletailn, l>v^niu^ fiv)m the nonh,are : (I )TiUN8'Pn 
32,063^ acres, in the petty division of Edlabod, Uof along the ' 
hillH north of tho Purna and strotcho« to the Ber&r Erontior. 
ooDtains three dltttincl forest bells, the Gbodasgaoa hahttut w 
friaginff the I'artia banks, the Oondhni anjan forv«t, uod the t 
tttrip of woodliMid skirting the hillm sa &u- ns Mirdi on thg " 
frontier. The whole of the resOTro ia backed by NemAd forc«l«, niosi 
GoTpramiint, exoopt tho northern portions which are partly held 
grant by Masalm&n Bhil, or TtidTi, chiefs. Its poHition, near 
n<fer and between tiro railways, makes it a Tory valuable 
Tb« chinf tix'os arc bdhhu! iind anjan. ,(2) Oondbi, 17,7y7^ 
lies in JfUoneron the StltmtLla slopes on the soath^eastem frontier of 
tho district- It is rich in toak rafters and prot4M:tt tho headwate^^ 
of tho lUg river. (3) FAtha, 32,132^ acrt^ the south of Ch&li^l 
gaoa, lies along the north slopes of the S^tm&Ia hills. Tho chi^^ 
treo is anjitn. This rcsorro, though much dntnngijd in former 
years by reckless cutting and unchecked gnuting, contains r toi 
valuable supply of firewood. Besidra Iheee then are two outlyi 
forwt traoLi. (1) BiBBOi. GeoTEs, H^tid nores, moKt of (hem on 
banks of rivers in BhusiTal, Jimner, and Nasirabad, a very viUnobl 
property. (2) JdvXrdi, .^U^lRJ acrm, in a trrelem troot in the petty 
oiviaioD of Bhadgaon, though grierously ntiimsed in former* y^wi^^ 
and still vciy Ihiidy clud and in wont of nursing, has a strong grow^^| 
of young aujaH. ^( 

In Iho west, the spur of the Sshyidria that mna to the sontb of 
Dhnlia is reinarkahio for the frw growth of anjan. At present 
somewhat bare, it giveii every promi.'m of yielding valuable timber. 
Attomptt; are being nade to plant this range of hills with ivtik, ' 
as yet lh<^ rc«uH is nnoortain. The only othor large and unbrofe 
forest tract is in the low country to thu uxtrvme wost on tho bo' 
of tlA Tilpti and Ne«iu, near tho GiUkw&r and Mvhv'iUi l«rn 
Porftictly flat, the soil ia a rich alloTium, and though thoy 
suffered somewhat from ovorcrowdiug, ^te Ireos are largo, 
good timber still remains, but tbo rich soil und oxcoltcnt grazing 
haw bct^^ii an attjaction to vettlera. Beginning from I.«tling ouar 
Dhulia and jpaasing north-west, the eight reserves among tho western 
nplands ancl hills, are Luling, Bomi, P&n, Amli, Sontb NavApar, Nosn, 
IFViMi, and Devmogra. (1) LALmo, 7009^ acres, bo the wont of the 
higB road to ^tlllegaon, about seven mili>g south of Dbnlia, stands OD a 
high plateau with st««p sides on the north and sontb, and on the east 
• and west bi»^er«d by de«p gorgiw. Ercopt at KiiUKvvnr where there 
aresorau (*al)hul groTea, the only tree is «n_ji»ti. (2) Boiui, 17,-18"+| 
acres, in Niiuimpur to the nortb-weat, a good fuel resorvo, is spociiUly 
Toluable front its nearni-s.-^ to tbv trvelosH Httb'divisiorinof Vimel ana 
Dhulia, whose Inrtre fuel demand it can well aupply. This rescrva 
includes a coii«iJitri.blo area of tilled land. (3) PAx, 2fi,'t8tM 
atcres, also in Ni«tmpur, is a valuable fuel reserve. Kxcept in the 
TaMeys, tt is at present ;H>orly wooded. Kfutir, tho chief tree, grows 
to a EsjT auce. This will in time ba a wry valuable forest. (4) 
Ajili, &3,772-A acros, on the hills hetwoen I'impalner and NavApur, 
protetit« tbo headwaters of the K&a and Pilnjhra rivers. Fair' 



{nru of it, mpocuUl; at tlio foot of ch« bill^, are rery 
Inable. The chief lre<eA nru toulbaod tiva», Ualberg'ia ujignfliiiti?). 
SooTB NAvXroK, 16,^44 acree, lies atbair ilw bouadory hiUa 
_ aa BaroJu »ud Khindosh. It i* fiurly w.»ilt>d, ohicfly nf"****' 

witb AAoir, the finest i» KMndesh, mixed with teak and a ^*"^"*^ 
»pi-ijikliiiif of blackwood, Dalber^^ia Ucifolia. TIm spnmd of tillage 
over tho lowlving Uiiid litu maiJo tlie oulliue of tlie reserve irregular. 
EHoreu villuj^s included iq tiie reserve are leaaed on tbe Inmp goto, 
uicti, t«Dure, which carrJvs with it the privili*^ of ^tbering moha, 
Buwin latifoUa, berriett and firewood aud of graimg. (6) Nbso, 
10,333 acrev, also in NavAmir on the banks of the Nesti river, h«a 
-jome of the best u-iifc in Khiindesb. (f) TAiTi. 1KI20^ acrea, *n 
NarApor close to the Neau wj^rve, haa alxiudant and well grown 
kKair. (8) Dbyjiookx, 31,0{W^^ acres, in Kandorb&r oloM to the 
Tdpli and bordering on G^ikwi&r k-rrit'Ory, ia a Sue compact block of 
denite furcst. A moat valuable and promiaiug reaerve, it has a good 
stock of teak mftertiund suplin;^ mixed mthb&nddra, Lageratnemia 
parriflora,AAaiV, and blackwiiiid. 

Furllier to th<.' wost lie the half independent lands of the MohviM 
and Wng chiefs, nt jinfiKal the great stunjUtiiwe of Klulndeah 
timber. The Mebv^a cbiefa, left free to dispirse of their forest 
umduoo, export great quantities, west to tho ooaat, and cast to 
Khaudeah. The I>4Dg forests, lua^od to the British Goveniment, 
ntuuuu gruut stores of Umber, supplying tho timhur mnrta of 
southern (rujanit and Kalhiawir. By surr eying it and o|>«:ning a 
roml to Bals&r, the re»cturi->!:t ol Ihi^ lU'Ht diflicult and^ unhealthy 
conalry are boooming gradually better known. Besides these 
ri ■ ■ ' vii'ts of riirt-st. !;ind, cvprywhun* in KhItud<^'>h ivns largo areas 

■>i . -uy ground, al pre*teut yielding littJe but grass and thorny 

shruba. • 

Till qnito ^lately, within the SttpudAs, the Bhils wore allowed Tuhi 
to cut timber freely. When forost conservancy was iotrodnced, 
it was found tluit mimcthing luu] to be dona to checlc the 
desiruction that was guj^g cm. Mr. Horaley, C.8., who gave the 
sabject mual CIlru^tl attjtDtiou, introduced the Bhil ticket system. 
Id Bvery S^tpnda aub-divi»ii)u a rogisU^r was opened in which the 
name* of all who gained their livelihood by woodcutting were entered. 
Each woodcutliir wn» given a wooden ticket or paaii bearing a serial 
nomber oorrespondiucr with hi.i nuniher in the register, nnd under 
osi^n ruUyf and conditions, this ticket gave him the right yt out 
wood in thi> S»tpttda reserves. At &ni thin system worked ^irly well. 
But in IU7<.>. the couceaition to Ilia Highness Holkar of 391^ 
square iniii:s i.f valuable forest, at onco crippled the syaleni, aa it sd 
reduced the area that thi: foroxtn wore umdtie to supply timber enough 
to moot tbe demands of the ticket* holders. Tho number of tioket- 
holdera was reduced, and they were not allowed to cut any more 

Of forest tribes the Bhilaare the most important. They are found 
more or le»a thniugliout the district., but are moat nnmerons ig. tho 
S&tpoda hills. Besides Bhila there are, of Sitpiida forcartr tribes, 
BbiUUfut with some strain of Raipat blood, Vanj&ris, and in tha 


{Bombar OasettMT, 



flatOMt of DEMlgaon and the mounUiinans coantry of Alrr4iii|^ 
'inia^ Td tbe we«t«ni hills »re K&tkaris, G^vils, and !kIaTchi 
nod scattered over tlia whole diHtrict, aru Vndara, PArdliu, 
PhiM Pirdhiii, 

The rates of pay for forest work rarj ffroatlj ia difTi^rcnt plaOtt.1 
Th« geuerd «3rBLein is task work nt th« rale of about 10*. (Ks. SI " 
100 rafters. Only iin;n an um|>!oy«d in format work. labour ie rc 
scarce. The Bbils dixlike regular work and ihink it bcnuath 
to eara ordinary labour wages. 

Poreat rcoeiptit have rittoa fmra £.'i7S6 (Rs. S7,8e0) in IS70 Ie 
£8618 (Rh. 85,180) in L87a Ouriag the eamo limo chargers hai 
iifcreaaod from £1574 to A4587 (B«. 1^,740 - Rs. 43,870), leaving i 
unchanged revenue of about £S98I (Rs. 39,310). The details arc 

KUaJak PerM Stveamt, 1870. tms. 















isn-71 _ 




vBvn ... 




IMI.T> ^ 




utt-n ... 




tm-n .- 




iw;-M .. 




WM-H - 




int-it ... 




UH-n ... 







Id 1878-79. of the whole roocipte, £2609 wvre th« proceeds of a 
tax on forttign timber ; £3134 were recovered from the emlo 
building liiubor ; £I8C5 from the sulo of biunboos and firuwood -, aa 
£910 trom minor produce. 

In spite ofitti large forefltaron, and of cheimprovemontaintrodDCi 
dui-ing the last ten ^ears, Kh&adosh iwob more timber than 

Sows. M<Mt of tlio imported tinilwr oomes from iho IMngis and the' 
uhvfU atatea to the north and uorth-weat of the district, anti from 
NoiuAIl iu tlie eiutt, brxmgbt chiuHy by Vatiitirts on bullock back. 
The largest timber marts are at Faixpur iu the eaot and TiUoda 
and XanilurbAr in the west. Dcsides the Vanj^ris, the chief timber 
dealerH are Muaalm&na, oettled mostly ul Taloda and Nandar! 
Until lately, the whole exports 6rom the we.iteru fore8t« went 
land. As forest pruducv passed throngh the GiiikwAr'g territon', t 
trade was much bAUi[>ori>d hy lolls. To livv il from thU bardi^u, 
1^7 the experiment was tried of Hoatiug a timber raft down t 
N»rb£d». This, cousisting of 500 logs and 6O0O teak rafters, cnt r 
the most difficult iiud n'ililcttt hill.t to the vv^t, of tho <li«trict, wti«, on 
the lOtfa of AprilfStarted Erom Bhusa on the Narbad.t. It was put under 
the charge of a European officer, and in spite of the nnnsually low 
state of the stream, rcachod Brooch in forty days without misha; 
ITii* cxperimunt has since been twice repeated, each time with a 
profit. Ijam year (1870), all timber cut depart mentally was, 
different parts of the district, sold by public auction. Thi 
was fairly sacceesfnl, 

Local*conditiou<t and the privileges enjoyed by the wilder ti-Jbi 
prevent the minor fore&t produce from yielding much ruvenue. 

!io re«i 

IBombar Qu/tttm, I 





but ofttublo vrli«n cooked or proocrvoi). It is niao hmmI m mnkinffl 
ink. Whe bnrk is very aaLriagcut &ud lueil in taiiuiug. £,1 
Murinda citrifoliit, though if allowed it i^rowe into n tne, is clu«t|)rj 
ciiltiTatcd ax n [Anal for ite Ayt. Il it Iuft for Uiree yatn in 
f^ouud, nnd then dog out at oonaiderable expense. Botb the 
and the bark vield hu ezcotlent dye. The wood is tucful, but 
Hftsily bfl fonud of sxtty s^ir-v. Anjan, Hitrdnk'kiik binitla, u b'^niii 
tjv«, witb a very rou^b^laok bark aod HmaU pale (freeo leave<t, gt 
to a great size. Itabwndain parts of the &Up»dd>i nod id tbo 
to the aotitb of ])hidia. Tht-tjinbrr imixccllttnt, uf a dark rpd i 
uid tak«H a good polish. 'I'be bnrk yieIdH a Mmna tibre, wkicb, 
olit any prepamtioD, can b« twisted into rope. Git*lc are very fandl 
of tbo lcuv«H. Babhtil or fidbhnl, Amuna arabica, lb» oommooMt 
and mottt K<!uerally uacful tree in Kh)indi\ih, is very faanly, andi 
ffrowa rapidly in black soil. As ashmbit nsedto ixiver all tbewasuj 
Jaods of Khiindoah. It f^vn to a i-uDsiddmbl*! hikc, nod baa an] 
vxot-llcnl. hitrd wood ; bat th^ limber ijt generally croiiked, and Inngl 
at raiuiit pieces can seldom be obtained. I'be wood is oscd for oveirl 
iina^inamo bonsv nod fitfld pnrposOj an well an for fnvl. The bavl 
is vnlnable in tanning, and yielo^ a good yellow dye, and itji «np »i 
luieful gnm. The leaves are the chief tood of goats, and Ute lung 
seed pods are eogurty dovourod by shi^i-p, goulK, and cattle. 
Bamboo, kalak, Bambnsn vnlgarlH, only the small kind i* fouudl 
in Kbdindesb. It abounds all over the S4t)iDdjU and in thaj 
woittorn forests. It in chiolly nsi.-d as batt«nit and rHft«rti for bonae- 
bnilding. Bel, ^gle niarnieloH, u highly ornamentnl In^-, is fovai 
in small niimbors all over the district. It has an excellent lio 
wood, but' in seldom out by the natives, as it is sacred to Sbiv. lb 
fruit makOH ik plea»anl preserve, and haa valuable mudicini 
prcjpertieR. Prepare<^ in aoine waj's it acts as an aperient, in oth« 
as an aatriof^'ent, and is nseful in cases flf dyiwntery or diarrhoea. 
The root, Imrk, and loaves are also uiied iu miikiug ruolinf; 
remedies. The leaves are used as an offering to 8hiv, and the » 
yiold a varnirth. The Hasian, vat or raJ, Ficus iudica, one 
of (he commonest of Kb^dcNli Ireo^, gn>ws n'adily in light 
soil. It is hold sacred by the Uindoe and never cut or turned tu aO] 
UKO save for shelter and shade. It grows readily from cuttings, ans 
is well fuiled for i-oad sides. Its juice is iwmetimes ufcd to nrdace^ 
inflammation. The timber in of^tle value. The fruit, said Co 
itttpoisonuus for horses, is much eaten by birds. From the leaves 
leju^plate!!, palrdvalit, are made. Biiftva, Casaia fistida, not 
common in IChflndesh, is one of the most ornamental of forest truvs, 
throwing out in the hot weather tassels of beautiful banging yellow 
flowers much tike labumnm. It« long hanging pods aro easily 
recognised. The wood, though clotte-gmined aa<l hard, is not tniicb 
Dseo. The bark serves in tanning, ihe root yields a purge, and 
tiie seeds ara oiirronnded by a pulp, which, as an aperient, has 
apW-e both among Indian and buropean drugs. Bherda or beJuta, 
Terininiilia bt-llcrica, a larg<f forfiSt tree, is rare in Kb^ndesb. Tho 
w^id is oiift and sapm, and not of much value, b<-iiig readiljf 
destroyed by insects. Its fruit formsone of the myrobalaos, whioli f<n 
Ihuir dyeing and tuniitBg properties, uro exported to Europe. Tbdl 

• [Bomb&yOuetteCit, 


the kanu, yields good timber. It is not pTentifu] in Kbfindesli. 
Arjtm «• kahfl, Terminalia nrjiilJa, one of the finest of forest trees, 
growH to a great »ize gL-uonilly on the banks and in the beds of 
rivers. Its wood is of excellent (jnality, but from the amount of 
sap is hard to work. Large trunks are often sawn into single solid 
cartwheels. The wood grows harder by seaadniDg. Ku»utnb, 
Schleichera trijuga, a large forest tree, with an e^pellent tou^ 
wood used for sugar mills and oil presses, is a favourite tree with 
the lac insect. Maugo, uin/m, Mangifera indica, one of the best 
knqwn of Indian trees, is valued chiefly for its fruit, and is seldom 
cat. Its wood is excellent, hard, and deep coloured, and as it 
t^es a bright polinh, is Veil suit*.'d for furniture and carriage 
building. The wood yields an excellbnt thareoal. Mango groves 
are most freely scattered over some of the n<)rtht'rn sub- divisions. ] 
The soil there is remarkably suited to tho growth of the tree- 
After planting tho seed at tho beginning of tho rainy season no 
care or trouble is bestowed on it except placing a few thrans 
round the young plant. Watering in the hot months is unnecessary. 
Moiui, Bassia longifolia or latifolia, is found all over Khandesh. 
Its chief value lies in the pulpy bell-shaped flower, which, when 
dried, is eaten by Uie natives, and is distilled into tho common 
spirit of the country. 'Almost every animal, ivild or domestic, eata 
the fresh flowers. It is an important article of trade, and during 
the hot months is thg* chief means of subsistence to Bhils and other 
hill tribes. Tho wood is hard and lasting, but the tree is too 
valuable to be cut for timber. The seed when allowed to form, is 
enclosed in a thick walnut-like pod. It yields an excellent oil, 
good forfuod and burning, and also for skin diseases. The leaves 
and Kark make nsefu] embrocations. Altogether the moha is one of 
the most valuable orKhaudesh trees, but as it grows in the wildest 
forfesta, most of tho produce is lost, or supirorts wild animals 8nlj, 
In country a few good moha trees are a #mall fortune. 
Mohan, Odiiia wodier, is a very common, but according to general 
opiuion, valueless tree. In Burma, it is said to grow to a great size, 
and yield a close-grained dark red wood useful for cabinetwork. 
In Bombay its timber is utterly 'despised. The trunk is said to 
yield a medicinal gum. Moka, Sctwbora swietcnioides, notcommoa 
in Klmndesh, has a hard, tough, box -like wood, used by weavers for 
their looms and beams. A''dji a or hondnr a, Lagerstroemia parviflora, 
A sW^ight- growing rather rare tree, yields good timber said to 
be used iu the Bombay dockyard and the Madras gun carriage 
^ factory. Nimb, Azadiractita indica, tho Indian lilac, one of the 
' commonest of f^rden and roadside 'toees, ia chiefly ornamental and 
useful for shade. The wopd is sometimes used for building. From 
its boiled leaves and fruifc, a 'cooling drink useful in fevers is 
made. Piingiiraf Erythrina sa1>eroBa, is a rather rare leguminoufl 
tree of no size and of little vahie. Fimpal, Ficus religioaa, is held 
sacred by Hindus, and never ent by them. It readih fastens 
its^f inj^Hs, and destroys thetn' in the end, as no one will remove 
it. Itr leaves are a favourite fb(5d for camels and elephants, imd 
are much liked by the \a/t insect. Growing rapidly, it is suitable 
for roadside*. ■ Except as fuel-, the wood is of no value. Rohaa, 



lida M>i-ifi>^, srowa on Lh« Ajnntn nncl Sntpmln hilU; the 

is tmid to be of esffilliiiil •jii^ity for all iii-d<H)r.w()rk,,l>ul tmt 

md cspoBure. 'JTio bark yieldi a coolitj^jr driuk. Kaudalwood, 

^iK^'in, SaDtflliim nihiinij tlio woll known true yietditij; tbu HWi-vt 

il1rti|f IV -■■ri oilj jft vt'ry sciuw in Kh^iudi'Jth nntl ii^vtir growd 

y ni^ , B<wiwplliii iburifcra, a v<»iy cummoD tree ou all 

rap fjill-. : Ilia by ittt nhito aud si^ly bark, in nn|'p»«od 

<■ havL- \ '■ fiiinkiucousc ol tho HUci€Qt», i»iit in Kliiirnlc»h 

:liii tiudi SI 1^ mitvcxiriK'tiid (■'<»" it. Tliv wood, full <>[((um, 

liuniiM_ /.is utM'd fur torches. Tho (li)wi>r« aud seed nut 

coicn by the \i\i\lf^. Ilie gnto oxudos in abiindaoce, but tio aso 

DIB tit lie miidu uf it. Bholnr, Cordiir latifutia, is a mm trov iii 

niK^Kli. Klsi'wbitro ir griiivs t« ifomv Kiw, ami lias im exouHi-Mfe 

itiith wood, [t lieara ao cdiblo plum w)ii>m- i>'>f( pulp i» a vsiuable 

~~ly ID luiiR diseases. ShirtJili, Albizzii^ lebbek, a species of 

I, laviTV unHiiii'-iitiil with larjrc leaves and lipbt^olourwd Iwrlc. 

Aod i'IIkt itllii'il viiritttit's ikre f'lund all ovi<r India, bill aro 

ivituiiinD in like Kbiudesh furesitji. ll. itt muoh pliuited aloii;^ 

ides and in gnrdoiis. The wood, of excellent quality, is used 

all piirpc«H>H. Swlultt, aiij, or i»'i», Tormioalia lomentoMi, w a 

fitK>, i>tr»i}j;lil, and lii^h-groiving: fon'^t tri'C. Sbrlteriid Erxini Iho 

mill, the wood is excellent for bouM-.biiildiiijjf, yleldiujf better ptnnka 

B! !■ rafter* ttimi (K-rhaps any tree biit leak. Simal, Ht'ipWx 

Hi nil, is 11 liii-fT" and tbfirny tree ""^th, n briglll r*'d Biwvr 

ami a nufi down it^d for Htulliiig pillows. 'Pbe n*u<.<d ihou^li i^ft Ls 

•aid to make {^x>d packing cni^iri. It in not much umhJ in rCiiADdciib. 

yields a useftil njaiii, and the roota, when boiled, jfire a mmmy 

tAnoe UMud lUt a tonic in niudicine. Wild Date, ahindi, Pli<L-nix 

OBtrifl, prufen'in^ ttio fOA vmsi is not eoinm'in :iuywlia« in 

h. Neither it^ fermeufed nor its dtslillud juice is nuioh 

MntH ftre made of the ktavt-a, and the '^Iciii enn bit iimtd a« 

ln<ui,>)i. Hliii'kw<H>il, j>i.v» or i^!i/um, IMIlieri^ia lulifnii*, ia 

V iu KhAudi-.-ib, and gmws lo no siKe. S>Litmiiul, Prdbopia 

rn, a thorny tree, ia not common in Kbiinde&h. The timber 

to Ik! good for all .— '"■--■- purposes. Its pods contain nu 

frnit. Tiiiiiiirind, rh < n/i', THinarinduH indira, a large 

wing aud vi^ry hanti^(lIoe troo, U found ueai- idl villag«a 

ma and fields. It^ excellent hard wood makes the best 

for uil or ftiigar mills, and is useful in » viirk-ly uf n-iivA. 

ill is Kiiiw^tiineM «Mteii raw bui {{tinerftlly cooked. Th£ 

I*almyra Palm, tud, UornsHus flabelUformia, thriving beat near tho 

coasl, is very niro in Khindehh T. ^k, mg or ^ffivifl, Twrtonik 

frrandis, formerly oovored tho ."- fulU with iplendid fontata, • 

It rvancy has been lakim m [lint'Land iu time new foresta 

w : : up. Unt tboUfili lisUc nf riinalt sze is even now abundant 

*i hills near NeniAd, in rt? of the Stttpiid^i^, in the 

Is [* fiib-division near : , anil further west on (bo 

1' ■ iJdikwarV tcrriUfry^ niany yearti must pass beforO 

'■■ I bo able lo stipiily the inarkot. The largo Uiivea oE 

re much naed for liniuf coofs ondor thiitcfa. ^ihe V^ood 

- a vetj- poo<i oil, eonewhui Rimtlar U> thai of bimeed. 

1 . attpix'ies of Albizm, cumiouQ in tHnuo part* .of Khilndceb, 

Chapter n. 



ptiir II. 




[Bombay Omutten, 



lins a good wood for ordinary piirjKises. Ternhhurni, DiosjgroB 
iiioutaitf, th* wt'U kuown clioKy, is pretty coiiiiiioii in Khandesh, 
but lis it grows crooked aud hardly ever of any greM size, it* 
wood ia litlle uHfJ. It lioars li targe mveetiwh pUim, very pleasant 
to eat. Tirng, DiilbiTfjia iijaineusis, ouc of the most j^neraily 
useful trees, yielda a beautiful timber serving for field tools of all 
kiudH. Ill KhJiudeKh, probably from its hariug been so uinoh cat 
before the days of cuiiMervaiity, it is not very common and seldom 
^ows to any grout sisie. I'liihut, Ficiis gloiiici"ata, a very oomnion 
but vrtlueh.'ss tree, bears bunelies of HavourlesH figs on its stem and 
bougiis, Tho wood witbstands the notion of water, and though, 
like most of the fig. BpecR's, generally accoiiuted sacred, it is in 
some places uRcdfor shoring wells. Vitrul or mahiiriiirh, Ailanthas 
excelsa, a tall and showy tree, grows near villaf^s. Its wood is 
accounted of no value. Tnlan, liutca froudosa, one of the common'eat 
Khandcsh trees, is, at the beginning of the hot season, a mass of 
bright scarlet flowers. The loaves are much used as plates, ukd as 
the young shoots are eaten by camels and other animals, the tree 
Boldom grows to any size. In Khaudesh the wood is not much 
used. Elsewhere it is said to be strong and tough. It makes 
excellent cliareoal. From the stem is extrjieted kinognm; the 
flowers yield a valuable dye ; and the root and bark an excellent 
tough fibre. The juioo is also used iiiediciually. It is a faronrite 
witb4ho liw insect, aad tho choicest lac is found upon it. The seed 
nut is useful as a pui-gatiTe and as a vermifuge to horses. 

None of tho breeds of Kbdndcsli domestic animals are of any 
special excellence^ Of Horses, Mares, and Foals, the 1878.79 
returns show a ttjtal of 14,087 head. Though the local breed is 
now poor and suiall, Kh^ndosh horses were onco estoomed the best 
and strongest in th§ DecfBm, At present, the only animals of mnch 
Talno are a small but'lTardy breed, of ponies raised by Thilfais, a 
trilie of wanderingiierdBuien, cliief^' inhabiting the wesCof Kh&ndesh. 
Mome of these go excell^tly iu tho small cun-iclca, tonga*, used 
ill the district. Of late years, Arab stud horses placed at moat 
mriirihitdai's' heail^nartors have doue somothiug to improve the 
breod. But as a rule tjio Kliandesh iieople pay tittle attention to 
horse-breeding, and are far behind thoir uoighbours in Nagar and 
I'ooua. ' 

Bullocks, returneaJBt 31'1,'fOO, are not as a rule of ally p«at 
^aln». There is a very good breed known as the Thiliii-i, somewhat 
small but strong and hardy, fast-trotting, and very teachable. It 
,'baB suffered much from injudicious crossing. Weak and stunted 
bulls are allowed to roam at large with the village herds, and even 
where, as at tho Government farm, a good bull is at hand, little care 
neems to be taken to obtain hia services. Want of fodder in the 
hot dry weather goes far to injure the breed ; only the more wealthy 
cultivators give theii' cattle anything like proper sustenance. A 
pair of good bullocks costs frofti £1 to £10 (Hs.lO-Rs.lOO). 

Oows, returned at 222,215, are poor and ill-fed. Little care ia 
taken Rf the breed. Klii'vndesh suffers terribly from rattle yiscaSSb 
apparently of niauy typos, and showing vai'ious symptoms. Most 

ai u uuu 

h ased for carriage or pack piii^aes. l"ho finest bufEiilooa are 
id in the wilder parts where grazing is plentiful, ospoeialty 
■ rivers. Bat there ia not a hamlet jvhero buffaloes, somtstitttea 
onsiderable nuiobera, are not found, t'emale buffaloes cost 
1 £1 10». to £3 (Rs. 15 - Ha. 30). 

he roring Vanjaris sometimes bring fine cattle for sale from 
uld and Malwa, aad thus enable the local farmers to improru 
r etock. 

oakeys, returned at 7852, are found nearly all over the district. 
y are uaed chiefly by potters in carrying clay or bricks, and 
3hoia and others in carrying grain. They arc a hardy breed uf 
aals, picking np their food as boat they can. 

[ei^a of Sheep and Goats, returned at 198,625] chiefly belonging 
)hangarsj are found throughout the district. The breeds are 
r poor and stunted. Coarse blankets ve woven from the wool. 

he monthly cost of keeping a horse varies from Il>8. to£2 
.S.Rs. 20); of a bullock from 8». to £1 (Ra. i-Bs. 10); of a cow 
i4s. to 10s. (B8.2-Rs. 5); and of aahocpo^goat from 6d, to 28. 
las 4 -Re. 1). Except milkmen whoae Bh^butfaloea' kaop coats 
a from 4a. to £1 {Rs. 2 • Ra. 10) a moot^ cultivators seldom spend 
e than 49. (Rs. 2) on a horse^Jt^ 2h. {Re.l) on a pair of bullocks. 
poorer clhsses spend little or 'Nothing on tbeir Cattle, grazing 
a on village lands and hills free or (j/^ paying a nominal fee. 
Qgh aometimea kept by bankers for carrying bullion, Camols 
almost unknown. 

ogs, and sometimes Cats, abound in every village generally 
kout any recoguised. owners. 

owh are reared in large quantities emrfwhero by the lower 
jea, and especially by the hill tribes. There are no s]^ihl 

uties, and no trouble ia taken to prevent promiscuous breeding. 

1 (.1.- p_.. '.. _ * 1. ei.i. _.i.-_i 





[Btmbfty Qa 

Kliiin^psh tlify were, (Idrinj^ tlir i * nhiry, fv! I 

Tim t'Uit'f wild uniiiial siiU fini(»i j i is tbv __„_ 

FvILh ti|fri8. Id the di^urbod Uiikm at [bi> be^tiuaiu^ of iLe 
century, targctr^spaasvd frum tilljkffciutof<jro»t,Bad tigers. 
and <Ieslru}-v<l m tlie wry heart of tW iliitlHcl. In 1822 
buAi<1i« killuU 500 huriian bcio^ and 2il,U00 head of cattlu. 
di^Htnictiun was ane of tho tnost presmnff noces&itieiB. nud in 
JaueaudJi ' iiymir (Id22),a8 nmuyiM tixtvi' 

iDHpiloofi < ^iif Sir •lauiBH Uutniiu iiud hi- 
and otlmr largw beswts of prej" continued so Dumercii» that iht* 
them kept waate and dosolntv some of the richral tracts in KiUoJ 
KVeu as lut« au tho nyitintw (I867-IS59J, Klidndvsh, more ihao^ 
alin<.iitt uii>- pnift^f weMurii India, continued a e>tn>ug:h<ild Eor 
lieaKtH. S<i daueroiu and doHtmctivo wore ther that a 
di viaii i;i '. ! 1 rj>s wi-ri'.iwt^l^-: ; ' : ■ rs, sol njiart to ; 

Sunorr | ki'. Siiice 1^ - . iti- the t>uf»'riat 

<if Poliw Mnjor p. Fniliyn, tho deHtmeliuu i.f liffora biw 
njMu^e. Of lalo yoars, to tho etibi-ta of tho district oiKoers' 
been ad<)Qd a rapid spread of tilhi^T and inc-rv^-iuM of population. 
Tho tigi^r is uo longer found in the pliuiit}. Amuii;j> tht-- S^Uputf'" 
in Ihe north, oiamff the Neuifid fronlior afad the Uatti hiUs in 
cast and the Bmtu-i>aal, in the SatmdliU in the south, and in 
Danfi^ and otbt>r wild wo8tom tntc-ln he i<till rvanui. Kroik 
Itix nnmliur i* dis;linin^. The lo^ of <:attle i» iD0On!<iil<inil)lu 
the loss 1^ human life trifling'.^^ tho five years emlin^ 1S7 
itixtecn hniiuiu iK'ingH i%nd 3Ul fao^ of cnttio wero killed by thai 
The r^l iim» xhoWtA (all in the nuuilicr of ti^^rs ftlain from itn u vvra( 
of nearly tifreen ill tiie &ve years ending 1870 to t«)a in tho 
yeara ending 1879.' 

The I'AS-TtTEB . hibta oit^himta, Folia parduo, is gonorally said to_ 
Lc of throe iliiitinct upoeicB, two Itv^) and one sniall. Of tho 
large, kimlH, due rivuU the tij^i-v^i!! iu aiae, nud aa He will at 
Quprovokod, is otgitally or cwn ntpro dnngcrone to man ; the ut 
uuMller, Atouter, and with a round bnlUdog'it hi^aiS, has a k 
darker, -and louf^r fur, with spota ninch utont crowditd and 
black ii1<ju<£ tho riiV>%' of the back and up the le^s about as h^ 
tho she til den md thighs. The third vnriuty is u very 
' . ^^ _^^_^ . _ ^ ^ 

•Piad>(lfiKi)>n Kort'«V<^m^ ^111. 277. Ii> 1630^ ^wtl Kkin Ktrtwal . 
10 tlif (iiijiirlt-Kl>Aiirlf»li [iKuiiiT nail itt|>tBrul 130 il«|iWt>!H li> lli« (ialUn' 
fonobi, irf wbiali wvinity wvnj >tnit tA l^llii iVVaUnn'* (luJM^l, 71). WlMJicr 
irtni fonrxrl^v foiuiil in Khimt'iili ••••iiib •li'iiHful. I1i* AjMil* jiaintinipl 

Inldligimoe 1$4, in AMitU<: Jiiunial, N«ir Serial. Vll.) luualioa niiwIiMilnd " 
[iHDtiox in KliteiI«)Ji,"flv>n^*a*oc«iiatof tfa« d«*lnicti>in, iiiUirM(lan(13tli-l 
May iKlll, u( lliiva UnnaMMl a ISoimm iMwttio old tuwn.of I'AUn. 'nip siticlti I 
■ifirH>3 " An UM Kldnitvflhl," bnt fnm rcfonnuna in it to Ahn uui 8i<lli|>ar th*rt i» 
IH> •l"ulit tbitt Uiv olil b'lrii iir Ptitwi ii nut l'it«n Uiiar (.DiAliigpoii. Init tho uiii^til 
ua(iet*l »( <> •tbciilC *»ly niiliH noitb'Wint vf Aliniiilnhati. SpcuJal iii>it:ini-^ 
bavv Imni nuwlu, )iut Uivtk wiiuU Munt tu i<v wi nivitil rd Ixni'^'n'liiiff iu ' 
(dnca til* Iwittnaitit: ol Hnlwlidle. ' Mr. I.'liri[>lin'* IlijN.rt, SUtli Aui;. LS:.>-J. 

' TIio.«lBWil» »n): ISa.1, * ISiaS, «i lB«i7. Cs ISiiS. I-.': IMS, 3; ld7o, 
lS71,8nS7S,S0i tSTS, Hi 1971, D; tS7»,0; IgJO, 7] 16i7,2i 1878, Ifi: 

only. The WiLU Cat, ru'n vnUtjar, Felia ohuus, met all over 
iistrict, ia coinparativply liaruilesa, and ditfera in size, colour, 
length of tail, only slightly from the house cat. The Lynx, 
I caracal, a rare animal, ia occasionalfy fonmi among rocky hilft. 
Tery ahy, and ia seldom abroad after daybreak.' 

le Etkna, fvras, Hyrona striata, onco very common, ia now 
y Been. The Wolp, Idndga, Oauia pallipi's, formerly caust-J 
1 havoc among aheep and goata, and is even known to have 
Bd off young children. Like the other fl^-eaters, ho has 

forcea to give way before the spread of tillage. Still ho 
rj destmciire, and though he seldom attacks humau boinga, 
an immense nnmbei;. qt sheep and goata, and two or three 
her will often pull down a good-sized young ^hifFalo or heifer. 
Q(f the fourteen years ending 1879, 4138 wolves were killed, tho 
y nnmber varying from COS in I87'i to seventy -one in 1879.' 
lea the above, the Jackal, kollia, Cania aureus, and the Fox, 
id, Vulpea bengalenaia, abddAd in the open country. ^\e Wild 

kolsunda. Coon rutilans, ia also found in the gitpuda hilla, 
ing in packa. 

e Induk Black Beab . dsval, Ursus labiatna, is found in all Bear. 

'orest-clad hills of Khfindeah. Formerly abounding in the 

' hill tops of Pimpalner and B&glait in the south-west, the 

>er of black bears has during tho past twenty years been 

, reduced. Though not generally dangerona to life, he»ia at 

. very mMchievous. Sugarcane, when he can get it, is one 

1 &vouriCe articles of food, and he deatiDja much more thau 

tfi. The flower of the moha, Basaia latifolia, tree is hia chief 

lance at the beginning of the hot season, Thia flower, which 

Lceathe common apirit of the country, aeems t^affect the bear 

a kind of intozjdation, as he is know^ to be most dangerous 

kt season, anff.«ipt to attack man unprovoked, A vegetaria^ 

t lairegarda ants and some other insects, he does no injuty to 

1 .1- 



[Bombay Diuettter, 

.32 DISTPigTS. 

A piiro vrf»ctnl»!o enter, ho is most dainty in his tnntPB. Ho 
must Imvf th? very Ix'st the laad iift'ords, aud while ch(Miaiii(f the 
(Uintii'st morsels, destroys much more than he eats. .Sognrcsae, 
ftwuot jMitato aud other ivots, and juicy millet and Indian com stalk) 
arc his favourite fond. A few years ajjo herds of wild pig were 
found everywhere, hut their nuiiihers are now much smaller. From 
the horder hills they Btill sally at night to ravage the crops in 
the neighl)<>urho»d, but they arc no longer so destructive as they 
onco were. With the aid of their dojfs and ajH-ars, the Bhilshni^ 
and kill them for food, aud the clearing of the forests has tsa/is 
their deatrnetion comparatively easy. Twenty years ago in tha 
country cast of the PnniS. river, then belonging to His HighnM* 
Sindia, herds of some hundreds inifjjlit^bo seen marauding in open 
day. Night and day the cultivator had to watch hi3 fields. Thoogk 
comparatively few are left, herds of fifty aud upwards are atiil 
occasionally seen. 

The Bison, gara, Gavreus gaunis, is fouud only in the S&tpndft 
and Hatti liills. The shyest and wariest of fon-st animals, its chief 
food is grass and youug liamhoo shouts. The Stag, sdmhar, Eos* 
aristote lis, is found in all the hill couulrj' on the borders of the district. 
It feeds in the plains aud fields at night, and seeks the hill tops at 
early dawn. It seldoiu, if ever, lies in the plain country. The 
Spotted Dker, ch!l<d, Axis uiaculatns, is now raro. Ho ia'never 
found far from water, and generally in thick forests. In the conntrj 
east of tlft Purna spotted deer were formerly fonnd in immeiue 
numbers, but most of thorn were shot or driven away while the 
railway was making. They are still in small numbers near rivers 
in the Satpuda hills, and in the west<?rn forests along the TiptL 
The Barking Dekr, It/iekre, Cervuhis aureus, and the Focr-hornxd 
Antelope, also called hlij'krc, Totracems quadricomis, are occasionally 
met with in the Satpuda hills. The Bloe Bull, niliidi/, Portax pictns, 
was once common ovorywhero, hut is now coniined to the few strips 
of forest land left between the Katpuda and other hills and the 
open plains, aud to the low country ou the west. He seldom enters 
the hills or dense forests, feeding chiefly on palas, Bntea frondosa, 
or other troos in the fiat country. The Indian Antelops, kalvit, 
AntilojM) benoartica, frequents the open fields and devours the corn. 
Disliking forest country, they were never so plentiful in Kh^cdesh 
as in the Deccan and Gujartit jjlaius. Very few of them ai-e left. 
The •Indian Gazelle, cftm/Mm, Gazella benuettii, loving the shrub 
brushwood and roeky eminences of Khiindesh, are still comparatively 
.plentiful. The Uommon Hark, torn, Lepus ruficandatus, found in 
considerable numbers all over the district, completes the list of 
four-footed game animals. 

Of Game Birds there are among Rasores, Pkafowi., Pavo cristatns, 
living in all woods and shady gardens. Grey Junule Fowl, Gallaa 
Bonnerati, and Srurt Fowl, (iailopordix spadiceus, found only in 

(ft ^ABTRiDOEs there are two kinds: the Grey, Ortygomis 
ponticoriana, found over the whole district, and the Paiktkd, 
Francolinua pictus, widely disti-ibutod but less common. 

tSombiy Ou«tt(trJ 



ipttr n. 



uloMgllio Sittpndiis.andreoogiumMebj'its moKioiU-ry - 
hoar^a mil* 'iti. CirowtaA gmlUiioa, and <»w nf ilu: Sju 
slsobixm DMtintil. The tfanw well Imown KJtos, l)ie>CoiiiiU(iu, MUf 

f>viiiiia; llm Brmhtnttni, Htdmtiiiir iiidu.t; and Iho Hiat^-L'^i""^-^-^ 
lanuB Duilaiioptentfl «re all found, tho Br^bmaui heiixg v. 
i»nNit. Tlw Wliite^jrod Bn»»ird, Puliomia toom, in very . 
&ad the Uoney Uuuiard, Peruia ptilorfafuoos or cris(al», it ooi-. 

Of Falcohs, a larffecIiMts, there are thn Peregrine, Falvo porogriii 
rare ; the Keatrel, Tinmmculus alaudarios, much mure commcia;! 
tho SluibwD, Paico perc^DRlur, tbu liuggnr, Fulco jtiggor, : 
f>eautiful Turututi, Fulco 'cbiuuera, common. Of (ubbius, 
am two or three kinds with marked light grvj' jilumage. 
Hawks, ihe Shikra, A.itur InuliuH, and the tiparrojv liuwk, Acci{ 
lUBUs, are well known. 

Tlivro aru m»ay Owifl in the formt*. The Brown FJeh 
Ketiipa oevlonenaiR, and the Duskyhomod Owl, Dnbo conji 
are both found. Tho Rockhornvd Owl, Bul>o bungalvDEiA, it i 
found alon^ all the rtrera. The beantifnl Spotted Owl, HymiD 
ooelliitiim, Hi very common among mango gixtros, and Ihe Sit 
Owl, OLus brac-hyotna, ia a wtnt«r vUitant. The Screecih Oi. 
jaTani<B, i^ rare. Both the little Owlete, Carine brama, 
Glaucidium ra^liatuni, aro found, tho latter only io foroiit diiflriots. 

Of SwA^ULOws, in the cold weather the Common Swallow, Iltranda 
roalica, i% everywhcrv, and uru or two Murtinn, tho Bank, Co^lfl 
ainunitiM, and the Cliff, Cotyle concolor, are found all the yv 
ponnd. The pretty Rodbackod or Moscino Swultiiw, I]iniiit: 
orythropygia, is not uncommon. But its smaller oouffemT, Utrundd 
fluvicola, is veiy rara. The Common Swift^ CypselluH affinis, is widi 
diittnbutvd. 'Fhe Alpine Swift, C. metba, is rare, as i» thr Pa 
Swift, C. batassiensis. The beautiful Crested Swift, (lendrochelid 
coroDstus, ia common among tho Sulpadibj. 

Of Niobt-Jaks (he cliiof are, the Common Night- jar, Caprimnli 
wiaticus, callod the Ice Bird from its (itiicklr n.-pi'ak-d note, b 
a stoue boanding utToss in*. It is purely a night bird, feeding 
motha and beetles. Especinjly when »o«n early in the morning ' 
when Rtarting on n jonrnoy, the natives consider it a bird of; 
omen. C. murathunt»iM and C. monticolus arc also found. 

&f Bbe-satbos, MeropB viridia, is in every field, and M.philtppinu 
14 uu Oulober visitant. 

Of Roucns there iu tlio Indian Boiler, Coracias indtca, called b] 
EaropeauH the Blue Jay. 

Thero are several KiNaFiaiiERS, Tl»e ■VS'hilebrea*ted, Hiilcyoi 
amyrnmtsiF!, with bright i^kybluo bnck, is commonort ; the ^malle 
Blue Kiuglisher, Alcedo bettgak-nsis, is also found. Tho l^r^ 
Alexandrine or Stork-biUod Kingfisher, Pt-iargnpnia gurial, liven a 
some of the larger rivers. The Pied KiugtishiT, CJorjle rudis, t^ 
very •ommon. and may be seen hoi-ering over every pond and utros 

01 HoBWBlLUJ, BuccrolidiB, the Common Grey, Ocyocroa birost 




DtBS«iniirag p»mdiseaii, U (irulMbly lomid io the Bitpodm 
wmtf ry (oreeto. . 

Of the same trilR' arc tho three well known families of Tl 
BoJliuls, awl UabhlvrH. Of Thruiiliirf>, Merolidic, sTTcml kmda 
oorotnoD. Mlied to them are the Orioles fuand in nltnoft ei 
Dwnsp groTe. Tbu Common Uulbul, MolpKst«s hcemoirhotis, 
Uie Graen, Phrllomia jcrdoni, and Ian tiphia, an* Ima w 
distriboted. Ilio Babblcni, Uid»oocirci, koowa aa tho Seveo Sii 
■TO a wull markutl dusky •feathered ^mily, -very noisy and jgft 
in pro Dps. 

To Iho aamtt tribe (DwmBosTrfks) belong the Flycatchpra 
\rarblera, a Tory Ur^ fanJly. Of Flycattbera the tnort rvnmrfcah 
is tho Paradiso Flycatcher, Maacipota pauwlini, a aroaU bird 
a biwk c'n!«Uxl head and vcrj louff daric cbounat or amiw-* 
central tail f«atIiors. It ia aometimea called tho Widow ' 
The Wliitebrowed Fanlail, Leooooorca aonHila, is found in _ 
grove utt<?rinff a few clear quick notoa, as if whlatling part of the 
■calc. Tho Whitfspottod Kantail, Leucocopwi leucogatrtcr, a annJlff 
rariftty, in altto rury oouunou. Tho Blno, Cyomia tickeUi, and the 
Bobia, Erythro«terna parra. Flycatchers are rawr. 

The Warblora, an immense &unily, include Bobins, Redstarts, and 
WagtIailK. The North Indian Robiu, llmmnobia futicata, and tha 
Redstart, Ruticilla rufivontria, very t«me birds,aro»een «Tery>rhero| 
iho Tailor Bird, Ortfaotomna autorius, with its lovely neat of two or 
three hanging leaTes, aown together aa with a noodlo and thread, 
and Iim?<J with cotton, hair, or wire, is also common. Of Wrea 
Warblora, Drynioiote, tliero are several kinds. The I^nco Pi^ 
Wagtail, Motocilla inaderaapatenus, and tho Indian Field Wagtai), 
Budytin cinneocnpilla, are common ncMr water. 

Of Crows, the Common Crow, Corma splendens, and the Black, 
Corvua cnlmiuutus, arc well known. Of Uagpiett two kinds 
Dendrucittii rufa, iu tho ploiu^ and DendrooifctA leavogaatra, < 

'llie SmiuiDX or 8tarIingA are ropremnled by aeveral niecies. 
The Common M)-na, AcHdolhorca trisiis, is uniTereal, and a Wattled 
Mynu, iirobably Ealahes roUgiosa, thungh nu^', ia alao found. 
During the cold seniion, the Jvdri Bird, Pastor roaeus, may be seen 
in large flocka in every grain field. 

Of FixcaKS, Fringillidie, aro the Common Sparrow, leaser 

AjDMsticua, and tho Weaver Bird, Plooous phili|ipinQ8, with its woU 

known hanging bottleahaped uoat^ Sorerol Larks, Alftodaj, belong 

, to this family, as also the well known Amadavat, EstKlda amandava. 

Allied to some of tlie game birds montionod above are tio Pigetma 
and Doves. Of these tho Blue Rock Pigeon, Colomba intermedia, 
niiich liko its Kiiropean namesake, is seen everywhere. The beantiful 
Bronaewingod Pijjoon, Chalcophapa indi«, is rare, aeon only ia 
{orG8(« alone or in pair*. The Conunon Qreen Pig<^on, Crocopas 
cblorigaster, is found wherevor banian trees aro fJontiful. 

Of Dove« piT)pt«r fonr varietJea am pretty generally diatribnted i 
tbo C!>n)mon Ringdove, Turtnr neonas, tho Spott«d Core, T* 

(BiHib*; OuetUtr. 

tor XXL 




Few early DOtioes of tli« people oT Kh&nJeah have Ikwq tratvi 
Accoriling' to Iasmq the SaDskrit>speakiDj; tribea passed down tlia 
Oujarit nwat nod op Uio Tapti nrnj Ibroiigh KUndMh iotn the 
Ileocaii.' Another wave of settlen would seem to have piiit-rvl by 
tfa« oMi, u, aocordioi; to local tradition, Rajputs of dilTi v^ 

r oled from AairRad m far back aa the atxt^Muth Lx-nttu-jr tx i it. 

The fint known historic reference to the people of Kh&ndcah' nesta 
to b« Pt olemy ' B (a.p. 150) mention of th« FliYljitai and Konda li or 
Goudali, probably the Bbiia and Qondit. whom he places aoalli of 
tlio Niirbada not far trom its Bourcc.' The Bhils, atill the nwtA 
characteristic and one of tho lui^ii't cbtason in KfaAndesh, aeeni 
to show by tho varieties of their dialect, Nei n^i , Mai-Athi. and 
Gujariti, that they havo Imk-ii poghi-d bitck int o lRlu lndi^"*b by lat«r 
amvnis, from tho east, the siuutti, and ih e was i. Many of tlie 
changes tkat havo narrowed the limits o) the Bhil country bars 
taken placo Hinco Ploleray wrnt«. Bnt in his time, as at pru^est, 
Khtodeah waa probably one of the leadini? Bhil settI<>inentB. Of the 
Gonds traoGS renain in aGond tribuof hvrdemun fuand in ChdHisgaoD 
and in a Gond »ub>(lirision of Mbdrs. 

Siaco Ptolumj 's time, the first great diaag e is the popolation of 
KhAudeah seems to have boon the arrival, A^iarcntly iip tho Tipti 
valluy frura GujaMt, of a detachment of the great tribe or nation of 
Ahire or Aldiirs.' The oriu^n of the AhirB, who, besides in Khtiudesb, 
are Found in tho North- West Provinces, Bengal, Cctit.nd India and 
tho Central I'rtivioco*, in Cutoh and KAthi&wir in GujarAt, and in 
KAttik, Ahmedni&gar and other parte of tho north Dvccui, is doahtfat 

'IliB gnktec part o( th« nutorMU Un Uiia eb«pt«r lisra bMn noHortil nid 

aSoonata i«VNed Inr Hr. J. FoUmi, C. S. t for the wild and wanilvriv triUa Major 
O. Plobj^n b 111* ekief oontribatar i and mnch holfi eapadally lor Vasdj^ nod Vtwa 
hat bMM rKortd troni Rio Bahitlur MahAilEX- QaTJiid Riaada. SnbordiBate JndAo «l 
, Shulia and K«« Sihth K. B. Mardtbc, SulurdioAto Judj» of AmOmt, 

' Indiacfan AltarthiunAiuirfM, L 181 . 

■TheUalitUiintlH. B. Wilaoa'a WorK VIL 1«4) pUc««, noit to ttia paofd* of 
VubkiUia or B*dar. KJimkI** or ShaiuUa who may poanbly hairn givM thm naoia 
to KJiindaah. Ektadaah h>a aUo licaa tbon^t to U tha KliiaTav (otMt of tb* 
HaUbhttat, vklok wia burnt down and bronAt nadar tillaim br Arjitn tbt brotlwr 
ofRriah&B. Thaw idontifioUloM uu doubtfoL 

• Bartnia- PtolMojr, Map X. and 2M. Wilaon (VII. 139) U ol opinion tfcat tb* BUb 
ara ladiided niider the Pnfaada whom Plolonnr plaM* (uither to tlia woM. AnDlhsr 
ol PI«Joiny^ tnbta the Tabwri havo boMt rakmad to KhtUtdcab and MpfMaad tain 
tJia Buddkurt aaoettM o( llw Aianla ud ottint Sitanila tavo tempUa. Ynle in ladL 
Ant. I^. 282. 

* Ikiiiie ol tlia Ahti*, apparently Ut«( anii'al*, <aaio froai uurthen) Indix 

[Bomter Ouettaet. 


I r\/ij'iut^i 

About tliiit time, and on till the uriTal ot khe Uns&lmiiu (131( 
wems iprobablii that nliil» tbi> nyY>pri Yfc l«?» beM Kluuitlosh, 
MntbQjm|M. of wboK nmval do tra^titiD mntainM but 
wurtnowntol&ve come from the Bonth. firet notU od to tho ■ 
DurinfT thif liitU'r piirt of iho (oortMnth oentary, hy tbe e»tjib 
( 1370) of It line of ArabkiDg^ anewforeiffneleniBnt waa uiii 
into Kbind«flh. About imatxao time tW dinlrKrl vnw vuilsd i^j 
■0 MTura a fninino ibnt, accordinj^ to Feriabta, its wbolc piHipl*, I 
except a few Bhils and Koliii, disappuarod.* Undvr tbe Fintki IcioaiJ 
EblindMfa row Ut lutii-li w(>aitb and proaperitj, and its ! 
received maoy additions both of noighboiuiog Hindtu aii<l 
&fnisft]m&nfl. * 

tin 1600. -nhen it paaae-d to tIwEinpcTOTAfcbar,!piHivof EbADJka: 
were faighlj* tilled and well peopled, Hud it« Bbib. 6o nd«, and K"abi« 
Vfere npeciatty noticed as hHrdworkera and ttutifnl subjects,' Umlof 
tbe Moffbais, daring tho ncvi'iiU-viith oonlnry, i»n)«pcrity continued, 
llio (iiflturbiuicea in tbe Deccan, tbat ended witb tbe fall of 
Abm«<luagar (lt>38) and Hijiipur (l&8l)), muxl have drivpn nntnlm* 
into Ihp more peaceful district of KhAndesb, and dunug all bis 
reign, AorangKeb (t6tt0- 1707) wm converting Hindns to Lal&m and 
Unsalm^na woro Dixiking front nortb India into KkfLndeah. 

UndiT tbe Manlth&s (1760-1817^ tbe Ilindua again rose to 
importance. But any additions from tno aoutb utu»t hnro l>c«ti mure 
than mel by ibe losses in the diflturbances that marked tbe cltxiie oi 
the eighteenth oontnry. The terhblo f aroJno of 16*^ laid the district 
waste, leaving for tbe time bnt a few ilhils and Kolis. A\'1iu» the 
famino was over some of the old inhnbilonts retamed. But so 
diatarb<.-d were all, estocpt some favoured parti of llii- district, that 
snmbers iitiU ataid ^tn,j* In those tronbled times three bodies of 
foreign mercwri ee rose to importjtuce ; Arabs, north India of 
pBrdcB hi ferkhmans, a nd M vsi>ror Kamteak troops, apparenlly partly 
Uindu partly UnsalmAn. ^Vitb tbo establishment of British power 
(181/ - 1820) these three classes of mercenaries diaappearod. Pari 
^ of tbe Arabs were sent to Arabia, snd tbo rest fonnd their way to 
Bfiaidarabad in the I>eccan ; almost all Die Kaniitlak troops returned 
^to their own land ; and most of tbe Pardefhi Br/khmans M^tttod as 
husbiindmen.* Ou the establtshmviit of order, tbe old inbnliitants 
returned in nomliers from Berdr and Gujarat, and crowds of 
sttmngent f1ock«<t from the Nixiim'a and Sindia's dmiiinions,* Sbil! 
tbe conntry waa very empty. The 1321 oensos tthowed a populatioB 
of only 418,021 sonUor31| to thefl(}iiare mile. In 1837 it wnsstiU 
' miserably popnlated', largo tracts being held by Bhits. The popnlatton.^ 

f t lUiw or Uuitli* Rs}pata. 

* Two gT(Mt KlitodMli tuuDM ue mported. «n« aboat ISTOl tba otiior the cmtl 
Dnr^Usvi fAmina Iran 13M to I40I. AsImbuiIm* im nmunu ol the Daigs-I>«Hj 
foiauiB. it imhh probable tliRt Pniihta'a I3T0 Uibiim *hB«M lie pkocd Miaa I ~ ~ 
ytanMw. ■ GUd» ia i Aini-A kbiji. H. 64. 

* Hu ptMUtt •paoi«] pmfiwnlT aiKi papnloiisiinM ef Sti^A h btllavcd t« b* < 
to tlM pratMttaa KSordad kt tlui Urn* |UW3-18l8)bT Ih* powvroC the NinUlkBr] 
and lUfilk. Bom. Go*. SeL JCCIU. 203. * 

* C^MM Cut BricndflSl) taUS. SO. 157 (I8il ■ l«2ei. 
'Mr. ^pliii%IU7Mt,30Ui AngwItSSieui Ici<Ii> Papan. IV.Sli. 



I Mtimated at 478,457 souls, abon} 60,000 more than jn 18^, and 
Ima calculated that of the whole number, Bnlhnians represented 
per cent, Rajputs 3'47, Shudras and Marflt.bds 6958, low and 
Bssed tribes 14"72, and Musaimdns 638,' Fifteen years later 
a fresh census showed a total strength of 686,003 souls, or an 
a, since 1 837, of nearly forty per cent.^ Stil! great part of the 
ict was empty, and five-sixths of its arable land lay waste. An 
apt was made to supply the want of people by bringing settlera 
crowded Ratnagiri. But the most liberal offers of rent-free 
id and money to buy bullocks and tools, failed to tempt a 
igle settler.* Still population was steadily increasing, and witk 
rise of produce prices (1856), the introduction of a lighter and 
even assessment (1860-1866), and the opening of the railway 
1803), large numbers came to Khandeah. Compared with those 
1852, pturtly no doubt because they were more complete, the 
retnms for 1872 showed a total of 1,028,642 souls, or an 
\Be in twenty years of nearly fifty per cent. Since 1872, tbongh 
idesh has passed through sevora! trying years, the population 
. known to have considerably increased. The east and centre are 
mlons, but the south is thinly peopled, and in the west great 
__._J>le tracts are still empty. In spite of recent inci'ease, Khdndesh 
fOiuams^ one of the thinnest peopled parts of the Bombay Presidency. 

■^ Of the immigrants under British rul e, exclusive of those who 
Mme back on the first establishment of order (1817-1820), the chief 
otaBseB are, among traders, Md.rY&di Vanis, Bh ati&s, and ^ohorfta ; 
jamotig craftsmen, Hangaris and Telis; and among '^us^uadmen 
J$bA labourers, Mar^thas and Kuubis. 

" At present the most interesting section of the population are the 
V ftni^JB, the owners of pack -bullocks, who since cart roads have 
tmen opened to the coast (1834), and still more since they have had 
to compete with the railway, have been forced to give up their old 
;WKDdering ways and settle in fixed villages.* Their leaders, men 
',«{ capital who always did some trafficking on their own account, 
Jbave started as traders, and the bulk of the people, who have 
.vrobably always been in the habit of raising crops during their lo«g 

fetlta in the rainy season, have taken to tillage. Some still cam 

Aeir living as carriers. But none have taken to the practice of 
\<Bnfts, probably because, as they travelled with bullocks and with no 

imia, they had no need of the services of carpenters or blacks mi IjIib.* 

This Vanjfiri and Ahir element in the KhAndesh people has the high 
nine of showing, what can hardly be traced in most parts of the 
«onntry, the chief process by which the bulk of the present Hindn 

Cpniation was probably formed, A. succession of tribes of northern 
rdsmen have been driven south, and by changes in the government 

Chapter m 

* CoL flvkw in Rept of Brit Amob. (1837), 2SS, 284. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. 1. 4. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. I. 13 ; Mr. A. T, DavidMoi, Siip«riatandent of SnrvAjr (1861). 
loB. Oov. S«l. XCni. 432. 

< Anothn older diviirion of Vanjim i> raUbliihad m > regalftr part of the Knabi*. 
£m below, p. 69. 

a 4il— « 

[Boinb&7 OutttMr. 





or trade of tko ootintry, linve lieen furved to et-ttle. AiDi)ii(f tlicir 
Iculcni would Ik< invn of c»]nt«r if tiot trminnil inuldni ; tbu uijuui 
tbe people would h»ve a rough knowledge of tillage j and as 
triboH Inivollfd with carte and slieop, soiito amooK thvtn 
Eaniilutr with isu-jivtit ry, Nmttliwurk, und wenrini;. XTbeti : 
Ute leodera would biKome iradera and laadbordera, the 
people would atari as husband m<»n, and of the rost, 8<^>mii 
to Ihd pnictiov iif rrnfu) Aud (rtfaors would continiui as berd-i 
carriers. Among tbe luisbandroen, some of the poorerorlow< i 
forcud to tulctt up laoda in tho ouUkirt* of (Jiu sot (UitntinL, cut "t! tu 
qpme extuul from llicirowi^peopleandfttrulooed fr\)m wantof lit^cur, 
would associate with the earlier tribes, and taking thvir womrn as 
wives or idavee, would raise a tiiix<.sl dosif. Ah ibe new IriU- sMiWl 
maaj of their apectid liclidfH aud pni^licea would coase, peculinriliM 
of dress would bo givea up, and if thoy had uot tbom ooforv, Atj 
would ongtigc HrAbiunoH to i-unduct tlieir iMirauiomes. In ttmii 
saroeuftflH of is'iirk wmdd become a oloaer bond than a ooiuiuod 
Hosbandmenwould begin tomarry with the older Hitttlod hu.-sbA:: 
and other rraftxineii with men of their own railing.' Ba«Ji 'I 
would comw to be kuown bjr Uie naiuo of iu calling, and iht- li.^—. 
title n'ould sink to tbe name of a sub-divieion or to a Huruiimti. 0( 
tlu* old tribe the only apparuui trucuiit would Iw chose wb' 
to the original cnlliug of henisnienorcan-iers; theoffsprioL 
olatM women proud of their strain of higher bl'md ; aud y 
tlie BrdlnuniiH, who known uinong (heir raate fellows by 
patrons' name, had come to form a dUtinct sub-dinsioii. 

GujarStiis in UHe a mong the higher cW s huxlmndmon t<i the north 
of iB^rS^r und it !!< tho languajte of trad e throut^hciot t.bc district] 
aa3 " ffttiAthi. t bw !i{xwch of tho people of tfee Hontb imd wtfj »t, t* llw 
laognane of Uoveriimeiit ofiiow and itcboolii, ami i* f^THdiiaily gaining 
tho nacondnnt. But in thoir liomaS tlie bulk of the ptxipUi speai( 
a dialect known as Kh&pdo»h i. Ahiaini.* or lilted Oujuri, a 
ourioua mutture of frujarAtl, Mnrftb^ Nomitdij and Ilindust^ni. 
Thongb from it« coBStmction it loolcs Iiko a compromise bolweeu tho 
modom Qiijnriiti, Mnr&thi, and Hindi, this di»lt!Cl i<< tbe oCsjinnf; 
of eeyeral old HrAkr it varinlitrH, MAjj^aclbi, Sanrflahtri. Shatirseai, Lati, 
MaMriishtri, i'atshrichi, and Apabhransha or Bh&klin. FI^<<e)>1'af0W 
bailndsAnd vongs recinlwl by the Khiudcsh BhiilA, tlr irely a 

spoken language. It dniciirds the cerebral I and sii - for it 

lDe*pa1ntal semivowel y ; thiis black is kdi/a notftaf<i. Hbacitibltng 
MarAthi and Ou}nriiti in tho more gon«Tul grammatical fonos, 
Ahirftni presents soveral peculiarities in declension and conjugnlion. 
The plural is fomlBd by adding the suffix «, not at in Gujar&ti and 
MonUhi by a change iu tho'word itself; thua bhU, wall, becomes 

' TkU i* tli« [iT<iba1>l» rxpluution of Uwt Urea anmhtr of cnb-ilivUloni kiaMiR tiia 
nsttani'iiclim'4 ill KhniKlMh. Slsnir of tbnn tho Tuli*. Slti> and Koalitii, l^ihln, 
Kamt^rw, Vf '- MHtn )>■*« tli* atock niuntxiT iH-«lr(i uid t. liolf. the htH 

hmi^itjif^rr.i: 1 <-T intt-iint clwa. ""' 

' Tfc* rum^ ..,..,»... ,1 |it-Alxiblv ilenvml tram llutof ihc Alihiii mciitioood by tbe 
l»ta«l fVlLknt HTwniauiani u ■ tliiJ«;t apokcn bf cowbmxU «n-l I'tlvtn ia tbe txniatij 
DMrtlMwartcrocoutatxnit Oui»r*t. Prof. E.ti. BbAndtriuu', M.A., H(ai.MJt.A.8. 



wulU.' Ouos are funned hy naffixes. TbuR, fur tho 

ivo und d«tiv» le U added ; ^r the huh-iimeutal, nif rari, 

^ortbe ablaiive, thin; for Itie goniltvo, n>(, ni, na; nni] for 

ttivp, ma and maziir.' Miii^i'uliuQ and aeutcr unuus ending 

11^ a iuto e in tlu- [iliirnl when coev ttirminations are 

Feminine uonns preserve, however, lUo finul a iii tbo 

before caaa tormiDations. Masculine nonna ending in ••> *i ", 

3o nut under^j uuy cloio^, and tliv c<w tommiatious nro 

to tbe Sual letter of tbe original word. A notable exoeption 

hhingtfbi, ft Ihv, wlik-b cbungfK its to to tya before any cas9 

jnna Am ailixtnl to it. Another exc<^p(iuu in u m ju, loiuv, 

comes juva and ke*ps the doiflilo ptaral form jitva^ ih 

M> Lunnittatii^ns iirv iJlixt^'d. Pninoiiiis Iiolh porsonal and 

are the same aa in Mar&thi, bnt their ease foruH differ. 

for the difference of cnao forms, tho first and second 

J nrontJuni<; form ihoir phintU in tho samt- way ai tlio Mariitbi. 

utiier hand, ibe third personal pronoan and tbe reWivea insert 

' the plural before the case tenttinatioDB.* Tbe domoDstratiro 

P>piilatioa. I 

I n poRilur. WtHA tbe Skiwlmt plunJ temuiiattMi t wm tot, acoii* of Ui* 
n wore iAIwhI to luvc rcooorM to ■ new OMdcof exfiraaaon. Thu Banfili 
iinlily byoliliai; > dduii cxproHivo uf 'all' 'Bcofla^oa.' or 'a «!«■».' mA 
. jT^nn, omI <^ii;<i. uiJ \3nj% by ilBxiDK Uio wurd mdiHi mauiiag neMBro 
Tlip Ahirtni ■ is thcrtfars not nnlikd}- tlm old rrlkrit toma, S«a*krit 
lUoiintCi us. Prof. E.G. BhAocLukor, M.A.. IIan.M.ajLS. 
Eir <il Uie aooimtire ooil dative ii thn Mnritfal fo. Ot tiliD UMtraMontal 
I' n' Mwou to l<e Uiv Uantthj ivf. >nd tUa .Suuknt rna ; uul mrj oad diUf ue 
If otfTopbaiH aail KliWvUliooi i>f tlic nutraiaunta] (onai af tb« Suukrit 
UHiaiitKai inil jiati Bititwai, whioh tuna XaXatoAwiaSXvA inb> WM lermiiMttoniL 
HiTD lAin Mttnns to be » oormpl [<ani ul Uia Hoaikrit kflix liM. IIm final * 
Fa in rnkrit. >ad, joioml villi lbs proviuiia I, •iiun<t> liko Ik, Th* gsnitivc 
I Uiu luintirc ma «* monh Ukn taa cucmiptiiKlinu CiijHriti t«nninBtiaiM, 
tiuBil musirof tliu locativo is ■ lom if Ui<Fenrrnnt tluJutU word. 
I withtn, tiisidc. 
; i> tat viamiilc i 



JT^ar. A PlArsn-BDiM. . \ 













rt -tI 

, -IM). 





Ktetnil, al. •■, 

■■ 'iiiKiAr. 

^, -ii»Uf 














ni. »W- 

















[Bombftr QufttM, 



this (liffLTs from tlie ilurutlii. Th« Itii, hi, and he of the latter become 
tmu iy tliL' musculiue, »iid ha^ in the femiuiae and neuter.' l%a 
ititiTnigative or indofiiiite kim »\\Bvr» no change in its crude fona, 
but tho iudi'finile pruuoininal particle kdi/ takes kami as its crude 
funu to which the case termiunliuux are added. Though curioui, 
the conJHf^tifiu uf vcrhs is, with but few exceptiooa, regular,* Th» 
preet'Ht tenae has one fyi-ui fur the eiugulars of all peraons sod 
unothur for the phiiiils, the termiDiitious being g and tas respectivelf, 
thus kar t^^ do has k'lras and kartiis. These seem to be demed 
froui the old I'lakrit present participle karani, further corrupted to 
karat. In Marathi, also, the present tense is formed from the present 
]mrticiple, but to distinguish the perHouiD the old personal termioationi 
are appended to it, while in Kb^udeshi they are not. In ^Gnjarati 
the old present ))itrtic'i}ile is used to form the past conditional, and 

' This hau in iicBrer thait the Mnrftthi hil to the Sauikrit atan (tlic a beilif dnfp*^ 

uid «chaugeJ to /i). It U ileuliiied h fullowi : 

pnosocss. MAu, uAi. thu, 

lla.l (MAKVUih), Illli. 

!^lllKulkr. HurHl. 
Htu. EIvu. 
Itjdlo, Tile, Hi-i«lr. 
Bctnt, rl^l. Hyimil. villi, 
ViWhIu. Vt-U,ln, 
Villi, yiua, VA'iiJ. yiin, 
Yimi. Il\iiiina, 

SinKDlar, Plunl. 

Ilr. lafr, 
lul. bnl. 
[tbin. IMUb. 
Ini, liu, tta, Jitu, 
IiuL bnuk 

* The [olTuwiug are the brief Jutuils oF the lesdiiig IrT^ulor verba : 



A; u> b*. 

lit Punun 

^Dd „ 
»rd . 

So. to bAcoiiu, 
l>t PerBOii 

tail „ 

3rd „ 

Ja, to go- 

1-t PttSOQ 

Ind „ 
Srd „ 

T*t tA come, 
J St Pannn 

and „ 

Sid „ 






Kar. to'dD, 

Itt P«nou 

iD'\ „ 
3rd „ 





Kirai, Kartu, 

SI n gill Ik r, FJural, BId^uIu- PLnzmL 







f Kyc. 










AbvU. f AallU. 
Vlii^lll. tVhuhil. 
Vlu>'L V^Un. 




„ -L 

n -a. 

Jiiiu. Jint. 

Jiihl. iUait, 

JiyL JiUn. 

Y» Tem. 

Y«hi. {*->*l' 



finHoipruk la ninjuntfd llkctsrsictiilln lhH(iui ivnur which btaii>Inii bolnni, [or UuOnl 
piraoir, and tdns ted lolndt [oc the Mcoud ud third iiengD linjulii uid pluraL 



po terminations aro applied to distiiigaisli the persons. The t of the 
participle is ho^rever softened to « in the Kh&ndeshi. In the plural 
••rtof which corresponds to the fflar&thi karitdt the* second t is 
lOCteoed. The past tenao is funned by adding n, the terminations 
baiiig nu and nut for the first person, and no. and nat for the second 
■nd third persons, singular and plural respectively. To Mardthi 
Qua R is nnknoirn, bat it is used in northern Gujariti, as in handhdi^ 
Va handhaijo ' bound', for dekhdyo ' seen ', and in some 
Terba in the Braj Bhisha, as kina 'done', dina 'given', and Ion, 
'tekeii'. The nis generalised from such old Prdkrit forma as dinna 
'men' far 'daWa' (Sansk.),iwna'cut'for Wno (SanskO.and&MV?" 
'dirided' for bhinna {Sansk}. ^ ^ 

The fatore has tu and sut for the first, thi and shdl or ahdt for the 
Hcond, and i and tin or til for the third persons singular and plural. 
Tb6 a of the first and second persons seems to be the old Prdkrit at 
fRI) uid Sanskrit aya (^) . In Grujar^ti it is preserved in all the 
penona. The Marithi I is dropped or rather not affixed, except in 
the optional plural forms of the second and third persons.^ The 
iiregular karma^i prayoga of the Marathi and G-ujar&ti, which 
requires the verb to agree in gender and number with the 
object, is found in Ahirani. Thus, ' a house was built by R&m/ 
Samdai ghar bdndk ; a book ws^ read by a Bi-^hman, Brdhmai^ni 
fotki rdchi. Adjectives vary in form according to the number aad 
gender of the nouns they qualify, but not according to their case 
inflections as in Marithi. The Ahirani conjunctions an and n« 
correspond to the Mar&thi dni and va and the Gujarati Mie and ne. 
There is a peculiar word for nioroover, akhor. The adverbs of 
place are : here, afhe, i(lie {Sansk. atra) ; there, tatke, tatha {Sansk. 
lalra); where, ieafhe, kalhd, and koth {Sansk. kutra). The Etdverbs 
of time are : when (relative), javhaya, jadhayn, and jadhaf, corre- 
iponding to the Sanskrit yadd ; then, tavkaya, tadhafa (Sanak. tadd) ; 
when [interrogative), kavhnya, kadhaya (Sansk. kada). The adverbs 
of manner correspond to the Alar^thi forms. Some peculiar Tordi 
«« in nse derived neither from tiujariti nor from Marathi. Among 
these may be noticed dndor a boy, under a, girl, bdk towards, iioft 
hither, tibdk thither, pdn near, dkttrd u ntil, and tndyav alas I * 

Among themselves the Western Sdtpuda Bhils speak a dialect of 
Onjariti, while those further east use a form of Nem&di. Most of 
them know a little Hindastdni or Mar&thi and employ it in speaking 
to Eoropeans or men from the plains, to "whom their own i£alect jp 
nnintelligible. A very markedloca! tendency is to drop every poAible 
oonaonant. Liquids go first as in Koi for Koli, Md% for M^ti ; they 
■re often followed by sibilants, as in rax' la for raata, and by guttun^ . 
u Vaijo for Vlighdev. The lower one goes in the social scale the 
more marked is the provincialism. It is probably due to the 
inflaence of the aboriginal races among whom the peculiarity is moit 

Chapter in 

' Prof. R. O. Bhandirkar, M.A.. Hon,M.R.A.3. 

' ContritMitMl hy Itio Hiheh K. B. Markthe, B.A., LL.a 

' Mr. aindkir in Ind, Ant. IV. 109. 




iter in. Except of Bohor^ who speak Gajar&ti, the home tongae of almoat 

dfttion. ^^ Kl^ndesli Musalmtos is Hii^dust^i. 

^1^ The following tabular Btatemeat gives, for the year 1872, details 

gj2, oi the population of each sub-dirision according to religion, age, 

and sex: 

Khdndeik Papulaiion, 187t. Sub-dicUioyial Detail*, 


Ttloda ... 
tJUtiUa ... 
fihirpLir .,. 

Chopdk ». 
VIH<] ... 
Amailner ,,, 

Uiila ... 

EnniiDl ... 
l>b LillK ... 
JirDDcr ... 
F'lDlim ... 

Tilsd* ... 
Shttiid* ... 
Blilrpnr — 

fhopd» ... 
TirJoL ,., 
Amfttnar ... 

E-ivdn ... 

Enn^ol .r. 
Dhiiltk ... 
J&mner „, 
PiDbon ... 


SlitlitiU ... 
BhJTpur ... 

Cbopdii ... 
Tlrdfl „. 
Blvdi ... 
Inndal ... 
Dhnfli .., 
JftmDBT ... 
P*c1i'>rK ... 







I'll I 



10,4 IS 
11, 7M 










AboTD 11 and d« 

eicmUni SO 







IB, IS) 


ir!,60B ISJ.BM 






11, 7» 

10 ;» 

Above 9> fCu«. 





10.7 1« 





10, MB 










i«a,iii iM,«u m,x)o «N,(2» <fie,Ma 










II, £10 


II. i;] 












41, lU 
































































31 11 

































13a 1 


11 7t 


































































" t 


























































— . 


























Kbdndah Poptilathn, 1873. Sub-divUional DttaU* — eontinued. 







Abave tS ftiid do( 

AboTf 30 jpwi. 


















rr ... ... 




• * 













lU'" '.'.'. 




















1 _ 




























> ' 


















Tout ... 






























r WIO 



























SI, Ml 












IS. [07 



11, (HT 






S3, aw 

il fill 







il'" '.'.'. 

















1 ... 






















n .-.iT 

11, ST! 



34 ,3 S3 

32, SB" 






1 1 ,oa9 


all,, ^42 























Tola! , . 


1 eSfi'iS 








om the above atatemeiit it appears that the percentage of 
? on the total population was 51 ■58 and of females 48-4I. 
lu males numbered 489,429, or 51 ■02 per cent, and Hindu 
les numbered 458,8.j0, or 48'38 per cent of the total Hindu 
lation ; Musalmiin males numbered 40,lJ0i, or 51'16 per cent, 
Musalman females 38,755, or 48-84 per cent of the total 
,lman population. Parsi mafea numbered 42, or 6885 per cen*^ 
Parsi females numbered 19, or 31] 5 per cent of the total 
population. Chriatian males nurabered314, or 60'73 percent, 
[Christian females numbered 203, or 3927 per cent of the total , 
itian population. Other males numbered 221, or 51^87 per 
and other females numbered 205, or 48'13 per cent of the total 
r population. 

e number of infirm persons was returned at 7298 (malea 
, females 2626), or seventy per ten thousand of the total 
iation. Of these 382 (males 279, females 103), or four per ten 
land were insane; 618 {males 438, females 180), or sixteen per 
housand idiots; 1009 (males 681, females 328), or ten per ten 




[Bombay Ou«tt«ar, 



thousand deaf and dumb ; 3757 (maloa 2068, females 1689), or 
thirtj-«oveii ^r ten thousand Mind; and 1532 (males 1206, femslefl 
326), or fifteen per ten thousand lejicrs. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the 
members of each religious class of the inhabitants according to sex 
at different ages, vith, at each stage, the percentage on tne total 
population of the same box and religion. The columns referring 
to the total population omit religious distinctions, bat show the 
difference of sex. 

KMndeth Pnpulalion hg Agt, 1ST2, 







fi 4 ;i 








e 1 i'B.1 










1 to B 

18 , i-in 


Ki-n ■ 









a „ 11 

ET 1 B'l'O 






|im; SOtlfr 




)» „ » 

!I4 lO'iSa 


IT- 'J 




HI- J J 





30 ,, 30 

»a 3i'iii 








IS- .7 J 



M „ <0 

70 .'S-M 








11 m 



•0 „ W 

31 O'-i: 


■*-HJ . 









M ,. DO 

7 1-31 











AMV* ta ... 

i 1 l-iSI 


S'll 1 


, t 



* , 





w i 

























30. 1 GO 






The Hindu population of tho district belongs, according to the 
1872 census, to the following sects : 

KhdndtKh Hindu Salt, 1873. 



From this Btatoment it would seem that of the total Hinda 
gpolation the* ooBflctariaD olascoa" numbered 889,331 or 03*78 
r «nt ; tho ShaiTB 32,346 o* 3-41 per ceat ; the Vaislinava 21,273 

2-24 per c«ot ; and the Shntrska &280 or Q&b pvr cont. Tfao 
MKlnJU) |iopalatioD bolooga to tvro eecte, Stmoi and 8hia ; the 
jlmer umnbered 73,088 bouIs or 92*09 per cent, and tluj latter 
i7l aotiU or 790 per coot, of tbo wliole Moaalmfa popnUtioa. 
te Pitzis are divided into two claaaee, Shfthooahii uid Kadmi ; 
D nombor of tha former was fifty-scren or 93'44 per cent, niid of 
D latter was four or 6-IjA per cent. Id the total ot &17 CluriHtiana 
Wn wore 3 ArmonianB, 70 Calfaoliof, and 444 Prot«staot>, inclndinf; 
Bpiaoi^ialiaiis, 72 Pt«»byt«rians, 15 W^lej-ana, and SGI nativA 
iTiBtiaos. Other reli^ons woru rvproeontod by & Brahmos, 59 
h^ and 33 JewB. Besides theae, 326 persons, under the head 
lets, remained onclaaaified. 

Aocordinff to occapetion the 1872 Cdosus diridod the wholo 
pnlatioa into seven olaMoa i 

L — Bmplo;red imder GoreraineDl. or municipal or other local autboritlefli 
DambrimK in i^\ lti,2-'<fi toula or 1'58 per oont ol this wbolo popnUtioB. 
L — Profcaaioiuil penoAA 3896 or O'U ptr cent. 

lT. — la fcrvicci or p«rf»nutng penonaT oIBoea. 9104 or O'SS per cent. < 
V, — Enfcofiod in agnoaltnnt and with uiimMl S16^75 or SI '09 per cent. 
-ligrA in'Mmroeroe and trade, 17,706 ur 1*72. 

I lo^ed ill Bkwbuucal arts, nunufnctures, aitd enginMrJngopentfion*, 

aud cnomscd in tlie mle of article mannhctnred or otbcTWiAs 

mvnared (or iwnsumption, IdSiXM or^S'Sil per c«nt. . 

L — Uucellaneoiu peraons noi cb«a«d othenrise, (a) vrirea Wl,d33 and 

duldrMi 3i5,A38, id all M7,&71 or &3-23jKr cunt ; and {h) mincfliiimoonm 

^pessons 19,830 or 1-93 per cent ; toUl 5ff7^107 or &5-16 per c«nt. 

descriptive purposes tKe different Hindu classes groop 

« nioftt oonvouiontly under llie heads o^rdhmans, WriterH, 

Hosbandinen, CraftsnieD, Labourer), Early or Unaottlel'^ 

Doprssled Clanoe, and Boggars. 

Bra'hnuuiS have thirUten divisions : 33,738 BbXbhakb, including 
whaeths, Konkanafiths, and Karb^d^, who are locally known aimply 
Brihmans ; 328 Gauds ; 1 > 1 U iijoriitis ; 260 Abhirs or R^nvat^a ; 
ilPardeshia; 242 M&n.-4di8; 53 Pokarn^; 108 KaQojA9i208 
laogs ; 981 Gobdts ; and 1966 Vidiirs, or a total strongth of 38,049 
lla or 3*69 per oent of tho whole Hindu population. They belong 
five dassea, MarAtha, GujanUi, Mdrrddi, Upper Indian, and 
. Indian. Marat ha Brihmane, by far tho largc«t class, inclade" 
Rths, wir,b t!ji.'ir local «nb-diviiiiona of Yajunrodi* and 
lis, Eonkamistbs or ChitpavDns, Karhdd&s, Uatids, A-bbirs 
iTabas, Yidurs, and GovHri]lmnK or Qolaks ; of Gujar&t 
there arc AudJch!!, KbedtLvdls, Shrim&lis, and KZgafs; 
rid BrihinauH, Shetaks and Adigands, Parikhs, D&Tam<Es, 
trals, and Khar Khandclea ; of Upper Indian Hrahmana, 
rairala, PokanuU, and Kanojis ; and of Soot h ToSia n BrtUimana, 
laa^ and SigardvifMa. Of the ecttloment in Kbindesh of 
Me dtflarent Brahman divisions, no histories or legends have 
ni obtained. It is the general local belief that the Tajurredia 
i the Ifaitriyanis, and probably the Goriu-dhans and tho Abhtrs, 






[Bombay OtMttov. 



ptarlXL thousand deaf naci dumb; 3757 (males 2068, females 1689), or 
,^tj__ thirty -MOTea per teo thousand blmd> and 1532 (uialfla 1206, females 

326), or fifteen per ten thousand lepers. 
h§t. The following tabular statement gives the number of ths 

members of each religious class of the inhabitants according to sex 
at different ages, with, at each stage, the percentage on the total 
population of the same sex and religion. The columns referring 
to the total population omit religious distiuctioos, bat show the 
difference of aex. 

KhAiKlftih Population liy Agf, J87S. 

1 T(u ... 

lis t ... 

a . It ... 
11 ; 10 ... 

M „ U ... 

w . w ... 

N „ W ... 
Abon to ... 


CHimriASii. ' oriirR*. 

Tot 11.. 







Si a 

IS. 5 











1 y™r 

1 to a 

e „ II 

la „ w 

to „ so ... 

H) „ 40 

M „ M 

M „ BO 

Abon so 





a] J I 









IK- a; 

if 1 ■• 






















78.(1 ■" 




















The Hindu population of the district belongs, according to the 
'1872 census, to the following sects : 

Shdndah Hiniiu Stxif, 187S. 



















11 M 

90. tU 







worship in honour of K4]nb&i, ori^oall}- from 

__ bt'on burroirod fmn the Kunbia, Il-nuek-WnUid 

flrrt Sunitny aft«r the Ndtjuaitfkiimi hutiday in NhnUtui 
Ai^{nst),n-heiia]l motDbemof toe fainityfaat. A |>otof «-aterj 
oocoanut. un U, is placod uu n hunp of wheut, nud n tdlvor 
~ Lbotfiiddc«« K^ubiU i» htid bofurt! it. Lamps are lightod, 
a family di oner is ^vea. Chakrapuja isDerformetliDboBonroE 
hid wfaow imaf^ iu Hot on on octitgnmU twap of ricu. A iHinp 
'Ugbt tuid tol ucar it, aud IkiUi tfiS image aud tlii; huiip 
worshipped. Dinner is then served, and groat care is takeo. 
thu roniDanU of lliis dinner arw bariod in a pit Diiar tbo boiisa 
Qii|. givou Ui HKudriU. After diiini^r'tUn hi-»[)ec! naa is !<bipi.'(1 
tii« fhtHunkha, or stone in which the ling is' set, a cocoanat is 
ilaopd on it. as a ling, and worship is offered. Tho cocoaunt is 
hen hrokuu nnil the kernel diittributed. lUuubiU is a favourite 
ICbandesh family deity. Her niarriajre and eacred thread ceremony, 
ibo lath'r taking place aftor thti nmrrinffo, aro obsorved as a 
Wcwflnyt rmtivni. On the «tuvciitb di^y a ])l»tfonn u( kiihiII 
lUntain sticlu ia made, and a wboat-flcKir ima^ of lUnubti ia 
■Isoed on thom and irorshipped. 

As a raU< the main divisions pat lofroth^ bnt do not iiiCurmarry, 

■* the aub-divi^iiims bulb cut tii^'olber and inlttrmarry. To tnia 

are many csc4>)itions. Nunc of the Up)ior Indiuo divisions, 

ikamss, SArasrats, and Kanrijii^v, vnt. U>j^^thi>r, and umuiig 

lis, the Jfiitfam hold nirtrf fpim tbo tvfl. Of (ii« rihicf 

Vriiba dirisvuiM, lUo K'^TikaiiaHtlu, Oo^baatlLi, Yajnrvcdis, and 

iiiia vat together but hold aloof from tbo Gauds oud Qobiks, 

, aft a mto, from the IhtaitTsynnis and IVvrukhns. 

'.;h, amont; iho more educated, its pon-cr is said to be 

' «fak, tic commnnity has siill OJUsid-.THblc <^mlr()1 ovor 

lal. Aiqcng tho different cbntites of Uribmaua the 

_ of the conunnnitv varies conaidorably. Among Martijha 

■ng, all tho main divisions who dino together, form, for 

^ of social diKciplino, onooommnnity ; while, among Gujantli 

: per India BMbmana, the community ia limited to the 

,ijiijaa«i, in some cases, to tho sub-division. Brvnt-hoit of en«to 

I, ^iterally in matters of catiiif», ilritikJiij,', and Tnarringo, aro 

:i to the mombent of tlwt communilj. and a generat 

'dl mombera in (he town or ncigbbcitirh'i"ii ik rallwl. 

meetings the mob nf members i» gt-ncniliy without any ' 

head, aud there ia littlo order and mncb loud and angry 

If tbv offence is held to bo proved, and the communitr feci 

to enforce diacipline, tho form of punishment ia genemfly the 

by the o^nder, of the five products of thecow, pancAnifaryn, 

payuwnt of a Goc to be spent in feasting tho commnnity. 

chief available details of Brahman tlivimons and aub-divisiona 

ly bo (hns summariaed. Of MarAtr* BtiArfK AMB, Deahaaths, fonnd 

11 namlicrs all over tho district, so mo oft bom old i*oU1or9, bat 

ibcm arrirals unco tho establishment of tliti E'oahwa's power 

as a class well-ld-do, living by prioat^raft, trwlr, and 

Btaorvice. They are of tbriM aub-divisious, Aahvulayans, 


[Bombiiy Oauc 




Yajturedis, sad Apwtambu, o! whom Uie AxhvaUyBiM^ 
ApHjAoiaboS InterDmny. 'fhs Vajurvedis, found in oil parts i 
dittlrict, chiefiy as village priests and astiviloii^cTB, arc beheved to 
amooK theoldoi-t Bribnum wttlorH in Kluliidi*«b. Of tbei<~ ^'•-''i^-r-i 
mix jKntty diriftifjus, duly tliree, the M&dhyiindiiie, the Hn^ 
and Lbe KauuadiA, none of wbom intermarry, arc found in K hny.-.-.i- 
Of tbeae the Maitr<iynn ia. M;tl1od chiclly in Bba«lgnon, Amalner, asd 
Kandurbiir, liavc oonsiderable local inler ifBt. Much dark er thai 
uthur Itr&bmaQs. and, &t Icoat in AmaliiLT, not allowtMl to dinftl 
ConkonaiithH and Deahasthit, tboy iivo l>j beffging and 

haiDndrr, and, in Antalner, by trade. They belong' to the cWak 
l)ranch, nhaklui, ol the Yajurveda, and follow the MtbtavNuIn ns 
their religioutt guidft. KunkaoaKihs nr CbitpATanH, fonnd itt small 
nuinbent all over the diatrict, some of them old settlers but moBt of 
tbein established Hince the times of tbo Peshwa, are aa a <!las« ^' '' 
to-do, living by prioflcmft, l)mlavr,,nnd Govi'mment stTvice. 'I !. 
two Kiib-diviiuous, the Kigvediit or Aiihraiivans and thv Apastambas 
or Uiranvakeshis, do not intennarry, Karii&d&ii, found in »nwn 
numbers tn most parlM of tho dtHlrict, are believed to have m< 
come a$ ttcrmnts to the Pe^hwa's go>'emi>tODl. Chiefly Goveniiiit:^ 
aervanta and moDeytenders they are well-to-do. They are meml 
of the Mar^tha Bruinuui community, iDtermarryiDg, tooagb this i 
formerly not the case, with Deahwtlh Unilimans. Devnikhils, 
small Qufnbera over most of the district and believed to bare 
from tlif Hiitith Konkun with th^Veshwa, are mostly in (lovvmr 
service or priests, 'riicy <lo not marry either with Desbasthv > 
Konkanaaths, and KonkaDastha show much hesitation in 
with them. GovardhanB or Ool akH, fonnd in large uumberg ehteli 
in Dhulia and V iniei, are old aettlvn, living as hereditary vjlla 
accountauts, aiitroftiger^, and a few aa clerkx. llivy arc mtppoc 
to bo of irregular dcscout, the progeny of OkJBnlhman woman hj 
n B|^mim who is not her husband. TbcTCare vf two clnaMs, 
BAol ftlak and Kandgol ak. the former denoting children of a 
woman whose huaband wa« living, the latter the children of 
woman whoHO husband was dead at tbr time of her union nilh tl 
father of h< t chililreu. The two snb-diviatona dine with each olhe 
QautU or Bbenvis, fonnd in mnall numbers over the district, 
4aid to be settlers of the Peiihwa's time. Thty lire as traders 
Government servants. They are sejtarated 6om other Br 
■ li][ tlioir prnclico of eating fish and mutton. At " 
I^rAhinons, with a t<)tal strengtji of 2f>0 Kouls,Rroloiiu3ti"Prak(i 
Nandurbfir, and Tnloda,* Accuniing to the lotal legend the 
Abhirt! were originally fishermen,^ One day as lAkshman 

' Vram natoriila annnliod by Mr. J. Davidaoa. C. f). 

* Tb« lUOklb uo : ITa aonU bi Praklalu) ; aftjr-at-s «o«U di«ttiWt«d wvar l_. 
[amiliM, tiMrtMc nf Uiua In NAoilurlAr, and eno cuh In tkw rlUwM of Kald* i 
IMIiKi : uid thirty Mini* Ja Talodk iinil Kukarinueila. 

' TbI* ■tnn; i> givm by the Praklcki KAovnCtta vhn own t« ihcir ttinit abo ca 
Abfain. Th* NaadnrUir RinvatAa neither aUl thcmub-<9 AbMni (ko- aduiowl^ 
Uiia alocy. They aiy that, dirtrotaed by « (uninr, Uiey qmhc {ttm Sura* uid i 
M^ghbDurhood aho«t IW y«M« itp>. 

IBotnbay GowttttrJ 



TTppor IndiK ftnd tpeak HindiisUni. They Mt at tlM ' 
Bf bhn^Mudeahi Bnthtnaos, bi4 the lotur, tboagli tbey tako waUfr.l 
'will not (nkc ffXKl from thorn. Thuir wum«D woor uttiUker tbe 
Manltba liaii-sloeriHl botlice ooveriitg biitli hack umI liiMiiin nor tin) 
}uJAr£b opeo-backed hinehli, bat a abort-Bleevml jacket, kuHIa, , 
Bnbrcly ouTeriuj; tfao upper part of tbo body »nd laMoood by cxritoa i 
1>iitU>ns. AfUir uhildbinfa Iboir womfin nru hold impuru fur twim^. 
two days. From the tint to the sixth day after daltvery thuy 
employ ds nudvrifu a Cb^bhiir womaii, nui] frvm the Beventb M ' 

Eiu twulfih ft Mhar wonuin. llioy bum thoir ddad, Imt chiblran 
odor throu aro buried. Retnrniag from the bui'uiuK gniuiui, aji 
to nUAivvM go to t hv hooM of tha doccased and place a pot fllkd { 
ilh WMur, ifanmlfOa the xpot where the diwd body Uy. NimtI 
this pot is placed tlio axo with which the wood for baminf; tbu doaJ ' 
body was foiled. Wh«u (his is done, every oae prowot takes a ntin , 
tiw bntncb, di|s it ioto the not, toaches the axe with it, and »priaklM 1 
water three times ovur his foot. On the second dny a feast is given [ 
to tho watdicrinnn, tlhclthi. THo iiiaiiwhuhasp«rFormod the fuoond i 
ceromonieii (HiLn ouly oaoe for ton dnys, and lhi> food ' '■'<\nr 

be cooked by himaolf or by hia mothvr. Ou t}ie t^i 
«Ara<UAa i» porformod, and gift« uo givfci to the special class ofJ 
Brib mans called Mabibr^Qutaa. On the thirteenth dli|r the rahttiana I 
go to the temple of Ganpati, and the person performing Um 
^-ooremoniea-isprvsontud with a lurbao by hts ^par rulatioog. I'hisj 
Bturbau ho at unoe folds and puta an, and a Bnlhmaa onuinto his] 
^ftnioboBd Ohd the browa of the other monrnen. On the same day a] 
gODOml {eaiit u given to all n.-litliou» and caMepeopht. Widows aro { 
noi ^owod to marry. Their heads are not Mlmv^^tl inmi'tdiatcl^ir nft«r l 
thoir husbands' death, as is the case with Dislii Krahmnji widow*, 
but when tbey go to samo holy p1aoo like Nosik, Trimbak, Uonares, ■ 
or PrayjiR. They are not allowed to wear itie JHckut, kndta, nor 1 
hiutgles, nor tu uinrk their foreheads with a red spot. .Widows with 
Bona Biay wear bonglcwj if they are given Iior by relatioua on the i 
tliirt<^-n;h day after death. 

Writers iuctnde 1642 Ksbatris, 205 Prabhus, and lo3 E&yata. 
There is no local writer class. The I'mlilius, fnim Thiiiin lUid Kolaba 
in the Koukiio.nru si.'atti.'red over the diHtrictalmoiSt all iiifiovernntunt 
rficc. Kshittris or Thiikor*, from Upper Indiu, with a ti}(al' 
trength of lf>'l'2 men, are found in Cb&lisgnou nud Piicbon. Tbeyi 
ai%oksoYensub-divisiona, Somavansbi, llaghuvaniribi.ChandravanMhi, 
Y&dawanshi, R&jkumar, Tilukehnndibtiyns and Eatb&yoe. They i 
do not drink liquor, iHit eat HtUi and tlie Qi^ah of goats and haras, i 
!rhayare loadholders and writers. They wear the ucred thread,] 
but are inTosted with it only a little before marriago at tbej 
bride's houae. After repeating somo su-rod versos, mantnu, five j 
BnQintaaB take tJie thread and put it rtiuiid the bridogroom'a iu»ok^ 
acoordingtoaoaremony called durgajiinea, Theirmamage cnxtoma 
are rather peculiar, 'lliey never marry both their Bons and their I 
daughters into the same sub-division. The role is that the daughter j 
shoold, if pofisiblo, marry into a higher Kub^diritdon, whileasno 
aay niurry into a lower one. Thus the SomavanBhia marry tboir 







BfaitiC 1 y»tf, I'toi 'sJ _ 

BhidbbuQJ^ 205, aad K«Uib tit) 7, or a total stren^tiinf .'i't,l45«oaI> 
or 3'57 per oont of tho whole Hindu popaliition. Of \''£iua there are 
four nma divmotm, Khindmh, Oojar^t, MArvKt), and Ltngiiynt. 
Kh^deefa Vfaiia hsre six chief sub -divisions, IMaakkis, QumbttdR, 
Nevis, Eithftn, Viiliuijuit or KinilEnriit, uniJ CLitodis; tiujutt 
VinU have nitie sub^divisions, Porrtldii, Modhf, I^iUlit, DosiTali, 
JhArolfe, Tiyadfo, N«^&ra, Khad&jaUs, and Shrimps; JAirviA 
Viain lukvo fire siih-<)ivi»iunD, AgarvAlu, Oitvidii, Meshris, Thikon, 
and KhandanUs ; and Liitg&vaU hare four sub-diTisions, Panel 
Bixivonte, ChiliTanta, &Dd*ftlulvnDt«. 

Yinifl ore widi;ly distTibuted, tho Khindesh, litngdjati and 
Vinis io almost ull ptui», and tho tiuiaril VAnis tu Naodur _ . ^ 
Bhirpor, ShAh&da, and Cbopda. Of the history of the diSemnt 
diTinoDS Cow dotaits hare b^-on obtvinod. TracoM in th«ir boma 
laoguace, and wme peouliariLioa in their dresn, jHiiiil to a Gu^r&I 
onipa tor the Lfidaaklcfa and most other Eh&numh sab-diriuom. 
At the same tiine thojr must hare bvun long noltlod in Khindeah, 
a« their mannerii and appearance differ very slightly from other 
long settled high costo Hindu*. Tho Qiijartitia probably cama 
later, as in their homea they keep u> tlioir nwu liuiguagfi. The date 
of their settlement is not knows, bat some at least of them came to 
Kh&ndosh boforo the Mog'hal conquest (1600),' liiugiyats wvra 
probably Jater immigrants, as they ahew their Kinarese origin by 
the nite of the word Apa its a term of respect, by einf^ng Kllnareso 
hymns to their gods, and some of them by speaking Kinareae. 
"Hie bulk of the Mdrvftd V&uis are atill later comers. Almost dl 
hare settled since tho establiahnwnt of British rrUe, and a few hara 
still their homes in AYnrrjd. 

Except that the Gtijaratis are biiror and tho MftrvAdis larger 
and more vigorous, VOjua d o not di ffer m u^h from _ ' Brfr mans io 
appearauoe. Tho Lingivats speak ifar&Clu ai Itomoj' and some of 
thorn know Kiinarese. With tliiB oxocptiun, oren in the LlidsAkko 
and other KhAndesh sub-divifiions, the home tongue of taont V'auis 
is a oorrtipt Mar&thi or Jklai'v&di. Almost all livu in wull built bri^^ 
houaea with tiled roofs. Millet and wheat, and rice fur »iueh as et^^ 
afford it, are their staple articles of food. All claases of Vinis are 

langtiyats and Khindcsh V&nis dress in MarAtha fashion. Among 
the L&dsakkds and the Oujardtls, the Mar&tha mode of dress is daily 
, growing commoner. Among Gnjiirht V<lnie, men ara gradoally 
taking to the Har&thi ronnd turban and liing loo(i« coat, and 
their women have mostly adopted the long MsirAthi robe, and the 
bodioe coTenug the back and upper arms and fastoncd by a knob 
below the bosom. As regards oriuiinouts, the men hare given 
Dp tho silver vraistband, ktttviora, and the women, except in 
P^rola and DharangaoD, have taken to wonring Maricha head 

> Hm De*4i faaul; ol Ktadurbir hs* titlo dM4* Inia Akbu an J AuiuigMh, 

I Bombay Guutterr. 



insk wine. Tbejr ilreu in MorAtlia fiutuon, both men and ' 

we«rjpg HtninfC coarM cloth aD4'^P^''^^f7 ^^^i7 I'UUton their •■ 

Buqr uid hnrdviorkiii)^, in tW-ir cSxrtii to mitke nii: 

no pains uid (It^uy Uii'tuiielves aiiutrtit ilII ulBasnrvs. 

ready to travel and mottt careful and pntuunt in tbcir iray oi 

basiDecs. At thv HUinr tinw tlicir uiiilerband and heai-tlctui d<..i 

iiaveeAraedlhem tbc name nfUcril's children, bJliifMcAi/rraya. Moot 
of them are town and villngc shopkoopors nud inouo^'lundorff, and 
K fpw BTO htmbnndnion. JI117' t^ach tliuir bovs some roadtoff. 
wriliu^, and arilhtuetic, and are on the whale WL>ll-li)-do. M< 
their dutooiB aro the same aa those of tiojarit Vaiii*. Bi- 
prupoMtl* btpgin one or tn« yean bufoiv tnarnage. l-'or tlx- 1 
ceremony of aakin^, migni, on a Inckr dav, abont tifty .i 
bridef^Toom's rplatioun and finends mod nt the lindv'n, pras(nit 
with ailk clotltv* :iad omauHtiitx, pt^rform Home relifn«>us ceremonij _ 
and end the day with a feaat. Early marnBKi<8 are the rali*, {ar 
ffirls between nrc and ten. and for boyn butw^eu fifteen and 
twDnly-five. On th« day tixi>d fur lite marria^, from fifty to one 
hundred friends and relattoDs, with their wmnen, obildrei' 
sonrantA, arc asked. PUyeri, vaiatttris, mwkvU-vrn, handuJ- 
and, if moiiti-t permit, dancing g:irl», am bronght, and fireworks 
let oft. The marriaee ceremony genepnlly takes plnrv at simi__. 
Thv bridoeroom is droeeod in tlw u»»iil long noat, amjiirlha, ^nS 
tnrban, and the bride in a rich silk cloth, pttamhar, Tbe bride- 

e'ring, kntijfatfan, ceremony does not diffisr from thnt in tiM nmon;; 
rfihtnaiffi. After it is over, Lak^hmi in worshipped, the regular 
oovomoaiM are p«7rformcd, and afl«r the ««r orriee-pouringniremnny, 
in wliii^h the tnmily deity t» cntirwly cofcri"! with riiv, tf; 
ends with afeaM when* U-iif plates and caps aro supplied by the 1 
They bum their dead, shrouding their women m one of thou- v^^ 
silk marriage cloths, pitambam. On their fun<9ral rit^ littlu H 
spent. The widow'n head is shaved and re-marriage forbidden. 
in teligion tJtey aro Vnishnars. Their family deity ia Vyuiikatesh, 
whose chief place of worahip in Vynnkoji'!* hill near the Tirupati 
railway station, cightyfoor miles north-west of Madras. They at^ 
ke«p in their bousos the imagM of Khunderio and wonbii) oihfl 
goda. They hat on the elevonthn of every Hindu mouth, the di^M 
laicrod to Shir, and generally on all Fridays. Their holy bo-^ks alH 
translati(iD» of Huch Piirdnic writings as HaripMh, ShivliltimrttM 
and Uukmini Svayamvar. The community wa« formerly GOntrolleV 
By 6vo bttadmen called Shelide. Now their headship is gone, and 
no respect is tthowu to Uieir privileges ; questions of Murial disdiJia|| 
. are Bottled by a meeting of &0111 fifty to a hundred castemen. B 

CHrropift, apparently from Chitod near Bhop&l, found in Xatnirabtfl 
and Jalgaon, are, even umung Vanis, so noted for greed tfa^^ 
Chitod-mindod, ehttodmati, is a oommon torm for a miser. Th^f 
are all Shrivaks. Hchbads, found in JAmner, Chopda, PdrolH 
Dhulia, Amalner, and Naairalnad, are petty tradvm and groc«iH 
They do not eat with Chitodis and Ldd^kkds, but these lntt«r* 
have an eqnal obiection to eat witli them. Thi-y are •Fains in, 
religion and wor<hip PAnumiiUi. Of the remaining siib-divistonH 
the NbtAs of &irda, Nasimbad, and Viral, numbei-tug in ^M 

tBombaf Que 





nile. They are distributed all over the district, and ibere is ali 
nu riUa^ t^iat has not a Marr^'s sliop. Their features are more 
BtroD^tj infu-k(r<l, and thoy Bri) sturdier «nd more activo tbau other 
Viinix. 'I'ho iDCu usually wvar n lock of hair coriing over eaeh 
ch««k. Some of them wear the beard, but most bsve lately taJten 
to abavfl the whole face <<scent thu uioui>t«c'he. Ainon^ DSTrcomeni 
tboir bone too^e in MirviUlt, but most tiponk a mixed HiQdu:*t£iu 
aod Gajai^ti. Most of the men can read and write, leaming a littla 
at school or at borne from their fathers or their clerks. As a rale 
tbey ant moneylenders, with u b»d uamo for hardocss and uafninieai 
in their dealinffa.* Beeidaa landing money, they deal in grain, nulae, 
tfx>adiinents, oil, and buttwr. I'heir hogses are ulways clc»a and weU 
IcepC, and tfao whII« |ii»i»u-d in bright hntastic oolourii. lu village*, 
the Mirvadi's iti generally the beat bnili house, and in tomta soma 
have handsonu; tbj-eo or four-Btorit-d dwellings with richly carved and 
gaily puintud fronti). They UiVti much lesa care of thi'.)r persons 
than uf their booses. Their women, except on great occasions, ant 
sloTenty. and the men arc by no means carcfol to keep the rales about 
bathing. Their food oon»iKt« of rice, whi»t, pnlKe, Indtan mtlirt, 
butter, oil, and sugar, a small quantity of which is nsaally kepi for 
the children. Tea is not an usual driak. In their dress the men 
svcm inclined to change thuir own small clow-fitting bead-clrcM for 
Rometbingin shape and appearance more like the Mar&tha IlrAhinaD 
turban. They generally wear their coat-coffa well turned back to 
show tho bright lining of the elecvea. Mont men wi-ar s silver 
toc^ring. The womeu'« dre?^ i« an open-backed bodico, a petticoat, 
and a robe, odni, drawn npwarda from the band of che potticual, 
and fnlliug hke a veil over the head and face. Above uie elbow 
and oil Iho vrrixts they wear gold jewels, but their chief ornaments 
are bono bracelets* In i-eligiuu they are, 'in abont eqeal nutuV-r:!, 
Vaishnava and ShrAvake. Tho Vaiehnavs keep sacred Chaitra 
Khvddh ninth, or Ramnavmi (March- April) and ttiv elevenths of evei? 
niQplh, ekadathw, and worship Gin and Shri ItdUji the god of gain, 
in whose nam<« every Vaishnav M&rvfidi opens a separate accouni, 
aiwl goes to his furs ut Giri Oenlgam and Pandharpur. HhrAvak 
or Jaiu Marvddia worship the naked Ptinuin&tb, the tweniy-thtrd 
Jain saint, and fast on the fifth, eighth, and fourteenth davs 
of every new and full moon. Their prioBlo, chIIi>c1 jatii', are held 
in high respect. The difTeronl sub-divisionB eat with one another 
bnt do not intermarry. Except OsvAls, all take food prepared by 
BHUiinass. Their marriuge ceremonies arc purformcd by Gaud 
Brihrnans. Prom one to three weeks before a marriage, nigfat^Jj 
processions, called bindoris, take pbce, Che bride and bridegrooflH 
moving about tlic village by different street*.' The dead ai^| 
burnt excent unweaued children who are buried. RxmipW 
lUDODg Osvils, the chief mourner shaves his beard and mouataohec^ 
Kh&ndeth Mirvidis are not careful to prondo for the destitute > 

'A OMt non pluMc tDortnitM tlioir ahui) pnbolJQ««,i>aitUao«uti, iMfAino , 
i.c M ot I na piM aad otu> pic* ol jiAi, or two cku;^ oB wnrUuM <a« buyi. 

* Th« linaon p(ocan<ni iliflbn from the wtnU in l*kli^ pum nfon^ uutcKd 
ftflar the auMTiie*. 



P; a M^vfUli kog^nu- u b; do ineass ao uncommon sight. 

ch men have built t^mplea and opened alms-tic|}i3ea, vnere 

aor, and moncj^ aro given to tno dewtitute, water to travellers, 

Ri to OitlJv. Itcnt-hoii^os, dfiirmtihal'ig, oud tomploH hSTO 

built. Moat KliMudteth Marvddia have settled in the 

Tisititit; their nsiive country from time to time to aoe their 

lo look after their u«t(itos, to iiorform rvligioiu rit««, and 

As a class thev arc well-to-do. AoASVALa, old settlers 

adesbi claim to be of hi^hor caste than other Marvadis. 

Feet Brdhman cui>toiii«, have a large turban and white 

and their women never wear bone bracelets. This claim 

it CBBUf seums to have no fouadatton. Other Mirv&dia 

I and new Agarviil suttlcrs differ in noway from tho ti»tiul 

inunigranu. Tbev are the chief merchant* of Chopda, 

. DharaogaoQ, Dhiuia, and River. Pro«periDg as money- 

[iuod general mcrcfaaots, some of them are becoming tand- 

t but they do not attend rauofa to agrtcnlture. Another olasa 

I called Jst M&rv&dis, apparently J&ts not Viniii by race, 

total strength of 'i2Q souls, are found in Chilisgaon, 

1, and Taludo. They come from Bharatpur in Mtfrvid, 

flesh and drink liquor. They worship all lliadu gods, hut 

livf deity is Ki-va Deri in tberillapo of Kinishia in Jodhpnr. 

<>rti by prufuiiisiOD, tboy dine hut do not marry with 

ah ^(^rfldie. Ac tbeir man-ia^fe, when the bridegroom goes 

ide'e house, ho finds, at iba door of the marriage booth, u 

ritb a row of seven or aomotimes nine wooden spaTTows, the 

[otu) b«ing the biggest and bighust. Before eut«riDg, the 

must aim at the middle sparrow and touch it with 

of his sword. They allow a woman to marry a sewud 

during thr* lifetime of the &r^L 0» Huch (icoasious the 

are called, and if ihe husband agrees to divorce his 

iked to cut off the end of his turbao and give it to the 

emen. Slight breacbtw of casta rules are (orgiFen, 

: cow's deah or dining with low caste people is never 

Ltat or South India Vani«, found in Dhnlia, Amalner, 
r, and Ohus£val, and here and there in the weet of the 
, have a totel strength of dOO sools. They have (our eub- 
, and about tiftt^un uiiimr brnnciiw. Tin; four Kub-divisions, 
,l>ixiTants, Chilivautii, atid Melvauls dine together, but 
V"t do not marry with the Melvants. Except a few who 
.lo cultivation, Hlroo«l all am shopkecpora and traders, 
mild and hardworking, and iu money mHtters as sharp as 
They speak MarSthi as well as E&narese. They live on 
i and rmlso, and touch neithor Seah nor liquor. They all 
l^tcciw fonii of Shaivism founded by Baiava iu 1150, and 
a nnudiiiiny, which both men and women carry in an 
shrino hung ronnd the neck or bound ronnd (ho right 
; ahocUdur, or, iiinotig tin* [wor, tiod in tlio turban. They 
ays sacred to Shiv. The shriue of their deified founder, 
Kaodi, at Katburga or tiulburga in the NiuAm's 
»j is to them as holy as Benares. Some of them have lately 

Chapter IU. 


IBomUy Gttettev, 








begnn to worship Klmn^erAo. All their religious oeremonies 
performed Jiy o rlass of pries^ called Jwi^in», who, each with it« 
mgh pritwt, form fuur »oparat« IxidieH, one for each of the maio 
Bob-divitkiiui. The sect-mark, an horizontal Btre&k of while ashes, 
i« worn both by men and woiuon, tho women thinktnj^ the ashes 
luckier than aaffrou. Eurly niarHago« aro the rule, but< (hvro is no 
objoctiou to a tfirl remaininfr unmarried up to womanhood. T^ie, 
bury their dead. Before tho body is taken from the hooae, a cas 
dinner of buns andiAiV.a {H^pamtion of boiled milk, riooand sagar, 
is gircD, aad alms are distributed among the Janffams. The hwly 
ii then wa^d, smeared vnth ashra, dressed in a loincloth, kav^in, 
seated on a wooden box caircri^d with flowor jrarbindH, »nd with music 
mrried to the burial ^ruiiud. Thoug^h, for tvro or tlin^; days, llw 
relations of the dead are considered impure, no moui-nin)f iflob&erred 
and DO beating of braosts is allowed. From the idea that not 
can doGlo the tn»e worvhipper and wearer of the ling, thoy do 
observe the ordinary Hindu practice about ceremonial impurity. 
The Chilivants and Molvanta arc carofid to cook in the dark, 
and vory strongly object lo be ween by stxangem when cooking or 
eating. Though some of them are rich, as a class they are not very 

BifiTiAs, foumi cbicSy in Dfanlia, Bharsngaon, Erandol, na 
Jalgaon, trade in cotton and Unseed, some of them being wifax 
for Bombay merchant*., inoslly Muhammadans round 
in Shirsoli, Vliriil, Bet£vad, [)huli}i, and Jalguon, but rery rarely 
in the west of the district, are a poor class dealing in beiel leaTM. 
The Uindu T^boli, locally known as B&ri, is buth the grower 
and, in some case«> the retail wller of bot^I loaves, though generally 
the retail trade is carried on by Musalmto T^bolLj. Gaxi>bis, 
fonnd chiefly at Dfaulia, River, and Pnrola, arc said to haro 
come irnta Burh^npitr. They deal in ])erfumv» and esseacee, 
aUam, and travel to the larger local fairs. L&tXmXs, foitnd 
chiefly in the oaet of the tltstrict, come from Burhtinpnr, and 
dual iu thread for making turbuiw and in misccllaiwons goods. 
They fetch the raw thread from Bombay, cut it into Hiiitable 
lengths, luid twi.-(i ii. As a class they are rather badly ofT. 
U ALVAis are sweetmeat -Kellers ; the poor among tlicm aro labourers. 
BuinunL'KJis, found iu Dholia and some large towns, grind, roast or 
parch grain nnd prepare it for sale. Kai.Au are liquor- sellers, and 
jlhe poorer of them labourers. 






} noiH 




Huab&ndmen include eight classes with » strength 
390,615 souls or 41-13 per cent of the whole Uinda population. 
or these .314,.:.92 were Kunbis; 41,776 Malis; 1680 Halkars , 
lOOeXlkaris; 806 Bunkam; &47 Bharidis; 64 Babars ; and 244 
Lodhis. £jUy||J[bo form the bnlk ni the Kbaudesh population, 
belong t^iw^^Mun divisions, local and Gujar Konbitt. Gujar 
Eonbis include eight classes, Reviis property Levas, Do: 
D&lee, Garis, Kadvas, Anal&s, Lond&ris, and Kh/iprA.>t. There 
a few families of Dales on the banks of the TSpU in ShAh 
and Taloda aod in R&ver towards Burh4npur. The DeehuukLK 
J&mner an said to be Gai-i Gojars, but they claim equality with ao> 


(BoidImj QumH 

64 - 




th« lost yoat't cocoftDul u loken nwiir aud a new ono pot in iul 
place- "Tbe second rite ia ,on the fifteenth of Shrti'-fin (Jolf-I 
Angiist), wlion (Trnin, iiiilii«, aiitl rico nro r - 'ler andl 

oiferec3 tci the i^'ntldexn. Tlip (liird ib belt! on n >f J/'wAl 

(Janaary - February) , and in addition to the worsbip of tori 

KddesH, indadv* a ix'rcmonjr knoim m rnAfln. Tn thta cerpmonyl 
) yciinecT membent of eacb family, carryiDg cwo oocoaout!* n-ru*ce. I 
mMtattnebouseof their head. These cocoaauta are duly irorRbipped I 
Bt the heftdiDiiQ'H bouM, and uft«r dinner nru carriod to tboir I 
didrrrtit boiuiea. I 

The following are the chief details of the Rere Enobi maniwe I 
^remonii-4. Pruparatioflo bv^tn on both mdv* un n day fixed by I 
the Tillage aalrologer. ITie five eegenti&l marriatf e fomislitir* mn. 1 
in order of time, (1) the anointing with tnrmeric, hala4 : fS) I 
bonndary wortihip, nnta»tpujan, commonly called gimanti ; (3) tbfl 
joining of bande, hdtol, the knot, gdnth, and the worship of the I 
saered fire, eh-jcri bhavri; (4) the tnooting of the bride with lierl 
mothcr-in-luw who ci'jmes with gifta, •uttmui'A; and ("i) iLo haskeLl 
offering to Uribmana, jhdl, with jn^senta of anp«rel, dher, tol 
Tillage aerTanta. Eacb of thcKe cerumoniea is followed bra feast,! 
two of thvm being giren by the bnde'a Fatb^. Those followingl 
the third and the fifth coremoniea are grand general feoMA-l 
Uarriage, na opposed to botrollial, tnnrini, begins by a meeting of] 
fcindrt^ and frienda at the bride's and nt tlio briil^'^ooni's bone«,l 
in honour of tho tumKTic rubbing.' Fire matrons, who faaTel 
alr^'ady drawn lines of whit« powdor, n>N^o/i. round the spaod 
in front of the wooden stool on wliieh the bridegroom i» M>«t«u 
surround it and are followed by tho Brahman who atepa in froan 
of the «tool and HlnrtH wliat in known lu thopoL wonhip,Jtaf(i«A/}u;ii.l 
It begins by the pfieat placing a copper pot, kalanh, full of wnier,! 
within the space marked off with white powder in front of the stool.! 
In the mouth of tbia pot he places a pieoe nf coconnut and fire betetl 
leores in a fan-like shape. Into the water he drops a beteluut and h 
copper pic«, and on the ground in front of tho wooden stool, he layd 
a betelnnt as a repreeenlatiou of (lAnpati. Hu then repeats sacnfl 
verses, manlran, in praise vi Ganpati and praja him to be kindly.' 
Th^n, at his, the five matrons coming forward with open 
dishes full of turmeric, rice, and red powder, rub the bridvgroom 
with turmeric danb his forehead with red powder, and stick 
» rice on it. llie rubbing gotis on umidnt contmuons nproar, the 
wlnien laughing, the bridegroom struggling, and every one 
ioining in thefnn, After the rubbing is over the Brahman leads the 
nridegroom to iho family goddess, kulJen, worships hor ondacoepTs 
alma. In the same way a similar turmoric-rubbing ceremony ud 
performed on the bride at her own house. The whole doea not com 
more than from Si. to 6ii. (2--tanna«). Then, with the bridegroinnl 
theaasembled guests and kindred in a long line of bullock cuTta 
with gaily-clad bell-jangliiig bullocks, Mt out for the bride's villnol 
aoctmipasied by the family priest and hired mui^icians. '\\'hen ul 

■ TIm bride b firrt mbbMl, and wfakt rHoiim «**'' AAlaif , U ii«at for the 1 

IBoulMjr Ga*ett«er 





waistdoUi, dhatar, or troaaer clolli, to the bride's pown, lugdm, 
and Uk''^ *'''>'' XKi^'i fi'^i 'W">> r>ltn)i n fitw olt'iti etAllcs nr 
Aotnr HMcred wnod, Kurh ax Buita fnioiluHU, palim, luiil ihixiwini^ 
on a little clarilied butter Mid si-sxmHm. The puir iWn ri>u, axti, 
tritbotit ontyin^ their n>b«!<, ivkI)c five limi^« ruunil ihv Rn, ^fD 
riirlit to Wft, purforiaitis Uia cei-Dtuuny ralletJ chiwri h/uuvi. Tluijr 
»re tbeo taken iuto toe honso to worehip tbe fiimil; jafods. On 
their rotnm thoy nra odco more senU>d on the wooden atoolsi 
iiiid u ditib, oontaiuing rire and other food, is served h}' twn yyaag 
married womuu on an iron tray. Out of thia the bride ana 
bridegroom «it lo^rrilH'r, atid » ^luid dinner, co«tinff from 2«. In 
JK (Ke. 1 •R«. &0), b given to t^Ujodb Mid friends. After dinniv 
the ffrand marria^ proocsgjon la formed, the bridefirroom wonrinff 
tbe tinsol crovm, Imjm'ujp, ounting from 6d. to \». {annas 4- Kh. 2), uiil 
ff<^uvrally riding on a horse, or in a cart witk the bride, Torclirsi 
lireworks, and music, costing from 6d. to Jt2 [anwu 4-K8. 20), 
nccoiiitiiiii}' the proveMion, tba women wnlkiug on i-luli Kpread on thu 
ground UHDaliy bjthe rill^e waabermaa. After tJiis the bridegroom 
returns to his o^rn bonso or lodf^og. 

The day aflur tbe grand uiarringe ceremony, the motbor uf Hm 
bridegroom, who has not been present on any former oocasioD, eoroea 
to see the bridu. Thij« is cvllisl thu fticr iiwpvction, tunmnkh, and 
eostn front 2«. to £3(Ke. I-Its. &0). She bnugti with h«r n-vc-nd 
bamboo baeket« contnining sesamnm balls, gram poise balls, 
betelnuUi, oocoa kcmnb, dntes, robes, pieces of clnlh, omamcnl«, 
chiefly the nosering nalh, tbe uiarringt) ueoklet with bi,'ii<ls of gold 
strung on it in two or four rows mattgat *N/ra,' an armlet kadr, ft 
Dfckbtco gaUari, n comb, and n gtww bvad necklace j'ol, together 
with swootnieoUt and fruit of varioutt kindn. I'bn britlo and 
Inide^room are »cAt^t on stooU to receive these presents, and tJte 
baskets are ranged before them. 1*bc fiiniily prie>>t then worsliipa 
thepot, fc'if'iAA, iiutl Uiiu))(iti, whilb (lidbridegmnni'si mother, coming 
forward, docks tbo bride with clothes and omanicnta, and, ilipjiiui{ 
ber finger in uiulassea or migur, pot« it iuto (be bride's m<Hith. A 
dinner is then given, and gifl^, nhrr, of Uirbans to the male, and 
robes to thu fenialo relations usually follow. 

On the last day of the mnrnage ft^stivitiea a broad bamboo basket, 
jAaf, is brought forward. It eoulaiuH a piece of cloth, nine dale*, 
nine cocoa kernels, nine bimpH of turmeric, a linndfiil of rioe, and 
^inv wliiiiten macer-shapod flour lam]>s. The bride and bridegroon 
are tied together us ixiforc, and nit on tbe stools benido tbe 
broad basket, jltat. The priest worships as bcfuro, and, at a gtvon 
signal, the pair rii=ing walk round the basket, J/wi(, five times from 
right t4) loft. The basket with its content« is given to tbe 
Brahman, andpreseulH, n^iirrjOro madeto the nuiNiciitnK, Ikrbtirs, Kn]i», 
and other village servants. A proeession of guests and friends, 
rttfi!, then runiit, nnd nil sot out for their homes. Besides those 
esReutiiil ivivmoniea there is much pliiyand nieniim.-n!., with vari'mn 
struggles for eupremacy between the bride and bridegroom, who pelt 

I Bombay Gantt 








AIini«iU1)ad. Nnmerooii prieBta and Kadre TOproEoatsttTes atlt^uil 
(lie ^rinu iilwut six montJu l^^ro tlio miin-Ukjfi: liiiiu to fix the day| 
(tnd hdur for the wremunj'. On these oocauiona, no gre&t i^ th« 
demand for wivci<, tluil iiifantM of even one month old aro toarriiML 

The other main Knubi division, known simply as Ennbis, hat\ 
nino snb-diriitioii-t ; Pajnu, Tiloli.!, Ulu>tuU% f^'^iii, Kuiiil>hnrc, Mardthe, 
DakDhni, Varddi, Viuijiiri, and Akarm^. PajsAh (I'l.Ti^Ti) iirr suh- 
divided ioto (iiiir clMSiieB : Bera, Thorgavhaiia, Kandirkar, and 
^fnvghari. The Grat istlio main aUK't:, tho other tlirco originated 
ID fends and dispuU'M. All F^jiuiA eat togutber, but i>n a<.'cuiuit ot 
dispates as to whi<;h divi»oii is the bigbeat, they do not intermanik 
vuo of tho chief I'ijua Kunbts ia the De«hninkh of Ytlral. He 
belongs to the Thorgavhttnis, who take tiieir name fnini ThorgaThaa 
in SfLvda, b» the Kandilrkars tako thoir's from Kaod^ on tho Tijiti 
In BhntUlvnl. The Navgharis would Mwm to bo the dosceadanta of] 
nine bmities or houi^os who left the nmiu 81'Kik and sottted in] 
different Tillages thronghoottjte district. PdJQ^ are numeruas only 
in Chopda, Nasirabad,and Janincr. Truthfnl, orderly, andfru^| 
almost to niggardlin«M, they are the ino«t hardworking, industriuaay ; 
and simplvmindud of the Kb^udeah agricultaml population. Siooe 
tho great disptite which broke up thoir caste, they have bwai 
remarkable for tho appan^nl ahtieiipfi of jrii!i>i]>«JvM nnd treai^bericaj 
which distingiti^tli tlu' Oujar Kunbis. Kxi-ii|ii among a few richi 
fiuoilioK the women arc allowed to appear in pHbiic. TiLoL4 KiinbisI 
(76,1^1), spread all ovor thodiMn'ct, are nioitl nrimoronsin the Sivdt 
and JAmnur HuVdivisinDH. There ina local tradition that, like tho] 
Dore Gujars, (he Tilola Kuubia wore Rajputa, and formorly hai] 
tho honorific ^itg, attiu-bod !<■ their names. Thoy aro said t^i hnrel 
come ^m Up|)er India and to have tM^longod to tho dass of 
]>adar PavArs. Itltich leas trnthful and orderly, they are not ■ 
nearly ho careful or hardworking as tlic Piijans, with whom theyfl 
eat but do not iuttirniarry. The cliiof Tilnlii fnmilioit aro those ^ 
of "(lie Uesbniukhs of Amalner and Varangaon, and of tho PiUil , 
of HarlAln. GhAtolAs, said t^i have com<> from above the (lluita,,| 
that is from the south side of the Ajanta mnge, i^ru numerons ioJ 
BhnsAval, Jimner, PAchora, Ch&lisgaon, and Nasirabod, and a few] 
are found in Cbopda, Erandol, and Dhulia. They eat hut do not 
marry ivith the Tilota Kuiibie. Lotiis (121), rvgardod as ao ahorifrli: 
tribe, dwell chiefly on the banks of the Giroa and in small villagea 
»on,tbe Tipti. They aro found al.-so in .\fiilogaOD, Jalgaon, R&ipurJ 
PAi^hura, ilalkiiniir, and Nandurbiir. Tliey aro a very poor tribe 
eating with Tilolis, PAjuAs, Giijara. and VAuis, but never marrying 
except among thcm«elve«. KuHiiuAitES, bv no means a oiinicroua, 
tribe, are found in the village of IlholAna in ^{asirsbad and in parts o! 
Cbopda. Likelhorrf>ni8they are very )vxjr. M^* {4f,7iy), said 
to have originally crome from NlUik, Poona, Siit4n>, mid Ahnii.'dnagar, 
duriug the rwigu of the last Peshwn (ITilti- 1817), are of two 
classes, Khasiia jod Kttfch iw. whu do not inu-rmarry. The Kl 
aro pure, IhoonildreD or parents of thesame claMa. ITie Karchis ar 
ttaid to be the descendants of handmaidK. IHiough generally callc 
Marathas, they have wpccisl sumaipca known to familiar "frienc 




sncfa M GAikwitr, Mohitc, Jagta, Sinde, Nunh£lhar, and PaTilr. 
Tliey eal trith TUoJa, PiiJDii, uid olbcr-KuDbiii. The Kbane Mudlthila 
obserre the zenana custoiu, ^ncnuly knuwa nti Mardithi Mola, 
v[h)<.-)i i.s done by scArecly uno Karchi family in a hundred. DASstixia 
(H,uU3), uttiii to be itnui)]|rmn(« from Uw Duccon, aro of lowor 
caete than the Maritba Knnbia, aud marry only anioug tlioniKilToa. 
T*feAms, (utid tu b« immigrants from Bor&r, resemble Tilola Kaubis 
ia nuist (it their cimtAtiiu» iind habilit. VanjAris (1017), siiid to hiivo 
been orifpoally carriers, are very numeratu) in Jflinner, ^'arnnffnon, 
DhsranRnoD, l*4roln, Erandol, and Dhulia. At present there is no 
noUccnblo diffrreun- between tbvin and ordinary Kunbi». As thuru 

KVanjiri F^tiU in Jilmner,' lltoy bavo probably iona been ttettlett 
Jtivatvra. AKAKMAsifl ( 1 085) are said to be the children of Gujar 
ImniHA. Th»y are by no moans nuinorons, bnt a few nro found 
in Nasirabad, Chopdo, and SbdbAda. None of the better doas of 
Knnbia eat with them. 

CbaptMT III. 



Ten clasMs of hu!*l>andmen, BAbara, Bunkan, Bharidis, AlkariB, 
Batkars, Malie, Iiodhia, J&ls, and Rajpnt«, seem not to be reefular 

tbii*. BABAit«(<31),in tiwirhubila and customs, resemble ordinary 
bb. Tbey are found ill Am&lner. BDXKARa(80(i),or wonTcrs, for 
seem to have been wcavern before they became buHbandiiu^n, are 
to hare (■oiue from Owiiiior aud ihc countiy near the Ganges, 
tmbling Kolia in appeanime tliuir oti.tloins htv like those of 
Pardesbi or Upper Indian Knnbis. They allow widow mumage, 
and worship lliii goddosoos Chhalotra, Tutjiipun, and Uingl^j. 'llio 
Ain|ntr Runkiirx luit a( tho hands of Eolis,' while the Bunkars of 
VantueauD, Haasilpur, Bomar, and Jalgaon, aro docJdotUy Pardeshi. 
'i 'riirs say that ihey came from Upper India, and 
nsuiilly nttoud their mjtrriaeiM. They have no 
liviaiouA. Tlioy ."till wcAiVQ rough cloth, Ar/iJili, att well »» 
Itivatc, and have the pooiUar custom of buryinff the unmarried 
bnminff the marriiHl. BiiAR.inis (547), &)unu in the Jdtnner 
Na«irahad enb-divisiona, though profeAnional dancer* ttnd 
— s, arc also bopgars and cnltirators. Alkasis (lOOfi), 
sni? of the Maha Iiodhi cu^te from Uppvr India, an) called 
from cultiratioff the dl or madder, which yivlds tbu 
I red dye ffJurrangt. Thoy are numerous in K4ydn, KaiKpur, 
itnbud, and nro found in Hviallor numbers throughout 
li*trii:t. Uatkaks (ir>80), formerly Uhangant or i^hephords,' 
given up their wandering life and taken to agriculture.. 
ey ny lluil tiny camo from Gangthitri, thai is, the banks of the 
~&van.* Kuuierous in Jdmner, CbiUi»gnon, XiMirabad, and 
where eomo of them have obtained pAlil rights, they are 
dworking and much U-s» (luarndsutoo than Gujars. MAlis 
liree dances, Phul, Jire, and Kia. The lirst two oat togcUier 




>*, Kinlyaat^Uwinitil of lEAi-cr cUim* to b« a pore Ktmlii, Mating thAt 
iiueil to KMM cattle and irm callod VanjlriaMa nMuDOiaa. 

I »tluA hu oMc, « Haiku- ^vnyi sitivcra Uatkar Dhaasar. 
rPiUI dI TohoT i» itmaa, an ii^u«atul OhaDBar, taf* tlut lit> aootaton 
I Itom Mar fooiu. 


iBotDhnj Gantt 





nnd look on the K^ ati a tower tribe. 'Vhey do not intor 
^Hiig E'liuUMitin have receiTCi^ assiKnnionts of 1bD(U, t->i'ftnj. 
Dcetimukh of Kran^lal being n notable io&tiutoe. Looms 
oiDLLilin, Suugiwl, PAchora,&uigad, Kasirabkd, KanJeri, l_ , 

nr« ubl ttifi saine as Maha Lodhu, and will not K^w madder, lU. 
They eat at the bands uf a BnihinaD or a i-Mto-felluw nuly, aail 
muTy amouf; tlwinHelTM. Ainoug them, at tnarriages, the bnde* 
groom, nt a tixfid hoar, oomw bo the marriaRO booth and atrikca it 
with a stick or rn^nd. 'Iliu nnxt day thvTxs ix a feaet mid thi? bride 
Biid bridvgruom tnwA in tli« hooih for tbo fir8t time. 'J'be Utihioftii 
uflnjloger i-e[)eait8 t«xte, aud the bride j^riw>ni, holding the briJoV 
jiands in bw, her fatli«f« drops a (^ft into tJirm. Ilicy ivur<iii]i 
Bandula and Bbiiviin), and obwrvo tlie Vasra ((Jciober-NoTeinln^r; 
tnnlAjiklani (Jnly-Au^roBt) holidays. Except in caaes of death fnidi 
cholora or small-pox, t&ey bnm their dead. Jim nru fonnd m Raxnr 
andManur inBhnsnTnl,fU]d inHomcChAliNgHonHnd Filcboni villaj^s. 
Thoy arc oaid to have come from ii&rv&r, and to ea£ only al tlio 
hands of Bnlbmaus. 

Of Baipntcultivntorg thoroaro, TwaidoK tbc Doni Giij htk who now 
rmnk »» Kunbiit, four claHtw», P ardeabi w, Khapg d fe. Ma plllifa, and 

D<tkbnia. I'he first two eat and drmk with Titola Ktiubis,' bnt 
tito Manitlia and Dakhni Itajpubi arc said not to \k vnlitlcd to 
thifl honour. (WuTwisucaUod RdnoRa j pn^a , t^ M ur^tbt KaJ|hiI», 
like Uio i'ardushi liajpuCH, do not allow tlteir widons to marry. 
Many MarHtlia KiijpDt pAlila hold land-grants, viUau*, in eofi 
Khiitide^ih, bat, as a rulu, thoy >>cem to pnofor omjilnynwnt a.t MrjHiyA 
to the drudgery of a haabaudmnn'H life. Thuy are said to iiu 
qoarrelsomo and spiteful. I'hc liano Rajpats have fiiich anmaniios 
att Jiidbar and 8hi»odo, and any two of tlivir tribcticnn inU'mmrry. 
Thvy havo eixtoon bou^t&s in Vfival, and they do not oat with Kuulm. 
The lUne Rajputs of DaadAiche and 8iadkheda hunt and oat 
flesh, fowl and liah, and drink wiiio. Ilitiir womon never itjipi-ar 
iu ■public and woultl dio rather than work on roads or in bnlilH. 
Th<'y mv bodicoit, but uoithar spin nor wcare. Besides these four 
olasaM, Surya vanabi Kajpuut htv funnd in Nimar ami on lh<> Iwrders 
of SArda ancl ISfiusAval. They neither eat with olhor Rajpnta nor 
allow widow mvrtnge. The higher families are known by tie titJe 
of 'ITjiikur. 

Tlio Mnnithi dinkcts of the cultivating claj«4rdi ar« foor, Gnjrit 
•IHkshni, Khandeahi or Abirini, and Varidi. Gujri, spoken fbrtSy 
by tho Giijnrs, is romai-kabk for its larf;o number of Gajar&ti words 
and ratio endingit; Oakshni ik spokvn by the immigrants from iha 
Deccan ; Kb&udeehi or Aliirani by the earliest. non-aboriBritud 
settlors; and Yariidi, an importation from Ber&r, has a marked 
mixture of Hindi wprda a jid cndinga, 

Of Craftsmen thtre were fifteen divisions : Sonitrs \6fiOi, 
Sut^ca U,3G7,lx>b&r8'1873, Shimpis \ifi'->, K^saraSlU^, Kumhh&rs 

■ Th« Uitbtr Eajjmts da not Mt with ntdiiurr Knitliu. Uarjktlu and oUibf ton, 
Raipniii (M vitk ndstalHiur. thwuh tlt*y do not cat with tlnccvr, 'Hlolo Bad Hli 
Kiubi*. Mr. J. CoUoa. C.S. 


5697, Dhigrrtna 021, Ukhcria H GiHirnUs 875. Kachhis 10, 
harvats 37S, Otiris SiH, Loniria 4517, Bcldiin! 'ioati, •nnj 
bis \G, nr a total itlrungili of 68/lS*) aonU or &-'ttt ]>cr cciil uF the 
1(1 population. 

SonXbs, holilitur the highest place amonfc Ktijtmk'ith craftsmen . 
and belioved to Iuivp omv- from Uppor India or MiUa, aru found 
thmaghotit the ditdrict. Tfaey are of twi>sui>-(]ivi«ioiis, AUirtiondrii 
uid Viuabya or Jain Sonars. Ahlr Sooirs, be)ieT<^ to huTO come 
originally from Uppvr India, are foir and goodloolcin^, careful (o 
bo wdII sbaren and alwava dreased in cloun clotlic^. They ara 
dever and hardworking, bat most dange^oiis to deal with, as ibc, 
local proverb says, "Bapu, have no dvolinj^ with a ^Idiimith, u 
tAilor, or my lord kulkanii".' It 1.4 generally bulicvwl that if an 
nt made from serenteon mpees' weight of melal bo 
. aod nielt«d, it will bo fotmd to haro loat aboat thirty pi>r 
in wuiffht. Ouoe a year on Ilio thirtieth Shruran vad^a 
it<«mber), every goldsmith gets eomo ffold from hid inotlior nn<l 
r, and makes it into an oruamont lilehiug some of the gold aa 
ck-pciiny to Ktart th« new year with. An Uic mying is : "To a 
even his owti mother ia nothinjr".' BeMido.t making and 
repduring gold and siln-r onuiini^nt^, ihvy set goma and work in 
lirodoas stoni-a, and tJte iMOr prepare copper and brass ornamonta 
for male In tJu3 women of the lower classea. Beiatd«.<* working m 
i«well6nt,iromearecn]ti)rators,ot1iorsn)asons,audafew are labourers. 
Soma deal in grain and Ic-nd money, and a fow who have received 
sooM «dBCT»ti"n arc eniployi-d an Govemmonl w»rviuil«. llioao who 
woric tut gold&mitha earn according to their akiil from \<t. to 0<i. 
({ RBiia-l onnd') for every ropce woighi of cnld. They eat (he Hetdi 
of sheep, go«t«,aod fowirt, smd drink buHur, Proi^ganls for marriages 
maile while the children are in their infancy. On the occattion 
le formal demand, mi'jtn, which is gimentlly made four years 
>re marriage, some gold and ailrer omameola and ailkun cIoth|<« 
givi'n to the bride.' The marrying oonple are genernily of 
the same age, seldom ovor lt*n. Tlteir marriat^ ceremoniea 
nde tnnnerie rubbing aud the other iihuhI obitcrvancx.'s and 
ond with a fi-ikit. Of Iat« they have introduced the custom of 
performing gimanli, or as tbcy inoorrectly pronounce it gheratiti, 
two boon before tlio regular marriage begiiiii.* Soniuyoars ago 
Uw foiod w«a urved in a hu-ge betl-motal diah from which 
twelve persons ate sitting in a i^roap. Now each gnest has hia ovid 
diih. Marriago expentMa, whieh formerly varied from £b to JtIO 
(Ba. 50. [U. h)0), have of late nearly doubled. Widow roarriogu in 
the gamUutrea or piif form is ollovrod. On a hicky day in thu dark 
bftlf of itti month, i»ome time after the sum to be paid to Uio widow's 
father has boon settled/ the bridegroom, with hia relations and 

* The Mvltlil tmm I Boadr. AUmfH, £aUan> dpfnt, ydnrAi Mutual noio n Bdfpa, 

' Tlic M>i*ibi II : Stm4r ra oUt ii» aifAi hm/tr, 

lilt uo ; MM putliookt. srfgini; om apprr gKnoonl. lAanUi; two ruba. 
„^iuu. Md *ana Moan. • Fnr tuiUier itriAlU nm aborc. p. W, 

Btn wkt fomialT stent jC4 (R». 60}. ll bx now men ■uvanlold sad amn*- 

Chapter III 




cbaptOT nt. 



friends, Roee to the bouE4< of his widow bride. A Brflumu Orj 
asirftkigvr/ joshi, is culled in, nii<) twn low stools, patii, ftre ph 
nuUT «acb uibor coTened with clotb. 'I'b« HnUiiimu itryii^At i 
invokes Ganjnti and Varuna, and gtToa tho pair folded bgtol ttai 
}>6nbuli, to uuld Id th«ir biLodi^ 'IlifD th« bridegroom, taluof 
dngi^r or other weaiMU in bis left bacd, ahn i>a ui>6 tttool and 
bride aita on the other to tho bridegroom's rights The Brihi 
recites bjmns, maiUmt, and vrorKhi])!! Caopati and Vaniiui, otid ■ 
married wonuui comea forward aud rubs thx fon^bt-iids of tha brvde 
and bridegroom with &u(froD and rico. 'Vhe bridegroom then gii 
elollii'S to th« bridu which rIio forthwith puts on, luid in rvluru " 
"falltor, rubbing hia brow' with sandal, given tho bridegroom cU 
As it iH a custom that thu bridu's rvluliona and &ieudE should 
BVii their face» for thn^ da)'!<, the bridu utid bridegroom lt»va 
the bndegroom'a liouao almost inimediati>l_v ufter tliD marrii 
performed. Two old practious, ginug gifts to the villgigio hru 
and enipk>,viug M^g music-ian.f, are fullin;; into distiM-. Mleq 
fuQcml, ttouirahave a peculiar custom o f nibb Jiig cliinlJod Uuiori 
molaasee on the ■boulderaof thp b ier-bearera. I'bey worship all Hit 
f^ds, cspeciidly Kliandoba and Ike goitdcss Chaudi or Dvvi, faitLJ 
all days sacred to 8liiT and Vi.'diuu, and )ui?o Dniliittnns as 
priests. Their marriage and funeral ceremonies are those laid dol 
in the I'uninM. On thu ttilrtitrth dujr of tho Hindu inotitli 
Shrdvan (Heplember) (he)' worship the hf»rtb, hii'jri'hfari, &ud it 
liquor and tho tongue of a gout on the tire. On this day. cxc 
making the liick-)xriitij-, iindur penalty of a iino, no work i;ii dol 
Caste diepuCea are settled by it council, panch, whuso diM.'u.iMons : 

grorerbially long, lasting sometimes a whole day and night anl 
ftWD, As tho saving is, " Wben tho stars fade the somirs ditto T 
Though »omu loanl Kngli:<ib, most t<-uch tlivir crhiliirvn only readil 
and writing aud the btile arithmetic wanted to keen their accounG 
As a class they uru well off, somo of them rich. \ aimmya or Jxim 
SXiKksa, a small community ot fiOO m«n, iin.; found in NimdurbAr, 
Prakiisiia, ShAhada, Siodkbed, Amalner, Eraitdol, aud Uetavad, 
They uru believed to bo old fiottlcrs, and neither dine nor marry 
with tlie Abir Sonira. They Kpcak both Uujaniti and Marithi, aad 
in Kandnrb^r and Shiih&da their women wear tbe robe in GuianUr 
fashion. Tbvy work as goldsmiths and neither eat flesh nor drink 
liquor. They wear tliK sacriNl ihrciul, perform tho ri^ilar IbrLnul 
. cigremony, aud are io other respects like lii:^luiuuis. I^eir widowu' 
beads are shaved and they are not allowed to marry, Some 
VaudiiuiTs aud utbere Shaivs. Thair privsls aro Bntlunnns. 

HtiTJifts, carpenters, aro of three diviaions, Siil^r< proper othfiT 
called X>eshi Sutors, Ahir SutArh, and PinchJll iSntAra. tjutArep ro pey j 
say that thoy are Kuubiit by descent. They belong to two diviaic 
Ptoobiildharmi found at Julgaon, Dharangnon, itud Kntndol ; 
H&T&la found at Y^val, Naairabad, aud Asodn. Ahir Sui^ra 
distinct and aro of tho eamo class oe AbirLohirs and Abir cultivat 
Tbey do iwt marry with Uetdii Snt&rs. A« carpontom aud 

le wjfti 

) The Msnttbi It : A'^ n Mn*, in n wmlni. 





cnrcrrK Kliiii<U«l) SnUirs are ffood wo^k<^rH, oaKilv Lmineil to lu 
t^ropcau louta. 1'be 8uUnt vf Uli<>tKia nud \divul linjru a 
luuiio (or earring »nd boase carpoutry ; and tliua« of Talodn' luv 
EouiiiuMfortbeirjikiUin making oitrt-*. 8ouiutwitnty or thirty of tlteui 
come iu January from S^iuj^liad in Oujardl to Nunipur nnd Talodn, 
tad stay till May uuikini; carto. A cariwntcr's daily wa}(« varies 
fnim lH.to2ii. (nDJi/id 8 - Itti. I) iKx^^rding toHkilL Villiigi.- <;arp<>Dt«r8 
arc nsiittlly paid iu j^rain for roakiug and moiidin^ tiold (ooIk, nod in 
«isli f'T hmim- carjH'iitry. Thuy c»t atiitiiiJ food and havp no rule 
a^iuat tlio nue of iDlnxtcatiii^ driukti. Liko bi;{b ciule Hindus 
tlicy wi.'cvr a iN^nt, waistcoat, waistcloth, and ttirlmn, folded uitliitr 
after ihu Bi-Abinun ur tbu PmliLu f;uilii'>n« 'liny ham thotrdnad-a 
Widows may marry, but it they marry, tbey are Qot he(d in much 
roispct.'t. Thoy have aeupantto ca^to oi^^'auiealioD with local chiefs 
or heads railed chuatlhrijt. 'I'hiry are a rttiia);; class earcfu) tv teai-h 
th(.*ir children. Pnncbdl SutiLra, ao called &oni their acqunintuiii^ 
wilh thi! (ivMsrls <>f working in wood, gold, iron, hrass.and Blone. am 
bolieved to have comti fnim Madnis and sre Maid to be sr^llix] in liim(* 
num)>urs iu Poona and Abuiednagar, With a strength of 283 souls, 
they are found almoKt ihroughoot the di«trioL, <,>»pcciMlly iaCbopda, 
Jininer, and Fscbora. If tha first husband agrees to sorarate from 
them, their womon ara allowed to form a neoond inarna^. Tlu^y 
neitlier eat unr marry willi Khttnde^h 8ulllr». 

LouAvs, blat^ksmtthn, f.mnd all nver the dbtrict, and with a 
good bjord uamv in Dbiilu and Ithusdval wb«re tfaoy hjiro learn«>d 
iu local fuivl aud railway workmbope, am Huid to bu of twelio and 
a half divisions of which only four aud a half, Oujar^ti, Mai'^tbi, 
Piini'hiit, Ahir, and Ghia^i' an- knowH in Khiiodcsh. The last, thn 
bidf-caHlcH found at NaKirnbad near Jal)i(aon, are a poor class who 
,Ki"ind knives, clnan sw-trd lila<les, and mako jiworil*hfatbs. The Ahir 
lli'iliiim aru a dtiflinrl. chuti, the Kiime as the Ahir Siitars and 
icaltivat^irs. The three chief divisions differ liltJo from web nthii*. 
Strong, dark, and with rognlar fi-siturun, they are hardworking, 
thriftless, aud quarrel some. They make and repair tho iron work of 
ploughs and carts. In foimer times, at book -swinging festirals, the 
iLobAr Worked thw iron hook into tho unuJlcx oTlhe di-rolttu'a Inok. 
|They speak Maratlii and dres.-i likis low catte Hindus. Tbey worship 
Hhir and Khaodoba. 'I'beir hertidilary ^ijiirihial guide, jfuni, 
Piiucbfildharni who bul'jugs to thiiir own caste, settles all social 
fdiaputos. He wanders among his people risitiug thi.i samp localities 
iat long inCcr\-als. They are not wcll-to-il'i, their eaminjrs suHicii^ 
Ifor their daily wautu only, Gd. to In. (4-3 aniio*) a day. Tboy neither 
laend their children to ecLool nor take to now puntuila. 

' Snixi ' "^, found in all large villages, belong to four classes, 

Ahirs, .'^' . -lainH, and Pardeshi Brdlimaus. Ahir Shimpis are 

found at Jalgaou, Erando), Amaluor, Chtiittgaon, Dhulia, Sb^ihiida 

■ The QbiaidU, M>-i CapUin lli'jvcj thr AnuiuitUsn«falSupeKDtenJe»taf Tliui 
'ftiA Dtoottjr, (onictunc* rob b tlie Koalun. tmt arc aol holiitcnl crinaiaaU, Uiuaiih 
'■oBia uv oilea to tbe nvnt of gu^ roUMn, wbunr ()>rui tbey imkc and ehnrpvii A 
iMuUable iDBtaiKT ol this q«curr«<l in NortntKU IM^ at Sdcalkot in KalAJgi. Boiil 
iputk* S«l. I. 87. 

a 411-10 




[Bomba; OaxettMr. 



. SKmpU, 



tiud Cliopda. Ntodovs are Devwmor!) from tbe Deccan, where, 
PooBu umLAtimednagar, they, are setlled in lai^ uumbora. Uot 
thcAc Shimpi classes talk KhuRilpsbi and Mnrithi, and use Set 
and liquor. They aro quiet nnd wolMiiiharRd, but not verr skilfti 
Their wonion iielp in tb« work. Some are Shaivs and olhoJ 
Vaishnavo, and a few have lately joined the SrimiiUrdyan 
Kabirpanthi aewts. Thev biive a hereditary high priest who lii 
at Miilher in BigXin. Tbmr marriage expenses vary from £1 to " 
(Ri(. 111. Its. 300). Th«y altow widow niarriajC^. Cattle dispnt«a are 
settled by a <?oancil, poHek, at a maas raeetinp; and excomnmnifjif cd 
poi-noD.3 are fined and adntitbcd after pwrifying tliemselves. The 

Iirocftcds of ihetft fines a^e osed tor caste purposea, Jain Shimpin, 
nund in S4vda, Jalgaon, Dharangaon, and Na/iirabad, nm a small 
cwmmnnity who have other meniberft in Berir. Like BrShmanH, 
wheo dining they wear the sacred waiHtcloth, sotu, Pardt-^hi 
BrdhmaQ Shimpis are newcomers from Upper India. All tho 
foor Shimpi eLmiiios are welUlo-do and Rare money, their women 
aod children helping them in their work, lliey send their boys 
to school, and some arc in GoTemment employ as clerks and Jtchool- 

KjIhArr, coppersmiths, found all over the dieitriot, bare no 
anb-divisioas bnt numerous faimilies, liuls, snch aa Dore, Akal, and 
Korapkar. Tboy veil braas and copper |)ot« and dishes, and St 
on women's arms glass bracelefa prepared by Maniitre. Their 
marriages resemble Rriihninn miirriHgcH. They bom their dead aud 
eat at tlie hands of IWbmanit only. They are a well-to-do 
community, those of Songir having a specialty good local name. 
KrumiAKif, poLterK, found nil over the district, are divided into 
Mar&this, Paindeshiii, and GorekumbhArs. Tht-y do not intonnarry 
or eat together. *Dark in colour with regular fcaturca, they are 
hiirdworking, tbrifty, orderly, hospitable, and fairly honest. 
They make tiles, bricks, and earthen p()|.s, and also figures of men 
and unimitls. In t^mio villages the potter is one of the village 
eetabliahmcnt furnishing rillagcrK with earthen pots on easy temiK, 
and waiting on slmngera to supply them with water and pots. 
Though tlwir appliances are most simple, they are generally very 
espert, making many seat and partially ornameuti'd articles. Thoy 
worship Mrilmti, Mahiidov, and the goddess liakithmi. As a class 
they are not well-to^do, and none of their children go to school. 

■ ,I>iuovX}E6, or saddlers, also called .Tingars or KharAdis, though 
dealing in leather, are reckoned superior to ChilmbhAra and are not 
considered one of the impure ca«te-s. They are found all over the 
district chiefly at Dbulia, Nasii-abad, Knuidol, and P&rola. Thoy 
are a iwor cIhak, of wandering habits, fi-equenting fairs. ITiey eat 
si the hands of Knnbia, proiMro wedding nc«d>dresses, eew eaddlo 
cloth«, bind Ixmks, and colour bed posts and etioks with wax. 
LiAKttiiBAB, found in the larger villages, are a poor claaa, prepariag 
wax bracelets, and colouring glasa. flAimnis, stone masons, are 
found in largo villages and receive a daily wage of from 9tl. 
to la. 6d. (6 - 12 annas). They are poor though hardworking. 
KAcHBis, gardeners, make nosegays and Qowcr garlands with mncb 





dan lud ta«te, PAtiurvatr, aIodc dr«8iten, fuunJ iu soorlj' every 
ftn itf KliAnilmh, Ki-e divided iuto^S^lkura aod Piub\rii. (^ark, 
tb, uid titT<jiw> tti«y are geDerally poor and du not eeud Uieir 
Co BcbooT or laku ki now purguiU). OtAris, tukiug their 
inim tliu Uorltthi verb alnr to pour or amelt, n»ke molt«n 
I g( Hindu ^mI>. LoNi^Kts arc cement innkura mod lubounm ; 
BiuiAks art* ImclfliiyerM and niuit wall builders, portly 
iiliu&na partly iliniiua. Tliev are well-to-do ktM<ping rnals 
to carry walvr fur bnildin^ purpuisus and (or making 

^Vannfacturera iududo seven divliioux: Telis 20,389: SAltB 
s Sa^.'i; Khalria 924; GadriB 61!; I'atvekaiB Uj 
-.Jl,au>lal Nlrvngth of 37^SM) woU or S^7 per wot 
ofUu! nbote popnlatiuu. 'I'lieite »eveu diviaiouii nuty be armugod 
Btu fonr rliiwws. Od munufacturcre, Telis; thread and cloth 
Dunafadureni, S&Uit, Khalri.-j, Koshtis, and Patvekars; dyers, 
and wool w«iver«, UadrLn. Telis are ttaid (y t>o of 
five and a haH classes, or distinct aub-divisions, of whom four, 
ilki, Kftlhud, Pitr'k-Hlii, nnd GujnrAti, are found in KhAndusli. 
first, the must nuuierouii, found all over KhAudeiih, ari> tiivtd li> 
have como from the south of N^ik. They attach no eti^rina to 
wwiow marriage, and tlieir marriage ceremonies nro like tlaiHe ot 
Euubix. 'I'lie Qojariti Teli ia found iu the weat, and (he fardestu 
b the ca«l of tho district. They are generally strongly mode and 
fair wilh rv^iliir fctiturvs. They preta sesamum, m, seeil and 
ouroauuts, and Bometiioea hemp, an^tdi, weeds, selling the oil 
cakes. Exo-pt the very poor who bury, the Telis bum their 
dead. l*h<<y liavu a iK-Hthnan, not hereditary, called ehaudkri. They 
■re generally in good couditiou, but do not ^end their children 
to acnuol or take to new pursuita. SXuts, weavers, iirw »aid to be 
of twidre and a biilf cWsea of which six are represented in 
Eb^ndesb -, Sakun SfLli or HAklun, 8nt SdlJ, Ban^^ad Sali, I'ikli 
8ali, Ahir SAIi, and Gujarati Silli. Of tbeae tJie Gntanlti, 8ut,,a'iul 
BakuD a&Vt* aru fonnd at Jal^on ; Ahir Stiix at Faupiir, B&nnud, 
Parola,' aud most larxe towii» ; und Tikli S&lis at H&vda and 
PkTola. The Sakan Silia are said to have coma from faithan umI 
of Ahnivd:titg»r, and the Tikli division is aatd to lake its uuine front 
tho tikiiu ttr spangles worn by tlioir women as brow ornaments. 
The Baogad S&lis are said to be a low race, and from tlwir pmctioo 
of keeping concubines are known aB.Laand)valliit. Of the differijDt* 
Bab-divUiuna (ho Sitkun, Stit, luid Ahir S&lia eat together. 
Generally fair and well made, thoy are hardworking, quiet, and 
mdepenucnt. Thcydeal inclothaawolIiMwcavuit.' Tliey eat aheef^ 
fjToau, and fowls, uud drink li<jiior. They dreus like HarMhis, and 
worship Kbaudoba, Uhavilui, and other Uindo gods. Ost« dispat«s 
are HeUled at meetiogs of the adolt male membcra. They are ia 

Chapter III. 


I Pirol* baa u)nth»r Inlwior «1m« oI SAGi known m diok Sili*. 
Lik*S41uH»l Kmlitu. Jnuii wMvn gowM, JuyiUt. and rabca, «««i». TM >^- 
n«M the leoo), Willi* Oik vlulara fn^n th« cnmb, /Aani, noAe in Mia roeo- 
K, wtu<ti Ok StilU uiil Koditis us in upuatinj; tlu: Uil«*d while weanog. 




I^Vt^r III. 



t Patrttar 



iniddlinfiicirnim^tanc^RaRd gniKfrully son<) tlwir hoys to bcIiooI. 
KakiMkid, mid lo bo of twelve and a half caste?, sii an: w<01 kt)i>wi_ 
IJInlv.ijir, Nir.ili!, NumOK), Nlimdpv, Uujaiiit i. itnd Ahir. Oi ihi-se the 
BhAVMiii-H HIV iilruo«t tke only Rniigiiri» in Kliiiuittttb, and ai'f Uividtsl ' 
into serersl ciaasea aa Khaooi-e, Bhs^at, and Blinroti. Tlioy «re 
mid to tmre oome from Uujarfit, »n<t arv niinwroiiK »l Sivda, 
Jalgnou, F^kiMwr, wad Paix>bi. lliey nrp()are ctklours, and piiat and 
dye c!o1h. They havo a ooimdl, p'tnei, to iwttio oastt- dinpult^w, imd 
BO uK-i'livo hf^dmun called rh'imlhri. They allow widixvii lo mairy, 
aud nre on the whole a CAet«, able to nmd and write ao^H 
Bonding thvir boys to sclxxil. tiAi>Ria, wool weavers, fc>uud sH 
^lialiH^tai'u, I'alonda, andt^ongir, are Esirly well-to-do. Patvkkars,' 
silk woi-Uvra, d>? not fonn a aoparate casl«. Th« iiiilusti-y i^i 
practiced liy Kunhist nnd MimiUth^iw at Jalgoon, and by two familia^^ 
of PardeBhia at Dlinlia aud Chopda, 'I'he I'anleBhifl who hitv^^ 
pomo from Lnckiiuw, within tbo Inst Ion or twonty yww*, am of the 
UobuDKhi caAto. Koshtis am said lo }» of iwuivu and a half cast 
eevea of which, Iliul^ar, Devao^, Khato Devaog, L&d, Mitnlthl 
Hailptiri, and N'irliai, a.rv fotind in KhAinlvsb, B4>:«idc)i vilk thi-cmT 
for DockWeij aud jewelry, sut<l hot^e and palauquin trappings, 
th«y niaku silk cloth and ivonioD'§ robes, mdi'tf like the S&lis. By 
raligtoii Ihu tirst two »itb-dirisioos uro Lingiiyuts, thu third wea 
tho sacrtid thread, aud th« remaining fotu- are low vhutaes. Dalit 
tbti Li&g^yat Vanis, th« Lin^yat Koehtia do tu>l alwayit opeu^ 
wear thu tiiuj ; many of ibiMii hidd it in lliuir turhaua 
waJ»tboltB or keep it in their bouseti. A small stone, gcniTitllj 
from iJio Nnrbudit, this liit^ i» proxonli'd by (heir priests U> Lhtt_ 
women »» well as to i\w men with c^rcinoniea imicb like those 
Karred thread inrestitures. These /tjij* are carefully kept, and o| 
marriaf^ occasions ttro worshipped aide by side. At thwir marriage^ 
though tbo Ko«htis havo (he knot and hand-join ing^, thoy liave no 
tho wa Ik inflf. round, ehavrt bfuicri, ceremonies. Tliw ufTuHatin^f prioa' 
artabotl) JangiiinH* and RrAhniaus. The Brilhuiau prescriVM tl 
marring linio, claps his liauda at sunset when miu-ria^ oFremoniG 
aj-e gtiuerally pi^rfnruiird, and Iho Jangam ties ihe knot and joi(, 
tbo hands of the brido and bridegroom. Tho paiir do nut »it Oui_ 
raised pl»tfi>nn as among o4her castes, but inside a s<)iiarL< whose 
comers It re marked byniud bulls. I'hey bavenoocreuionial mourning 
fur tho doad, and their women are not conflidered unclean during 
^Ibeir <-ourKU». Widows aro allowed to marry with all the honours 
of ft regular marriage. When t,hey »i^ not bogging their privi^it^ 
Jauganis work in &ilk. The Hadgar aub-diviaiou has a wandering 
priest, who livi^i at Piuidhitrpur. 

Bards ^'j.l Actora inclnda two classes, Qttrovs 800-i, and Bhats 
or Thakurs WD I, a total of 7065 soals, or 0-68 per t^ont 
Otmttt. the whole populalieu, Guuvs, worshippers of Shiv, ai'e fo 

' Pattclun. lilk (Rni:e aail ImscI iiafcan, tak« tWr naae ti«m fntenie U tti 
Hlk thiKMl ou virc. 

'ThowJanicuiii, or UiigAjr*! \v;x»r'i Mow raMll divU tiiin>t>elc, «&ai«tJb,Mi4 u* 
fonad in tJig i-uutral |<Mt« of Uk dulml. 





or twp in every birge Tili«fre. Sutllwl, aocurding to in>ma 

kiUQts, for a«ven ^neratiouH, Iheg nreanid Ur bave. Lhrtre. biiI»- 

' IDS, Aliir, ORkshni or tjttniv, and Varddv. Tliey bold g^^'^'^i 

iiur, in ifrtaio viHagm; Hll^mii to »iid dwiii tlio U'lnplvs of 

inmiiQ, R^ni, nnd Maluidev ; and have an hereditary ri^ht to (he 

sringn, xiK-h im bvtcl leaf and »nt9, ooomnnt^, ntitl t;r»in, made 

jMabii'ltir'a tciuploH. - Jt Ik their Lii<(iiifMit to collect and distribute 

_l|^e ninrmelotf, l/il, leaves lo Cho chief hiiniliei) of the villas, 

iwvivinff iTi'stmls of ^raiii in niturn. Thvy aW uttund HrAhmiin, 

Ruiiiii, and Vdiii wwltiiiigs, and piay the Bute, tattai. Tiny blow 

the tcmplo cotioh and horn, some of thorn with mncb skill. They 

-'■■■ " fXKtr illileniio irlaoit with a onuno'ilf punch, for HeltHn^ cu«Ut 

<e8. UsAth' uf thmt Dub'diviKinus, Pardeslii, Murdtlut, and 

I, are found in nearly every lar^ Tillagt]>. A fine intelligent 

/I'll tiindti and ^>o<]-li>oktni;, llivy iwivy u miniik' kuowK'dgu 

■ jf th«ir bcnilitiiry patrons. Tht^y repeat poetry 

1 future and are ready improvUors, lliey have 

ilud ImiiMS iit ci'rtiiin villiip'S. Of l«l«, from tli« doclinin(F 
4-' iif ibt^ir pnifcuifiou, many ItMtx havo taken to labour and 
io. Thoir niartia;^ are like those of Kunbia. They bum their 
Icnd, \mi liury llieir infanta. Old Bhiila aru lookud npon with 
rvvtireui.-e und appeiil^d Ui iu atnlv diHpntoK. Ilioy bare no bereditai^ 
li' ' ':i>4s thoy are inclined to send thoir boys to w:booL 

t ' . ilo" known as Tluikura, nro M-Ulud inhabitJkn(« of 

iiti tioh) grHUt», nifatui. 'l*hoy arc beggara, labourers, 
- eiiltivators. 



Personal Sorvante inclodo two dasaes, barb»r8, NB*lvEa, 

_', Hud wiislit'i'inuii. Ilh'ildiiN, ■^Vi'>, a tolal of 20,617 ttouitt or 

_i>_Tcent of ibf wbolo p^'pulation. Of thj twelve nnd a half 

Nmavi ^idiHlivisionB, four ai-o found in Kbilndevh, Tityd««, Ahirx, 

DitknIititM, and Oajars. The lirat two, found at iS&vda and almoHt all 

i>ver ibc district, Iiavc aach Hurnamos aa Ingnle and Milnbar. The 

Taydn Nbitvj plays ao mnsical instriimcnt, but holds tho torch at 

wi-ddinfffl, gels half of the foes {wid to HrtlhninriM, and on the dav 

on which tiirrm-nV is api>!itrd, ivceives J-i, (i njirii) from the ffirl 8 

[alfavr. The Abir Nbdvi never carries a torch. He nlayi' iho llute, 

■mnni, atnl the dram, sfiniiff. As village uurgciMis lliey b!<wd and 

apply levelled, and their women act ua uidwives, and at marriages 

lH>y bold iimbrf-llaa over the bride and bridegroom. Thoir niarriaeo 

-re like those of Knnhis. Except thv poor and iufiuitMjr|i« 

;. they bum their dimd. Afl a i-buia Nbivis are food of 

it .u:.i (.r^wiiip. Dn'<!tnii«, waslit-rmen, inclndo fivo sub-divisions, 

udelas, Mfii'vfl<iis, MunUluU, I'srdpshi«, and Tailuiigit), who neither 

nt with one another nor intwrmiirry. Must of lliem livo in tliatohcd 

biw, only a fow having gooti dwellings. Tbey eat millet bread, 

purry, cords, vegetables, fish, and mntton. "Iho vilUgo Dhobhi, 

- '■ mlly a MarAiKaand known locally im Parit, washes for Kunbia, 

-, and Brdhmans. Mhiira* clothes are guiicrally washed by 

Chapter 11^ 




> Ttwn an tiao ttam MualaiAn Bliita. 

IBomtej Gaiett 

hapttf IIL 








Tailang! Dliobhi*. Besidos by wwihing, Ohobbis somutinuni «ani 
living by gelling graoti or b^ labour. Tlimr bvouriuj goda 
Khiindoba, Bkiuix>l», Bbaviini, and st-rpunU, and thuy also wonbi, 
their anoeaton. Tluty oitlier bary or burn their dead uud bavo no 
headmaii. Tbeir wives belp litem in tlieir work. As a claaa tbey 
are pour, nuDu of thum rich and uio»t of tbeoi in dobt. Xbey do 
not send tbetr cliildreu u> Kvluwl 

Shepherds and Herdsmen include two claases, wiib a 
atrtayih i<f 13,477 soulo or 189 per t-oiil of tto wholv Hindu 
population. Of these t7,7UH wore Dhanffars and 1769 (Jarlis. 
Undor thv gonuml tcnn DiiAtiaAit, or Knephenl, come three 
Aasses, Uhangare [>roper,*Khil&ri!i, and TliililriK. Dliaogan proper 
generally earn their living by weaving blanketti. ITibt hi»vo 
tievcu Bub-divtDiuus, Ahir KKkU.'kar, Hhegar, Marsha, HoIkar> 
Halkar, Qhogattuuya, ami Sholotya. Of t\n-fv tho Aliir Dliongan, 
found at Naairabaa, Krandol, Cbilndsar. Jluilod, Cbopda, Piit.'ii(im, 
Adjivnd, Yitval, SAvdu, Bumiir, and Bbadgaon, are said to liavo 
come from Chitod in llpiwr Indiu. Tlwir women wear tbo Kuubi 
robe^ )Kidi. Some are cult)\'ators while others deal iu .Hhe«-p aiut 
go«t«. Thoy worship a god named Cb&njfyAp^bya, call Dr&umana 
to officiate at tbeir inarriageit, and allow widow marriage. They eM 
with Ualkar Dbangai-s. TiiitARis or KaiuiBiR,' prufcSHiouul gnuiiers* 
t)i>ll woo], ehcep, and guntH, and drive a small trade iu milk. 
They xpread all over the district duriug the fuir Ki-imon, jnuiMintf 
e«u»t during tlm cold wrathcr, making for the Siitpud^ in tha 
hot months, and retumiug to the west, to Dhiiltii aiid Pinijmlnur, 
for the rains. Grazing dl over the country in the fjur weather,^ 
they are often paid by cultivators, for the sake of the manure, t^H 
pen their flocks iu their fields. At the same time disputes ofte^' 
arise for damage dbne by their Socks to the late, ralii, cropx. 
Gavlis, of two chief divi»iii»^, ling&yat and Muntthn, found heii) 
and there throughout the coUectorate, are moat uunierouH iu Dhulia 
an* Cho|>da, They aro Um milk and butter sellore of the district, 
keeping large herds of bufyaloesund cit-wn. Among Lingityat tiavlia 
marriages are gcnemlly performed by the Jangam, but iu bis absence 
a Brahman can ofltciale. A nwund is raised iu the centre of the 
wedding shed, imindae, and a carpet is spread over it. Two bamboo 
baskets an; placed in front of the mound, and the bridal pair stand 
each in one of these basketo while tho officiating JangHui holds up 
ihe^marriai^ curtain, atilarpat, and jwrtunii-t the ceremony. Tbo 
{Kiir lire then led to and seated on the mound, which hss been 
previously surrounded with a line of rice or wheat. ITicy worship 
MahAdev and allow widow marriage. I'he caet« observanceH 
MariUha Gavlis are much like those of Kunbis. I'he Gavlia ai' 
generally speaking, we!l-to<do, their women bt and buxom. Ahibb? 
following the Bame profession as GavUs, arc said to be of seven 


' TkiUri, fr««n tkiUr a flock. moMis itridly hlwcp i^d ge«t-h«rd«, and Khi 
front Uiilit s dtore, muna «tri«tlj ucat-bci^ la practice Ui« word* m« i 




xub-dhndons of which fire are known in Kbintlrab, GriUlMUi&i, 
Bhirviilbij-a, Uhidjtmvftr, Uhoni, anii. G ujftr. Thoy woreHip Knabn&. 

Fishera iodnde two claBOM, Koltn 39,207, and Bboui or KaluLrs 
total Btrcngth of 4^,250 souU or &'l)6 per c«iit of tfau 
le Hindu populaiion. Koi-is, thouj^h fuond near Dth«r rivont, 
hsve their head- gnarterB on the 1'ixtti bank*. They arc of three 
dasses. Ahir Rolis, Kolis proper, and Nehoru Kolis. A dark, 
Mrrmg, well made, and robniit ruro, th<i|^ eat flesh aad drink liquor. 
Tbey work all the fi'rri«a alon^ the l^pti, ^d during the rains, 
often rwk their Uvo« is rDcovoring timber from the river when ia 
ficwd. They also, with much nkilt, gvfiw melons in the beda qf 
rirera, and, an villngo labourers, are found in nearly evvry targe 
Tillage in tlie ditttriot. Exc«pt mmo very prnKport>u$ villiige hi-ad- 
Eum in Chopda, the Kolis are poor and tinthnfiy, and seem unfit 
tor steady hard work. Tbey worship Khitndobn, Bhairoba, and 
goddess ObATiiQi. KahAiui or Bboib, found in Mmner, 
.rmngaon, Krandol, P&rota, Amalner, Sdvda, and Fainpur, are 
chief fiihi-rmt-u of the district. They un<;<l former ly to parry 
palanquiuK an d litterit, but their preaeut occnpation Ls, beaiden fitihing, 
(nnmfing Rrain, growing melons, and carrying grain on thoir 
ili>uke,%-s. Tbey rank lower than Ki;lis, and c«t ile«u and &sh and 
drink liquor. Tbey arc ignorant but tiardworking. 

lAbourora and HiacoUanooiis Workers include twenty 

claaaers, with u lotul ^tn^ngth of .M,002 souIr or &'S4per cent of the 
*holff Hindu population. Of these 26,6+2 were Rajput*! 9982 
P&rdoahia: 168 Goraidbans ; 1674 TirmJtlix; 20 Shikiri>t; 6352 
Rivch&»i7\ Kanj/iriN ; <>:) KAinithiit ; » Golh^ ; 21 Kahats ; 262 
P.-ndbiri8;5 Jalkaris; 1208 KhAtik8;S028 BUris ; 158Sorti»;fil6 
Ehang«Lr«l 177 BhirslM; 2»1 H&nliU; US lOtambards; and 181 
Dingat«. R*jppts, locally known aft Deccani Pardofihis, though from 
■narryinff with Deccan women they aro looked down on by tho 
Bajputs of Uppi-r India, have not entirely lost their military spirit 
and bearing. Of three diTisioas, Marittha or RAno, Khaped^s, and 
I*ardeahi, they are both luboiircr* and coltivatorn,' and nerro as 
sepoyn. Among MarAtlia Kajpurs are many poliiio pti tils, especially 
in the .Iiimuer nnb-di virion and alon;; the base of the Sitmilis. 
Pitrde^bi and Maritha Rajputs will not oat at each other's bands, 
bntif a Pardeshi Brithman pit^purcs the meal, they wUl eat together, 
GovARDRAN i* perhaps another name for Garli. SbixAbi« aro 
those who make hunting their profession. BAvoHi!), found in4he 
weat on the Giijanit frontier, are a labouring and cultivating class. 
KAN/AitiR, makers of hairropcs, are labonrera and beggars. EA^kXthis, 
inimigrantfi from Telang, the modem KarDit«k, tal>»ur in the fields 
and aa bonse-btiildvrH. GoLnAi< and Kahatb areordinary labonrers. 
PbkrRaeis, found chiefly about Dhulia, bring grass and wood (or 
Bale, and prepare manure. BAitis aro bold leaf Kellers.* _^ _ 

Onsettled Tribes woro five in number, Bhils 126,701, VanjAris 
86,G72, Piidhis 4606, Konkaoia 8201, and K&nad<U 818, a 




' For [iirtb«ir puiicuJut Mt p^ 70- 

* See kbovc, p. 89: 

IBomlMf duett 

3upur III. 



* AUU, 



birenglli of 170,888 souls or 18-53 per omit ot the whole populatio 

Bi wL a.' with in 1872 »□ ostimsted sii^ugtli of VZO,it'Hi souUi 
on: Uin cliinf uf the large K'^mp of tribes that at quo titiiu hel 
most of tlio countT^ now (listi'ibuted tiinons tba provinccitof MewAr,* 
M&lwa, Kbindfitli, and (jiijariH.* Ousleu !>)■ later Invadora frofii 
the ncbti^t of their oli po^M^saious, the UbtU, in couaidomble 
Btreuglb, fttill hold the ivildvr and more outlying |wrta of Ibt^^o 

Bwidea iu Central tndin, R»ji>ut4na, Gnjarttt, and Khiindesh, 
Bliila are found tiorLbwanU in Ajtuir and Jesalinir,* iind in 
Baroilley and Binda ia.the North- West ProviucBx.* They d. 
iTot paaa eaat into tbo Pond country, those aeaiLAsixgad in 


■ Tb* voni Ittiil t« UliwoJ l« onnw Inm th« Dn-riJtita MUm a bow (WilionV 
AbotigiiutI TriiMM, 3). Tli* Hitxln Ivgend ol Uuir oiif in ii, tJut r4 tn-eni auii* 

SiMngrnua MskldaTaailalMiMUi tirM»,a(iii, a^lyaiid vkdnua, killed liUfKthitr'aliulL 
or tht« IM mut builib«d to lli« bill* •»! bMuiiw tkn fuundar of Um UliiU. (Mal- 
ouloi'* CnitnJ India, I. SISI. Plohany's (1M» rkyllite, tdaoail auiiUi of tint Viiidltlui 
nnn, wvnt probaUy Bliii* (Bnrtiua, 173). Koftarly ittiutu dm ot Urn wonl Bkll' 
baaMan traotdL In tlia MalaUiti*! titl c4 tritmi tlii* (mm to b* iiKliidiil uii^r, 
i-uliudu, » gaosral Unit lor wild tribe*. (H. II. WiIraii'* Wnrkn. VII. I.'.H ; iii>.l 
Vivitti da St. Uartiii, Ouuo. Oraoqoa. et I>«tai« de rin<l<. £47) rM'Uin (iraluni 
(Boiu.Uov.SaL .XXVI. S(HI)*ml»rJc>bBMAlM>lai(C«nlr<>ltn'Ii>, 1 :il6 <um I| .Utc 
Ihat Ika Bkib arv Biantloaeii In the MalUUiltM. But th> word ixhiI in Ihr oriitiiul 
b Nitklda. and thsro looiiui to bn no mora raaaoa for idoailymg ih<i Nixliibti* widi 
tba BliilK iliaa vxtb nuay otlicr of tbc mdc hill racca. In Ikn rniK)i Tunlnt uMnttuu 
la nu-lu (i( VliL- I'hUlii Of vtUajfm of tha Bhila (WiUu«'a Work*. 1^'. Hi. I4S) ; aiid in tha 
JitimilA Bkila an oloMod Willi Uedba aa una ol tba aaran lowcat Inlmt (l.'ckbtmike'a 

* "Am 1972 MPMia rotnma ahov, mulor Ika head ol Bhila. a totAl of I KjftS (nvla. 
Ti> tlioac may bo odiUd, aa ipMrallr Included anwniF Itliila. I'ivnia XSS, (Liiitn 
IM, Kotliib 223. and Nnhilii D. tf to Uiia tiMi StaOt tdUl ol 47.COA aoub ti adilxl. 
llsivo* tor tliu tnbui, ))i|Rf>h-.'iilly kmwa an KliiiidtMh I'litK ■ iinuwiit ■(rcMgtli of 
IBljSU acnb. Tim niluriut ol llii-v> InlMt anr pr<>li>My ivrj' Im (nun forrvct. 

■-nioaarliaat UBwIuul M"«*r »*fi' UhiU (l.-l'i. HJiJMtKlo, I. )i**) : Ibe tChLla >ra 
apaclallyMrang(iitlioaoulli..lM>tiiAiIla>><ilt<»i'BT)««riiiliunt.fMm<I<itUii.I T?9). In 
(lajMtti, aMMnline lo l.n J In. ml, tliu lUiTIThnd Aim. Ub^Jlf* Mi ' ) tTH nip^..^!- Aa 
la ta !■ the tloaa of 1 1 ■ ii q Aatval. th<1BWnWMHBBniintd«bad.«ji» 

ln~nHDumliran3 i n t orowi aoath bv iha ill— ImAai llWiil Mt«H t^^ii 

tbeBaJ^i^ dTiivu I.'..' i-.[LiiH '>^it III |iJ 

Id fiiasy lUjt-uuiia, Aii>i«a, ami 

bivw I* liurhflt liv blmiiH tatgl* ff'l tlw 

jay that ih.. \.i..J ij^tt^rt^TinfifihiSSMff^ b^"^ nar'^ 

Uhil pcwur. 1'bt Ubil* are aliayt kwa tv Imp tha pnaetloa aliva. Tho ri^lit of 
givinfi tbs blool a cbinxxl l-y •.■■riiiu (mnliis, aiul tbo Iwlii'l tint lli« laaii frain 
wbuM vain* it ll-.<va iltn williiii a ymr fail* to diiiili thair i«il U:r Uiu uuifp). The 
IfajinitN. on tlio utbor hand, wuald ubdly M tbo practice dio. Thii tliuy a» i» diM 
M tMir tdiriukin^ from fmiivtii ISitl Mood. But tha triM paai[ of tiin diainM a 
t^l ill* ommui^ ninaiada thcan of Uie iliattiioai of tlinir rula wmI of Iba aeed «f 
aanotioa by tlioir fuwoa* anbjvota. Ttbiml Roy. An. Soc >. Ci9. 

* The ItfiS otnaua retama nbow iJifiiC aoiil) In flnJirAt. n^tl ICT.6S4 aoMla in 
Khinitia h and Stoik. Thucliialnrsngth of thnltliila n •• I < Hot Itnipatina. 

l a tomLpMl Uio [woiihi oje alaoat cxduiivoly llhlb> (Iv^ .r«{|fcr, I. ISO) ; 

to UlblWaa thc bulk .J tho uwrfoare Hhila fdittu 1171 ;m jjij-ji kiiMv an 20U.OU(I 
fdiuo ill) ; Mi.l in r>n Mart.ur 10 .000 Bhib (ditto 231). IIhfv irTtlividad into a rarioM 
o( cUu^ ajBin bMoa mf a Mptitcd (uwnon iltwout. «th*r« huddlod togctlwr by 
atupU ootitisaily of liotiilMiuti. llicy have a aligbt infoHOU of Uindsinn aad feme 
am aottkd oulti' 

*Inioo'a Ajmir, IT. Jwar. Rny. A.. Sec. US of 1844; Tsd"» Wntim India. 
31'«iiR«ipatiliutlaxctt««-i, II. %l^40. ITC. 199,M4. S&l. 

■N. W.F.Oudttoor, G78.IH7. Kv J^iils are abowo in tbo N. W. P. ISTSCcuw*. 




Kakdi riv<jr in Jamuur.^ Tu the Hoiilli-weoi Ibe Bhilei itr« »topp<>d 
by ihe sturdier race o f Kfeik and Ahmednajta r ^olihj'ho probably 
once beld the wbolu nftbe (Jentr^ Konbia i^ln^ica.* To tbe 
vrr»(. mil) nortli-wen: thv hilly truot't tlint in ncrLli Konkiui and 
Kaib (Jujitrit ati-eich west U> the sea, are chiefly peopled bj- early 
tnlieAaliDost aUof them Bhil rather than Kch i n characfajr.' Northof 
tbe Tiipti, o»r"-M!'i- i.-r-n., ,1,^11^. cutffni hH>nli4)r ot (Jujitrit, BhiU 
and KdliH, id' re bo distributed that *% P fa jl flfilSIP* 

Owgmitf FurtM^STOoito are found ncattored over KtULi^w ^r 

a I, in atrenffth Jn Thar and PAr kar, and in small oainltera 

o. -t the w boiB of S ind.' 

IIow far the modom Bhil has chanf^ed from tho orif^nal Bhil it 
u bani u^ aay. The fact that many plain Bhib are, and who'll well 
kd, many bill BhiU become, eqaaJ m aise and appeamnce lo the local 
knrclnA* Hindaii ; that i n Poona th«>y are ainch autwrior in 8t« tnre. 
«pp(%raiit:e, iiihI iHtiOligvnco to t hoBc of th o SAywidA* ;^ and that ab 
I'fa-ltar they are tall, slr o og, and health y," seems to show that the 
stunted, litnpid, and sarage Bliits of Kh^ndctib, Gujarat, and 
RajpntAna have, vitbvr from inarrtaso with older and lower raoeR, or* 
bY>m bad air, exp04Di-e, and want of food, suffered greatly both in 
mind and body. 

A" iiln dci;h roco rda contain no mention of Bhils except 

Bfl a .'-■ , ' iidl iriW. it has been thought* that tJiey w«r« forced 

■ C<atr»l FTovi]iOMa«Mtt«*r, 3M ; BanlTGM«ttMr,3ie.*Ia tli« NurbmUdiviaioit, 
next to Kh fariMh mdjHic* , * oana l it, then were (1872) 18,420 Bhil* and 4080 
tHuUUa. (^'oitral lYoi-Uicca C'Sniiia. Hi. 
' Buinba)- Omnu. 18(2. "nio detaili an : KopaivMn 2474, K*i-iu I2S1, Saoguiur 
'. Panicr 4M, Ali>^ MS, Shvnw-n ^IX Ka|l«r &t, JiinktiMl 76. .inJ Sbrigoada S. 
Tbe 1&72 ccMnu total waa 193 Knb. The Ithil olenMot in liie PoauA populatkui 
I nu^LItuagVI before the limn gJ the MaraCliiCovcttiihMiir Tii'lSilSat Kopufaon 
itt AhmMlUgai. a* nian; ru 'QT»I SvJt were killrd ly bcini; throvn doim wolt*. 
Mr. Sinclair, CS., m lad. Ant. 1 1 1. 100. The mii omiku r»tunu &6w one Bhil in 
KaUidgi U thit ia eoiNct h« naa pMhably aa ovtridra. 

*Tlia 1871 eeiuna Ntnma ihow iitne BliiU in Kiaara, apparmitly a miiUko 
(CoUcvtor, ITth June I8S0), twi> In Ratstgiti, pariwp* waiiaMisg M^gan. and 
t««nty-fiva ia Galactic, pmbablv inimipant laboutnu 
*A»oag thcTC laay- 6o Botoil, In — ~i| fftltK Iff! Ttflf ■Tll*'™^ the Tt|^knr». 

n-* '- "" ■"■"■ r* H""> i>h^»jn^i2~iJi-j 
— «-■»- ffinarito.and KMhoaUiL <—*=-• 

B'as^^aanHrTfisnvsnBTTTMiir is, Gouwid 1:4, 

Umlxli 74, KndBbivnacarasl,b>Ui lOTrK TheCaUli total wt« l^>SO, acdOieTlur 
ud rirkartota) lO.MI. Tito Sin>l dntaili were Upper Siod PrifiiiUM'41, ShikArpur 
I7B0. QaidataUd 449S, aii'l Kanrachoo 778, total >I07. (Compaiv l>ir A, Buruai in 
Jtwr. It. O. Stx. iV. 100 ; Run.xti'1 Sinil. 320 t and th« SimA GanttMrp, A ipeeul 
inrqwry, ntwlc thniuj;h ttia klxlneu erf Mr, K C. K. Olliianl, C.H. , Aotiatant Com- 
DnaniMMi.Siiid, ahovt that thia ictum cl Ubiliia ma-ch tvii liitch- KiiHiitt in Tiuv and 
Ptriiar there an rcry (cw Suid Btiil*. All of tlioia van bv tncvil lo hUmli. Sgma 
in Tkar arc eld aottjen ; th« Mat barn ooom liao* Ifae Btitkb oonqaaat aa camp 
foOowtn and muidcrcn. 

' Ind. ADt III. 189. ■ Buroea in Jonr. Boy. <Hof. Sao. IV. tOD. 

'Graham'i Bfail Tnb«a. Sir J. Maloolai (Cmtaml India, I. Sit) aba naotaa • 
tradition that ibe Bkit) were driven from their original M«la la Mtrwir and Uevtr 
•outli to KhiU'ieih. 

Chapt«r HI 



(Bombajr Guet 


hftpt«r lU. 


' JMfb. 


within KMndcsh limits by the pressure of Raipttt and Musalmi 
ronigivMt tp QiiiAntt uiid M^vru. But tlio pciHitiuD of the Bhil 
in Kh&ndeah, iKattered in 8iiiall Duinben) over almost the wfa<~ 
district, and R^thered in atrengih among the aonib and west aswa _ 
iw Hk>ii({ tho Dorthcm bills, seoms to show that, as is knowu to have 
been (lie cuse id Uujaral and B«j)>titAn», thu Kbiiiiduib BbilK wvm I 
driye p from the plaipa by ropre powerful i uvadera and set4)ers. 
Hie c loBP reagmblanc c in npporauoo, character, lan^affe, and . 
coatomg bctwtiin the Bhil of the ylainm|^j)|l|eJaBjlaM vil I agent, 
wonld aeem t<i show that tho buik oi tliepcoplOave a coDsiderabUla 
atrain of Bhil blood.* On thv uthvr hitoil, tho tnarkod dilTtiniiioifl| 
lK>twv<!i> th e we(tli-ii Biiiltnid lIia liill Bhil. as well oa the marked 
variety among tliiTiii'eiit iribo^ ut uill Bbits, seeni to show that the 
word Bhil, proporly belonging to the pw>[>1« found by the E^arly 
Arlan cooquerom and aeKlen* in posaeMuon of RajjiuUiiiu and 
iCh^deah, was afterwards npplie^^^^^^awle ^ foro at and hill 
tr iboB of thoae proTinoes, nMinyT!^Snoi^ni^no^SIong~io the SHil 

TheMoghals (1600) fonnd the Bbils hardworkin g and loyal 
subjei'ta, and undor tbo Moghuls they seem to have con tinued qai^^ 
and orderly .* But duriiigthv eighteenth ecnlury in lEe 'diaitirbaDc«^| 
that marked the transfer of power from the Moghal» to Uic MiirAthM^' 
^^ey aaserted their indepeudouce, and tb<; MaritJi fe. failing lo 
bring thorn to orilor, treii teil them aa on jJIaw!;. gave' Ibcni ni'itber 
eocouragement nor prot«<:tion,and allowed thoir lowest olIiiicsrA to lake 
their lives without trtiU. A Bhil cnnght iu a diftlnrbud part of ihe 
country wm, without inquiry, flogged aud hanged. I'lirltii-v wu-v fnM<ly 
nsed. Exposed to the sou, with his nose slit and his earn atripjiod 
from his head, theBhilwaa burnt to deathon the heated gun or iatl 
embraces of tho n.> tl*hot iron cha ir. From a high rliRn«-ur Anto 
hundreds -kviv. yearly bar led to destruction, and in the towns ' 
Dharangaon, Ch&U^acHa, and Kopargaon, large bodies of Bhili _ 
iw«embled wndi-r a full pi-omiso of iHn-do«, wore boheoded or blowiT 
from gnns; their women mutilated or sniot bored bysmuke; audtlioir 
ohildren diuihod to death agaiuat the slouoit.* J 

After an unaacceBsfat attempt to bring them to order by force, 
tjie British adopted kindly miiucurcs in their dealings witli tho 
Bhil«. fiy tho personal influence of m>me of tho oarly ofHceiti, 
Robertson, Ovans, and Outram, many fibils, as meml>orK of a polico 
Koxyn and as husbandmen, settlod to a regular wderly life. At tin; 
same tituu, though {hmou wait eetJtbliAhed, and haisinceoathe wbok 


' TVlDch UoUteil froRi Ih* oUiOr pcopla it CNinnt b* [trovcd t^t ItMi «n{[in of tb 
mi* in India u (tixtinot (ran t^ d tlw oantnion cultivitton; 1>t. J. WiUmi^ 
Aborix)B>l TribM, 3. 4. 

■"nia winM Bhil h giv«« *" ""TIT **"* ^ ""* »efc»" wUdjW it Gnbun'* Bhil _ 
TribM. K*h<ip C<ttd«-cJ) (Hair's suHkitt TextOTrTSTTB ol ojiiiiioB that tha~ 
RtiU balonip to th« titaHj of mco^ who, Iik« the KoIm uil SAntluJi^ entered India 
frocn the noitli-cMt. 

■Optua Gmham'i Khfl TribM. Boh. Gov. Sol XXV]. 2U3. Al»l Kul (Gladwin'i 
AiB-i-Akb»ri, II. Mlnya : "lltwkiiebaadiiicn arc dntifnl nbjecti *ad very lab 
They an of In* toIloviuK tribei, Koony. BbeiK and Goimd," 

• Ur. J. WiLwii'a Abon^al Tribe*, *. 



{mvailed, any alight disttirbanoo Has been enotigli to stir in some 
tit ihi- Bliil Iribt's tinT luvr of ii^]nii«<r ntid disordtT.' £voi] vhen 
ke has ffiveu up dijtijrtlorly liiibitfi tlio libit hivi iiitv(l« littlit rwlrnnco 
in oomjort-or akill. Itrno^ance, caro leanness, and lore of liquor, have, 
HpecMly in wcet4>rD KhiiDdrsIi, sunk many ot theio dwp in deb t to 
tli g ita*-"!" tjujar Kunbis . 'I'he wlmle iiiftfjiin erT of the law oourtw is 
worked by the (itijar to keep hia debtoni in hia power, and in gpite 
sf thn great rise in the value of thoir labour, tno BhiU work on, 
except that theyum fed btttweuu »c«d-limr iiiid harvest and are given 
an occufliooal turban or rolie, little leaa poor and degraded than they 
wvre in fonuer tiiucs of trouble asd disordiT. Etcd where he has not 
tank to \w a vt^ni-anl, us a sniall liiiid holder, tjiit Bhil'n carelesanms 
and want of skill prcwiil his iiuoce»)', and as a labourer, tliougfa if 
be plcHMos he is a moat efficient worker, his idk^ncifs and fitfuinesa 
•taad in r he way of his earning nay eonsiderablo wage. 

Though fiiund iu kuuiII numbers in every part of the distriet, Ibo 
balk of the Bhil po)>ulntiiin belongs to the weateni districts. Of a 
Urtal of 120,020 suals, ii;i,7'J\ or h306 per cent are found in the 
three weatern sub^divisions of Tnlodu, rimpalnvr,and Nandurbilr.' 

fCh&ndcsh Bliila mar coDvententJ^ be anranged onder thre« 


gniups : plftig Bh ils. bill tad forert trjby^r Ml J , "^"^ ^^^''' '^'^9 
plamUhits, the largcMt aiid nio«t cinliwca claaa, found in Kinal^, 
nnmbDrs in almost all tho villages of central and sonth KhAmiesfty 
uni kniiwii Mm ply aa B hils, in coutradistinction to the Tadris and 
Nirdhifl, the Khutibt and NiihiilK uf the osatprn Hiil nnd^s and the 
Pivrifc Mathradi and (Jivifc UhiU of the west. Tlie Rirej' *"*^ 
hill <rib<4 ari>, in tho Sfitpnd&s, tho Bard^, Dhink4s, Dlutrepis, 
(liivite, Kholili*, MnthviLilis, M^vchiK, Nalial«, and Varlis, and in 
the Sahx-idria, the Uaiigt-IiiH. The mixed tjjbes are three, ooe 
Ibo Bhilai lis . half-Bhil half-liajnut or Kunbi, found in the eastern 
Kiit)mdii«, i\nd two half-AIuHalm&n Italf-Bltil, the T advi s in the 
eastern 8iiti>ud&a and th e yirdhi s iu the S4lm£7^ in the sonlli. 
Tho large dass of coramoD or pkain Bhils, and meet of the wifder 
hill and fiirCMt tribes, aro broken iulonn endtese n uinber _q f amjj l 
claa^aome of them, such as Faviir, Miilr, %arda, Ho none,* llori, 
G£ikwnd, 8hindi, J&dav, Tb&kiir, and Ahir, arising from a claim 
to a strain of non-Bbil blo od ; othors, as Vttgbia and Ghania, 
kaken from the n anna orabim nls ; a third set, as Fipahta, from 
Ihf* nsTtiPF of frcM ; 'and a fowrth, of miaoellaneons origin, from a 

I utj or acme prirato gig;ial.' 
iLiiibers of those Mib-divisions 

The typical Khfindesfa Bhil, 

are not allowed to intonnanj. 
Bhtla differ mnch in aniMaranoe. 



Bkiti. • 

L'Somn Botioe of tlic chief Rhil riiiewi m girtn htkrtt andar " Hiitorr ". 

T*Tb, deUib wo . TilolU 27,236. I^iapJiMr H.«M. NuadurUr if.MS. ShikfeU 

t.SSZ, DliiilU 7132; Vuitol TMl. Anulner 5003. Shirpur 4S30; En>»d«l SMO, 

PAchora aOM. CbMida SUT. ChUkigsoa ISSS^ Nidrkbad 1097. BbaiSvkt DOT, 

JUnmrr 601. uul Slvda 028. 

'RanU it Hid to be k lali-divinon of Ok Smioms ulaoi, MhI (fce Im wiU not 


[Bomlray Oaietteer,, 







thi> wild wovdxinnt) of Uie SJttpaiUH, ia ^wk , welt-made j activoj 
and limly^widi high cheek Ixiaes, wide noekrils, and id some cbmi 
coarse, atmoit Airican. features. These urv no ilotih! stunted nn 
degmdcd b_v nvnnt and ill health, and |>vrhti]iM by iiklt'niiarringt! wil 
^dcr itnd lower triboa. Among the Routherit aud west«i-u tribes, 
who (trubal)ly awre nearly represent thu original typo of Bhil, are 
many welUbuill and evon some t«ll haudaome mon with rvgniar 
featnrvs and wavy hair, lite plain B bila ar» ecaroclj to be, 
disliugiibhed ftom loca l low ctoas niadua.* 

Kx<;i3pt among some of the wHlder hill tribes, who porhapx arfl 
improperly nuikcd atnoiig Bhilii, the Bhila have no trace of 4 
different from tSat of the country whoro they arc settled. 


I 111 




Locording to the goographical potnliun, BhilH xpciilc tbe CognnU) 
diuloct« iif Miu-fithi, Uujsrdti, Uiugdi, MovAdi, ^'armadi, and 
Kajput^ni. They have many peculiar terms, and, wifli some Prikrit, 
UHe many Skythlnn words. Tliorc i« no Innjoof any connoxiou 
with Ihn tri)>e?i of tuiuth India.* In Kh&udcHh their dialect in a 
mJMar e of liinduslJiui and Marat hi with GnjarAh endings. It varies 
coiiiiTderably in diffcrenl parts of thu district and among differen'^ 
tril>o>t. Thu langnugn 01 the i>lain UhiU diffvni little except i 
prunuBoiatioQ from the MarStlii spohon by the other poHAMit) 
while the Akr&Qt P^vr&s and wostem Bhits speak, anio „ 
j^hemeelrus, a dialect of tiujariti unintelligible to the plain Bhil of 
central and sonlb Khindesh. 

Formerty mom BhiU lived in hive<liko j^gjjj^o roating the tops 
i»olated hil lit, luutily put together to be crept into for n few wce„, 
or months, and then left.' Most of them a till live in th atched huts, 
j'Aoptfiig, leavin g them at once if disease break s out, or if the bandet ia 
thonght Imuntcil or^tiihicky. A few have oao-stopic-d dwellings, th 
widU of inibiinit bricks aud the roof of mud with a Mninll vcmti(1nh i 
Front, and divided inside into two or more ro<ima. Kaidi hou.'iftholi 
ha» »« many cups aa It hiia members, ono or more earthen, woode 
or metal platters, a Iarg4> earthen or mettd water jug, and cooki: 
ntensils, and a wood or metal ladle ; a stone slab with roller a 
lumdmiii, and a largo knife for cutting vegetablest li cot or t 
with liedding, a blanket, and a qailt made of pieces of clot 
8titche<l one upon another ; a cow or biilTnlo, a few fowls, a sm 
fishing uet, and, now and then, a sword or matchlock with a b 
and a good stock of arrowi;. 

* Vha hiH Bhil has E«ldom any clo thing but a piece of clotJt rouB< 
hiK loiui* and their womou a ixnarw: iJiltcrcd i-obe. The peasant Bhil 
^ wears a turban, a coat, aud waislclotb, and thiTJr women u robe with 
or without a lK>di(.'<>. Both men and wouien wear brSM or silv 
eu-nnga, and wLttii they cuu afford them, anklirta. 

I C»pl*iB It«B ia 

Onikun'a Bhil Tnlw*, 

Bo m. 8d XXyi. p a. Dr. J. WiUnn,, Aboriipii*! ^riU»i^ 
m. Bom, ii w.^SSLXXVt . »» ; .nJ Mr. Sind«?i C. S., >u In 

I'l Aborigiul Trilica, 3. Mf . fiuiuliur (Ind. Aat. IV. 33;) M>yi | 

|i»vr ■ wi^iiliar voeibulnry, bat arn "In- of It-lliiii; it. ~ 

'tttBh»i.r» BIul Tiibw. Bom. Hov. Scl. .\.\VI. 'JW. 




Pe««»nt Bhils Uriuk lir[Uor ntiil cftt inillot bnwtil, carry, conlH, 
T«^tabU'», tiHti, and, when ihcy can xffortl it, goot'a fleab or mi}ttoQ. 
Uouctaiu Bbils aro much leea particniar, Ulie y Dftt carrio n, atumnU 
that bavii <]iiid u mitiirul diiatb, and probably iu out-yf-lhc-wtty 
pJacos, iliu fleah of the cow.' They teod on wild roots and fraitft 
and ua all sorts ot venniii and fiarbiige. Bxceasirely fond ot 
donntry Epintt), gonvrally moha, BaMin latifoUu, and iriimcKlvnito 
in tbuir u>u}, they aontutimes, as in Akrini, (lislii them, and in 
iiUior places bay tkoin from the liqnor-Beller or Bmuffgle tliem. Tho 
luwla ad Bhilg giro c arte dinn tfrB at births, bfitratlialB, marriagcSi 
aiiHT ^imtTix, *rhv«>o d'iun«r.<, guntrnlly oookvd by tho women, ooDsist 
i< )i«at bread, split pease, and graili, a few veffotablos, and A 

<1 .i((ared milk. Tbo mon do not, bke ibt' biKher castea, tako 

iiR ihftr HpliT tpinmrnta wjn-n thuy dine. The food itt served in 
Wll-iiietal diitheH, four or &vo perMinn eating from tho same disb. 
Children dine with tho men, and women and grown girls aft«r the 
DiGD hnvc dined. At thi-iw f<,'ast« thoy nvithor oat llvidi nor drink 
iiifuor, imd, except at a di^alh fcaMt, tliey idn-»yti end witJi singing. 
The uiontbly food espeusea of a IJbil, his wife, and two cbildreu, 
v-.iry fnim about vight to sixteen shillings.' 

Thriftless fuml of Hpiriu, and loathing ateody work, the BhJl ia 
simple, ^tbful, and boneet. t l ie wome n, who in former times went 
to battle sometimes* using slings with great effect, have m uch Jnlliien m 
»Tpr the men. Though shy and timid, thvy nro kintlly, intelligent, 
hardworking, and boneat.' The Bhils are fond uf amasement and 
excitement, hunting Rnd fishing, plaving games of chance, telling 
stJirii-v, ^ingingto tlu>iw,\-<impi>nimcntof asix-utringedfiddle, cAiivir, 
nod daui-ing. In a BhildaQyy^ien and women, k<.»iping time to tho 
music with a dowble ahnffie, bend backwards and forwards, wheeling 
ronnd tho players in an irrugnlnr circle. At these dauees men, 
with much geslinulatiou and wb<K)ping, often dress tbemB«lTee aa 
women, as Gosavis, or as wild animals. Occasionally some of tho 
dancen! mII nloug the ground, join bands, and bound backwunldand 
forwardakvefiiig lime tothi- mur'i<: with » double Khufile or jif^ng 
nioveroenl of the feet. The muaJcaJ instrumen ts are, in the ea«t of 
the Satpudiis, » drum, fIA'>/, and a bagpipe, |)am'. llie drum, dAof, iit 
tn»de of g>Mt tdcin stretched over a hollow block of Pterocarixis 
■nantupium, bijarsal, wood. The bagpipe, patn', is a hollow pnmplun 
fixed on two hollow Immboos with lute-like boles, throo in otw and 
five in the other. To tho end of the pipea is fnateued a bellow biscn 
or cow horn, and a hole Ut made in the nock of the pumpikin down 

Chapter HI 


mu*. ■ 

' Mr. Rbcbur.C. S., in Id. -Aat. in.13% Thii ia not qnitc certain. Compare laxL 
Ant. IV. 337. Aknlni AUd TaiotU Blub Mt oaloo* uu) VcRetablfi*. gronttd IniU, 
Am, kodra, riot, millet, uul liuli*s aullci. Mcbvfta Bhib cat hicni, ec*t*t bwet, 
, bnSaka, ukI flili, bat aot ttw lUab o( hon», cowi, or tmuoclc*, nor do 
I tftavtn at crowm. Tdoda Mimlatdir. I8TS. On« MuniiJ tlie Bhib nover 
a monkey. Ilio Central India Bhil) (Utloalm, 11. 119) cat not only th« Owh 

Jna. but eJ Mnn. 

* Thi* lualiulc* In-o skfri ol miUct. tiultin reiUct, or vhtat flour, k day, 4d. toM; 
i tUr naW. i-t.; ppietw l-i. : lolil lid. (A anman). 

' MalLvIni (CtDUnt tb'lU, U. 181) ofao IjiTCa tlK> BUI wootun ■ SDOd cbwwtu let 
kiniUiiKu sod bud HMk, 




> Aflt. 

(Bambar GaieUeer>: 



which the Bbil blows, moring his fingers up and down over the 
Iut«-1y]«8, tmd mnking a 6onq^ mmnsly likv the Ixigptpcs. Ii 
the weHt Sdl|nid(iit they um a kuttlodruni, t»r, heaioa jnlh slickit, 
uid a tamtxrimue, <laf. ' 

* lu praying to MntialniilD tminta and to Khander&o, the Bhils often 
mak^smalJ mud hor&es, and promise to give one of them to th^^ 
Bhrine if their pctilion is hc-itrd. In comniun with Khrindvith KnnliidH 
lliiiy hiive AD extpftuie reverence for Lhe horfW Kiid dog. In luauy o(^ 
lut-ir stories the chief event bangs on the help given by an cncbautod 

The Bhilit have no tcnu>l<H>. (h-«r some o^ llMir most 
iutages they raise open sheds ; bat, ingeneriil, fur a place of worRhi[ 
they choose some trttc consecrated by a few large stonn wi on 
n mod termce Tmilt minid it« root. They hold Ben»r<i» sacred, 
and risit other regular Uindivsbrinos including Nixik and Jojun. 
Their special ulaoe of pilgrimage la IJauinant Nkik'a Vidi,' a few 
miles K<>uth4bS<uigamnoi:un the Pooiia road. The less wild Bhils 
have gciioniK a BnihniAi who acta a« a houso prieiit, nod is paid ii 
money or cloUies. 

Their chief festivals ar e HolJ (March - April), which they alwa} 
celcbratu with drunki-n orgies, and Vafrii (Otftober), when iiiaoy^ 
of them g o to tho cfaiet tow ns. aiKr7m their ontakirtx, sacrifice 
to Durga, a ^jddewt whom they at all tinios reapeot.' Strong 
believers in witchcraft, they have B aryfa^' m- hered itary sorcerers. 


' "* on 






> A hw mSM Minth tA Sanprnm*. by s {mm call«d tko HMinattt Niik'* VHi, th* 
rard diinl)* ■ \etty pUlMii. n«u' th« toj^ upon thii rid^o of a natural tnpilykc, a 
•toie pilbr (K«nvDnier*taa Uw ilwUi of jWrnaot Naik, a toca] Bliil vtiict wbo nuiile 
wsrod tbc Mochali, or, M^ordiiig to anutbcr Mary, on th« l*cabwn. Tli«ir «uuniy 
OMnc fifhtiug about KTcnty mile* titan Poona, and th« BbiU waited tot than to paai, 
Aa Haanuuit N*ik wh bcodiag hia bow, a troopcv ahol htm ia Um btoMt with s 
matchWk bolL Tb« wcnnd vm fatal, but m h« t«ll ha UManJ hia duft and killed 
tbc) b<)fac«nan. Afl«r the hattla tbo BhiU brmuht UaBnianl'a body, and fatuittl it 
whora tba boratmaa bu) at«od. tferc all OhiU fnv* lo be buriad, uid mim a y«Mr 
tboy otme and day cockt and drink deeply. The Imah ia covorod with titti* woo iI m 
Uga and ama oOcrni by wonhipiiKa, wba hope by lIuunaDl'a favour to cure aa 
aiEng limb. Cloaa by are two or tbrae otlicr t-Jioba of Uw auna aart, (ijoan plat- 
tonam nmnMnM by litUe otwliaka, and otbera mofc raodcai. Ur. 3in«Uir. C.S,, in 
I»d. AnbT.S. 

* Hie lUoda wd Aktiai BhiU hxvc tbrae boltikya in tbo y«aT, r^okbr. Kmili, 
•imI lloti. The fint i* odebrsted in the rainy aMacn, whoa tlie fod vlf hder, who 
haa M> form or atoiM iina|t*< ** worahimHid at tbe htadmanVi honae. In honour of 
th« soil tlie headuan offata ■ han and duthbutM liqnnr. At flindlf (October) Ihcy 
woohlli tbo vilLq^ god, and the hoJiday cintinuM tor lliroiMlayi. The hcadmaa 
dUtiibntaa linoor. Kxcvpt aoma wbo utvlviid to bu iufiired by the |{od tboy du 
not dAOcc. A fNiHUo lakilUd. nowovk iaaUowtd, snd all boay thenuolro* wHh 

Sying OB tha unall dnim, iMoJtf. At Holi tisM tlte headmao dblnbulM li>incnr aail 
ntwrymakiqiFlaala for Are daya. 
a Banla are iDppoMd t* have tba bM«ditary gift of iaqiinttiMi. Thair po««n 
•ra dararuwt till RHiaad byniaii«^ and (or tUa naaao they have aolaHef HuaioiBna 
co«n*cl«d with ttMu, proftcMmt id nagaeriMM aeap in pniaa o( tbo Ull daattts. Whnt 
tlta racitaUon at thww eoog* haa «Kait«d tbom. tha DanAa brtpnlo danoa with fraotio 
geatnrM, awl, looeontng ibeir lop knot, toat and vtiirt thnir hcaiU with attui^ ocmrol. 
■ioM of th« whole tnme. In thii etaU of phnauy they otter <«aclca to vhioh tboae 
who consult tlieiD rarefnlly Uateii. TIm BamU are uf lasitM* caetea, Brtbmana, 
Dhobhii, Ila^ims. aad other nindHL and adaiit diadplea. Bf«ide> m oratlw thar act 
a* phyvioiana, aM ours tnBing complaint* b^ tMrba and otl»rr lortnt mmtikm. Wbea 
tke djtWM U beyoad the reaoh at that »ktU, they attribute it to Itao e*il iaflMocc of 



tLoy cohsdU on nil ocoasioiia particulartj wli^n tiliiDiiitif; 

pluodur nuil, ami wUi>»c iuIt^ ihcy uliuoet alifayH follow. 

A^aOMlly am<mg the lowE^r tribes rery gn>al tUtvnHuu w |»id Co 

■lois. Iffe man lets fall hia bread by accident, if n )>ird wrmina 

tat the luft, if n tniaku rroMiM tbe p«lli Hod escapes, or if any otm 

m>-<-la them and aakji where Ihi-y are going, iht-ri! will bu no B|>oTi; 

M^ utber hand, a bird screoming od the right, a dead analdr, or a 

-r-r r-'-'ing without speaking, promise a successful day. If bad 

: -nt, thu HhilH, saying ' ruit tnga,' otum iniiko in thu aanrl 

i.r diixt ut Lhu fxiad, an image »f a man oraomelitnea two images, one 

uf a man the other of a woman, and throwing atntw or gm«s orer 

tiwta sot Gru to^ha hoiip, and boat thoinuigvs with stickn amidst 

much aljtt»' and uproar. Tliiit tlioy call billiag bad lack. 

Til at claRses of Bhila differ wi^le^ y j g paatftm a. Among 

the wudtr mountain BhiU tlio only obi^ervanoea are at marriage 
and death, and ihoy arc of tht:> Kttnplit^it. With thu assent of the 
rirl'-t fathi'.r niarria^oa are generally arraugcfl oiTdumd by the 
Niiik's prime rainintcr, pradkan, and the^paste com^utee, panch. 
The aiii of a HrUiman or Bhflt is not wanted ; a feast with plenty of 
drink completiBR tin ceremony. The chief and hin minister got Wif 
a. crown each, and about £1 5s. (Its, 1:! ««. 8] are spent un drinking 
and f<.<nfiting. At di--aths wild Rbila have no special ceremonies. 
Thry Uike the dead bodv, and bury or burn it as in most 
convenient. Over their chiefs they raise oaims or rude pilesi of stonea, 
and at certain times smear the top with oil, red lead, and rermilion. 

The more c iriliitfld Bhi la of tbe plains hnra very completo 

t-'p. ano pea th ceremonies, differing little in dotail 
iciised by the higher classes of Hind us. At birth a 
ito i» utiiphiyed, and boaidea a bottle of litiutw, is paid two 
. lagH if the child is a hoy, and one slnlliDg if it is a girl, 
for four days no one hut (he midwife tonfihes the moUicr. On Iho 
morning of the lifth day a pit.-ty of womeu are called, ami twth 
toother and chdd are balhed in warm water. Just ontaide of the 
threshold of tJie but, the mother cowdungs the ground and traces 
tanneric lines. In the middle of the drawing .sho pliiecs a lighted 
lamp, setting round it 6ve fiiot stones corresponding to tbe number 
of days since the child w-ta born. Hound these pebbles she lays 
pieces of cocoa kernel, and over the whole (tpnnkle.t turmeric, millet, 
rwi powder, and liquor. The guests drop a few graiua of millet 
over the mother and child, and thuy como back into tiie house, ^tar 




Bkit*, ■ 

loaw wmn, iiiumia. la Mon ombi, n n laeir any m nni oat ms wiw 
ttoy <!(> i>r parfonning vuioua Mreai'miM, lomeliiBn lij miuiif auAM 

Spwavtni ft huncb nfpcBeack'a fcstlian rnumi (be pttamlh head. In ao 
il voinuiuillxe<l<»iiu the witvli, w*ill<ytimtia2. IwUliiig, uidotli«r toi 

I wlccili, MtkSm. la bhIi omm, it n their diitr to finl oat Ue witdi, snd tkir 

atlier tiMot 
I aome caum an 
tortun, foroa) 
t4 riaoJM* tier name. Tbof muat know b«r ouim, hm rnuon fur ti^abling hor vintin, 
mill til* tcrnu on wiiKh ib* will b« sppmaad. Tlie Barri* of ttie pourer Dhili ilifTcr 
in xima mpaota fram Iko N*t. Beyond llw ulaahtna of itoaa* tboy nyjiifrc no moab 
to axeita thani- Novicos an reqaired to peitortn itaily ibhitiuBt in wutn vator (or 
nb« <bkya, nod tn altoir Uioirh»ir to^w aatoagaapoinbl^ lliey then andvrgo a 
pniuUoa : and U muaie dot* aot •itmnbte Ihtai to a atata <4 Rwiajr, Ihejr are 
Tc)«tad aa uot being (aToared l>y tiM goda with eaoofh iptrrtaal gnuth Traat, Roy. 
Afc Hot. 1. 77. 



£pt«r m. 


thifl tlie j^ft'ls ure feoatod with wheal ntid rico brciul, mnttoii,an(l 
liqiion aiiil.the wh<.>)« itight ^s R{>e»c in ttinginff, xtnokin^, udiI 
drinking. The lamp is allovrcd to hiaro for tweiily-fonr hount.' 

On the tnalttii duj a, diidi of boJIod millet an<l split pulse is 
nadonmdy. Some of it i« Uid on a brum pliUt«r in which are hIm 
plwwd tw«lre wheaten cakas uid lighted lamps, coirespi^iiding with 
the nnmber of days since chv child's birth. In another diab a lamp, 
drti, is 50t,' Hnd alun^ willi the iiiothor, woinuD go in prooession, 
flinging and beating the drum, towards tho neamt running watvr, 
where the mothor arranges the twelve lamps. The cakea are placed 
in a ]iaubt.'twveii the lainpn, »nd a Iittlu of tho boiled food is laid 
on each calce. The mothw worships the witl4>r goddoiM, Jnliin-la, 
throws a little red load, rod powder, and some grain.t mixed with 
turmeric into ihu watvr and on tliu twi'lvo tamps, and lighting 
• Gn> bofoi-e llie lamps, feeds it with oil. They then go home and 
feast on mixed rice and palse and oil. 

Girls are generally mamed between tw^lre sod aixteen, and 
boy« botweoa etixu>«u and twenty. But from thoir parents' porertj 
both boys and girts often remain unmarried till they aro ovei 
twenty. When a father can afford to marry his sou he look*' 
about for a siiitiible mittch. Tho girl must not he the boy's first 
coQsiu or belling to the same clan.^ Suggottlioun of marriage como 
from the boy's house and aro taken by the Wy's relations to (be 
girl's Gather. When it is known that a, ^Lviuiraltlu reply will he 
givenij^fomiAl proposal is miwte by the boy'a father, or his ncarosb 
reUtJoor Whtsn the aSnir iit so fur xetttcd, tho nearest relallona 
both men and womeu go to the girl'x hou»e and then; ask that the 

S'rf jihatl be gireo in marriage to their boy. If her father agrees, 
a girl is brought out and »c»(ed among the guests, and the boy's 
father or his nearo* rolatioa offers her a padcot of aweetmeata. 
This over, they dine togetlier and the guests before lenring talk over 
the betrothal, and a day or two after, with (he help of u Br^hmaa 
astrulogor, tho boy'« fatlier Sxpm the l)otrochal day. 

On the betrotltat day tho astrologer, the (toy, bis father, and 
other relations, taking with them a robe, a bodiwf, and sweiitmwitfl, 
go to the girl's house. After resting for a aliorl time, the girl'ri 
father calls a council, paneA, and in thoir presence agrees to give 
his daughter in marriage. The boy's father th«n presents the girl 
with a robe and bodice. A married woman toncliciK the girl's brow with 
red powder and gives her somo swoctmeata, blessing ner and hoping 
ffiat/ like them, ner life may be sweet. The whole party then drink 

* During tliMa Ftitii iti« man and vonen nmidn aejamt* ; th« men mtokiaa md 
drinklag in one dIiko and tli« women nsf iag and bMiin^ m loaaU drain, JM, and 
driakiM la kBolAor. 

> httioMM the lamp, ibrte u in lh« dl*h nd loail, nd imwitcr, oaoooant, b nixturo 
ol flfs diSsTsnt nsini, and «ct turmeric powder. 

* As nmoiifi toe Rajputa, two fhmiUea ol tba mm» cisn, Shiadi, Barda, Pavir, and 
Bui. cannot tnl«naafTy. Bat marrian ia aUnwod tratWMn membtr* ol tba different 
claaa. Aaajn t&era ai« minor lah-diVMiaM iiKb aa OtikwK, i^palM, and Hari, 
Ixrtireen wkicli, m they an all of the aanM dta, marria^ ia nM allowed. Tb* aoMlion 
wb«tb«rtii« m««ber«of Mrtaia familiM maj laumarrjr u d*<idod t>]r Ibt c*«t« 
OQUcit, piHcA, 




from tunda fiapplied by a present of three shillings rr<>m cfw.'h of the 
EiUwrs. That evening the girl's fatj^er gives the guest;} a dipner, 
ud next moming the boy and his party go hunio. 

There is no fixed interval between the betrothnl and the 
nmrmgo. It may be a month or it tiiay be yeiira. When he is in 
I position to meet the marriage oxpenaei*, the boy's fiithiT semis 
wwd to the girl's fothertbat he is bringing the dowry, ijhiin^ or diy. 
On azTiTal be and his company are given refreshments, aud a council 
ii called. The dowry, from £1 to £2 (Rs. 10 - Rs. 20), is settled, and 
the amaant laid before the council in a metal plat«. An unmarried 
woman of the girl's family touches, with red powder, one of the nipeen 
ID the plate, and the brows of the boy and* his party. The girl iif 
bronght ont and seated on the boy's father's lap, and the boy'a 
bther, taking h rupee, places it inside the top of the folds of 
her robe. The council then tell her to go into the house, and 
take two rupees from the plate, to buy lirjiior for the evening's 
entertainment. The rest of the dowry is handed to the girl's father. 
After a feast the evening ends with music and dancing. Next day 
the father, with a few friends, goes to the family priest, bhal, and 
fixes the marriage day. 

Nex:t oomes the turmeric, liahU, ceremony, when turmeric, mixed 
with water, ia rubbed on the boy's iMidy, and part of it is taken, 
by a band of relations, to the girl's house, and there nibbed over her. 
After this, generally for almut a fortnight, iMith the boy nud the girl 
kre mbbed moming and evening with tnnnerif. At both their Miiises 
booths' are built, and at the girl's house an altar, biihHlr,\a raised. 

On the marri^e day, an hour or two before the time fixed fir 
the ceremony, the hoy, riding im horseliark willi n umrriago 
ornament, ham)ig, tied to his tiivbiiu, s^llrt^^ <yth ii fuoipMny ff 
relations ajid friends. On the wiiy hn is t;iken to the tcinplo of 
Uaruti, closely followed l>y liis sUtiM' whi> walks beliiiid him 
with a water jar, kara, in her hiuKJs in wliirh livi' i'lip])?!- cnyis 
have been dropped. Ilidtiti^ iit the teTii]ile all dritik fmm a 
jar, ghn'la, of water, and imo of tlu'ir iiurnlior tin; k'ailcr, rnrdhnrn, 
iH seated on a pony, or on a lujui's slmulder^, and tii.kcn tofhef^irl'a 
house. Here he is feasted ami his f;we nililx'd with sont, hijol. 
Going back to his friends bo wu-lirs his face, and abnut, sunset tbo 
party goes to the girl's house. As they di-aw m-itr, the Imy is jielted 
with onion:^ and fruit, and when he. arrives a. cucoanut or a pieco 
of bread is waved round him and either duslied on llio grounder' 
thrown away. When he dismnimls seven women stniid hcforo tbo 
booth with full water pots, Miw, iuto each of whioh the boy dr^ipsa 
copper. After this, one of the wnuxni waves a, lighted lamp round 
hia face, receiving from him the present of a pieee of cloth, eliollihnn. 
The boy then sits facing,' the east. The BnUim.iu priest sends 
for the girl,' and, seating her face to faco with the boy, passes a 

Chapter III 


BhiU. ' 

' Ohita ii a Bhil vinrA cnrre^pnnAmq with the ^[«l■athi huH-l-t., 

-The booth at Vnihnf'* hiuin in m\'h- of ijitit pnsta and thiit at the uirl's of twelve. 
'lo Home oases tho hvi'lea''""i'i himself g^c,., 
B 411-12 

(Bombay Quet 



kpt«r III. 

' BUU. 


thread routiil ih^m botli. A roloHrod cloth in liold bctwiM>n thi 
Uiglkenuiif^h 1« pruvenK (ht'ir jfttriiig' eitch utlii-r. The girl, joiiii' 
hor handd togetlier, touobea the clotli, and the bay From the olbi 
Bide cUiipa her hsada with both of bis. One of each parly boL 
the boy and tlie Kirl round the wiki«t, wbilu tho prieat, etiiiittitig 
» raiitod platform, rupi-atit ntan-iu^ verses, ftnd Uw guent* t\ 
groins of ri«e or niiliet over the heads of tho couple. After a abort 
time tJie priest claps his haotlti, tb? boy and girl throw garlnnds 
round piicn otJii'r'i* IU^4-k.H, the cloth, is pulled aside, i^na ara fired, 
muKtc plaved, and the gnests loovr nboiit con^utiilaliug; each other. 
Betelniit and li-avos nro di^lrilxiltid itiiion^ tht^ nivn, and tiirmcrio 
«adr<rd powdur amiing; tHe wuiuen. The boy and the girl are seated 
on the altar; the laps of five married women are filled with wheat, 
rice, dates, and botelnutc; and rotiu<] thu boy's and girl's right 
wrigu, yellow ittringn with a piec« of turmeric are tivd. The boy 
and girl then feed one another and the ^eats are feasted. After 
sapper, sittinf^ in small gTou[>s in and about tho booth, the boj'a party 
on one sido iind tbu girl'^i on the othvr, thvy paw tlioir time in 
•inging and drinking. 

Koxt morning tlio boy and girl bathe, standing on tow woodi 
Btools, tha women of uie parQr all the time throwing water 
over them. Then comca the lap-filling, pkalbhitme, when tho 
girl is given clollios nnd omnments, and hor lap is filled with 
whifat, ^i^^e, or millet, a piece of copoa kernel, dnK-s, ulmomli', and 
betelnnts, and the- par(>nt« and rolatiouo exchange presents of cliithon 
and money. Tbon, with music, the boy's mother and her relations 
and fiends go in procession to the girl's house, walking on «lothos 
spread on tho gronnd. At tho house they are mbbed with oil and 
tathod in warm water, and if the girl's father can afford it, glass 
bangles are put roodd the women's wrista. Both boy and girl are then 
presentod with clothes. During this time, till the return procession, 
tho boy and girl amnsie themKelves, biling pieccK of biitcl leaf or of 
odboa kemol ont of each other's mouths, or searching tor a Ix'telnut 
hid in tho utlu^r'^ clolhcs. While (ho boy is at his house tho girl's 
father gives two dinners to bia oa»t<r follows nnd rolalions. After 
two or three days, a party from both families, taking (he girl oog. 
horseback, go to tho boy's house, and on the following day the boyVJ 
father gtTOS a dinner. After thi* tho yellow throads are take^ 
off the wrwts and necks of both the boy and the girl, and they 
■ are bathed to remove a!l traces of turmeric. In a poor family, tho 
orainarj' marriage expenses amount, in the case of the bridegroom, to 
£2 I0#. (It*. 26), and in thecaAoof tlie bride, to £1 10*. (Ba.l5). 

The Bhils allow and practise poly^my and widow marriage. 
When a man wiahea to many a widow .he sonds some of his 
friends to urge bis suit with the woman or wilb her parents and 
relations. If his proposals are accepted, tho suitor tiiko<< to the 
woman's bouse a robe and bodice, a bead necklace, twolifjuor^ra, and 
some boiled peas, and sugar. The match is then settled. The man 
takes ffiih him a few frit-iidH and the mutorials for a feast, and they 
sharM the food with a pariy of the woman'n rohttiona. Ilie womnn 
dresses faerftelf in the clotheti brought to her, and after the gueats 





■?«, ahe and her Iiaainnd pa«s the nigbt t(^tker. N&xt nonung 
kb^ start froui the house before dayiyealc, aud spend the whtde of 
ikt day iu the fivid, in Bomo lonely placi* thm^ or four miloft from the 
TiOaf^'-, thair friundn sending th«m food. Th<.iie widow mwruffea 
«ni liStea nreceded by an 6)(i[)eiueut, which, afrer the payment of a 
^ to thtibead of the communiiy, is condonod by the parvotv nod 

Whan a Uliil a on iho poiut ot death, his relations diatribnte 

miiOBj bidiid;^ the poor iu bia name^ When he dioa the body is 

laid on ii blanks or on a p)pct> of cl<jth spr<Mid ovor a blunkut. An 

_Bu-thi-n [Kit full of tMid watur i.t )j!hl'«<1 ncmr the dour of the h(>lIM^, 

id Eiie L>>dj is bruu^^hl; oat, hold is a uitiiD^^aition out§ide the door,* 

water powrwd orvr it. The old clothes are taken off, and tying 

a nvw iiiei» tif oloth round th« luinM,tho iKfdy is luid on the bier and 

niver»a with a new whiCe abeet leaving the face bare, and the head 

Ocrverod with n tarban. Kod powder, guldt, ia sprinkled over the 

»tid Kome br^iiid and cooked rioo are tied t<^{trthvr io a pivoe 

iii and placed ou the bier. The body ia tbeu tied with a 

.' to the bier, and carried to the buryinp ijround on the 

l<ira of four nuar nialu relations. In front of thorn go the hods 

deceased, the chief unnmer carrying fire in an earthen jar, and 

. u^ _ I thu others carrying an earthen jug full of water, lialfway to 

IhagTSi'e.lhebierislowcrud.andsoineof thouookudfoud is laid uoura 

biuli. The bearers change placea, and without furtlier bait the body 

is carried to the burying ground. Here the bier is lowered and 

'M'umerii httip in digging a grave,* long enongh for the body, 

> prevent it being opimed by wild auiiaidH, ulxxit &v« or nix feet 

In this tho Ixidy ia laid, the head to the south and the anna 

iietl along either side. Cooked rice and broad are pluce<) in tho 

muutli, and the body i» sprinlcled with water. Before leaving the 

gTKT«. the man who is last arranging the body, tears a small hcJe in 

tho winding ^heel. Tlwn tho wholu party sit round the gmve, so fur 

nffihat they cannot seo thu body, and tho chief mourner throws 

a handful of earth on the corpse, and, all joining, cover the corpse 

with earth. When the body is covered they rise and fill tho 

grave, initting a small Irvui-li rvund tt. In thi^ trench, beginning 

trv>m till' tioTth, iLey poor water out ot an earthen jug, and when the 

circnit of the grave is complete, drop tbo jag and break it to pietica. 

'l^hL-n the bier is turned upside down nud bunted, and the fanerui party, 

)ing to the neareiit wau-r, Imtlie and aooumfMRy thechief mourner to . 

* hi>UMii. In front of tiio houtu- a tire is lit, and into it eomc woman s 

is dropix-d,* and ouch of tho funeral party taking some uim, Melia 

azadirachta. leavoH, ibnjws them on iho fire, and paA.4iag bid open 

pnlRis thnugh iht- &moke, rulw them over his fooe. The mourners 

are ouvr |iairc, and after takiuga draught of liquor, go to thoir homes.* 

OapUr XI 


• Tnaa Jtaf. Ab- Boe. I. 69. 

. ■ Thaj aitlMT hary tti«iT iIomI, or covM tb«Bi witfc pttw ei stviiM wbon gnvca 

mt tia prapuml. Wibon'i Abahginftl tVlbM, 4. 
, Tlui u oat nniAJly iloiiB. Mr, J. Putlvn, CS. 

* Tba sbuFo ii Irov if the pl^a ukI iMtmiUa Blill*, who tnvkrikbljr bory tiud never 
buxa tlMlr ilo»d. Bui the Akztm mA IMdk Bhib, cxc«p( la <mm «< 

[BomVxy Ouett 

bajiter HL 






On lh<> third (lay, oue of the women of tlie monniiiif^liDUwIia 
ru'c« tbe. right Bhouldura o^ tho pflll-bwrcn with oil, ntiJk, 
cowclung, nnd wnslit-s llit-m wilU vim ti>ig<t steeped in cot 
untie, rbea Uie four invii ballio aud are treated to a dinDiir. 
the honse the onljr eign of niouroiiig ie that every moinini; for fl^ 
dajfi thu women wuil for about u qii&rUrr of uu hour. 

On the eleventh d«y the chief inoumcr goos to a river, and there 
has his hciid, iH-unl, and fiice shaved, and batbeH. Nex( ho oiakes i 
a doiigh cuw, spriukles it with red powder, aad setting it on a lent 
place, bows to it, and thruws it into iho wutvr. He then batbee a&d 
goeH hoiiie. 

;Klb«r on tha twelfth or the forty-fifth day, a potter, Kumbhdr, 
it called and a seveu-ulop bemp ladder, thodhvan, is sot against 
the wall of the bou.-su tkut ttiv iwul of the dead may cHiiib by 
it to heaven. The priest .iit« at the ft^ot of the ladder and chants 
a verw from the {'urios, aud the string by which the ladder ia 
faetODud to Ihejground w burnt, and tho laddiT pulled dowu luid 
Ihrt'wn away. The npot where thv luddvr wmt tied h then spread 
with flour, and a small plate with a [»eoe uf bread and cooked rica 
is laid over it. In ibi- plate is t^ei a. small water pot, and aloiig- 
wde of Ihu wilier \kiI a lighlvd Iniup coveri-d by an ^^-mpty liawboo 
basket with a cloth drawn over it. This day a erand diuuer in 
prepared, and beforu beginning, five mouthfiils are oumt near the 
tMMKet. The burial ritea for a woman are the Mune aa those for 
a man. When a child dies its Either carries the body in his arma 
and buries it, and on the seventh day a Mmall dinner in given. 
la some rare cases the Bhits burn in»ti>ad of burying their dead. 

They work as husbandmen and fieJ d labo urorB, soil gniss and 
fuel, help tho ordinary Xunbi landholder, and when they can get 
thoni, gather wait aud hou oy. Wives help their husbands, and at 
barvesi time, whole families leave their homes, aud for throe or four 
weeks work ae ri'i^wrs. For this they luro paid in kind, geuemlly 
CArning enough to last them from one to two months. Bhils never 
leave Klilindi'^h in search vt woi-k. They sometimes chnngu their 
village, but for the most pai-t have lived for loog in the same place. 
Their avorage motitlily wagtts vary from tfs. to lliit. {R». ■i- Hs. 8). 
In spite of their good wagt-^ all are very poor and usually iu dobt. 

The Bhils differ much in their t'elj^-ious beliefs and practices. 

pox, chi>Ixrs, anil leproay, bum their doad. The; have th« euriom ciulom ol 
etsrying tli» dM«aw>1'a vifc on hi> bi«r, uiil kfter i^miic s littlo diaUao*, or, ■• 
oUien s*y, tSUr iwKliuig tbo bnitung ground, ol settuig bor ilowii. The wifo bitalu 
btr DackwM, aod trtry one iwm Ixy* a copper Mia ui tb« il«0BiMd'* lucnitS^ Th« 
widow'* ornunenl*, if aliu baa nuy, uid tho docouol'* clothaa nn burul with bim. 
Hi»«hc«Baii(l wHtvr i-uli are givm l.> hti aiatar's son, but the uUtnlurnitun) i« burnt 
wilL hun. Thom-b he i> geamiW, tho aon ia not alwav* tbe fint to light the fniieral 
pUe. lliwa viUr Bhila hsre ao ffxod days (or )i«r(onfuiagtlie »ft«r-d««th cer«inailiaa. 
whoa th^ 0*0 alKinl it. th« citiof mnuriMir buya a hen, and potting it in a Inaket, 
t»l(e>K to tll«apOt where tlw^ Ubtr lijw lliruwa a«»y tho dcoc.iacd'a wlw*. The patty 
then bathe, briiig the h™ back with tbom, and ilnnk. Tho »idoiir"e Iiair >h out off. 
sad tfao hen i* cooked by her. Titc nroc»«Hinga end b; tbi sift of a iDrbnu Ut tho 
dooMWd's M hia siEtcr's m». TalixU SUaUatdlir (1676). 





BhiU • 

SouH of tlie ml Jeat tribe>a wnrakip only the tyer troJ . i'iMli<i«) ; Chapter III, 
■MT pay tipifisl rwvcrouco to the mmtb 'erj mtifa, and Ig MaD4*lcv; FopnUtioa. 
«iul« ulliuni wornUip tho unltutiry \ixa} ttiaHa god n chivHy Bluuroba, 
Khauiiiibn, K&noba, the jfoddeHK A i btLsr&oimJ to, and Shitt&iulta 
tbr smaM-pox go(l^li^8», nbotn thoj invoko undur vnriotta nuoea.' 
AlnxF't mII wiiniiiip tlii; npint^ of tlivir unoeiitora and bvlioTt in 
■ KTah, and oioeus.' Tlii-ir gods are stoueH smeared 
' 1 Aod oil. Th<«j- gvoL^riilly worship tboin ac-(^>nijmniod 
bf their pri«dia, iku Kli^'al<t ur Bhfils. 7'1k<}- fii-iit ufTer nn animal 
&ud Ebeu bquor,' aud after bgbtiu^ a lirs, cast into it a little of tbe 
teth and viae wilb some pulse. Bvpoatine a prayor they bow 
Wfoni.tbc gods, and rbuti partake of Uiu nesb and lt<|aor aft«r 
^•tv'.ug tbe pne»t bis share. 

Amnng thu plnin Bhils disputes are f^noi-Hlly nettled by 
nfori'tic^^ to u ^iiitiii^ii, jmnch. E«vb of tho wildrr inountatn tribtfa 
tw« an b eieditary chie f, naik, some of whom were foruiorly men 
(if ^eat i*owor, and wero eorvud by the BhiU with wonderfol 
Eaithfiiliifsa. Kncb ebit^f ban an be roi^tarY mininty r. OTvuttait or 
c- also a Ithil. As is the cage with Uhira and M&nga, BhU 

c , I .n ii* 1'3' diwtricls nut by ginglo vJllag oa. The diiitrict, 

^Mj^^fHi. i»iiaiata ot a given arc-a or 'grtVup ol Irmn ten to twenty 
Tillages, and, aa its headman, the niiiii reoeives through his minister 
all roquiMtH for tu-bitnition cotnmittvLVt, panch*. All BbiU obey, 
or are auppoaed to obey, the ndik at tlieir particular ^>'irt;ano. 
Differenca of cla n, which is a social rather than a political 
dutinction, mattiiru but little. A Mori Bhil will pay the eauie 
deference to a GAikw^d wait: &a is paid by a tlliil of tbc GiiikwAd clan. 
At all fi-»^«l» and higfa oorcmonics the minister seals and arranges 
Ihr giio^t.i and attends to ibeir wautn, aud bin wife to the wiuito of 
thu women guests. The chief prestdw and loads the feast.* 


■ 1 •[ ".iiH r-ii 
India, II. IM[: 

I,-, I 

I tt^iQur iloilist ftro K»li, Hatipikva. Vi^Acha Kunvor, Htlkn^U*, 
luiit, Knliyii IU]1. Oitian kUJa, lUIUin. ChtukoocUniiU*, 
:<^iiii4U, hualtititimiM, *iij G)u,iut. 
Lj' 'II u( tbi Coolnl luilln Hliib, Sir J. llfila«lm Mn |C<iulrml 
Tb« rnxntiiOH «r* uniiUr, but Uiw foniin •llir<tr*nl (ran taa religion 
:•. ThMT cvtviavDum ui' much uiiitvil tv pfopitiatory oSsriuRs uil 
r ' ■•! Ill* Uiiiilu BiiuoT i&(*fiifil •iaitlM, liutpirticuUrly Iti IhvKwldoM 

•' uvy oUv pay gnat r*Tunjnv« to HaJuUvv. Uf t)ia Blitl jmbHiui of 

<■ I tin, Mr. If ont uF lk« TneouiHiifltrin*] Survey (B«pun (nr i9i677) givM 

;'■ i^auociiiiit. Nol IwlMvuig tli»t orrlaiii Kliil ■•HeaU coitlil rnnkv MOfda 

vail. uKfiinl over lira. I *iinl fur tinan. A« il «m nut n«li tlnw th«y timMoW Vit 
tSuiw the Ifnt with grml nJutvUncML Thar duy » IkJo about (our (««( loiig'uid 
ngfatwa taclm deep nnil tiaU lilM it vithlivw coaI*. Tlia ptimt tbvn niut(«rMl aa 
ffi-n-'-'i"" BDil laaaed the coala tilt lh<T wen hri|clit> Hvtliuii ofTunil ■ luml and 
«ar*d a luikiid swurd aii timia over the li/e. afUT whicli h« il^eiiol a Bhil mtioa by 
tuiD to «alk over the coals, llib th« Bliil did. tokinit six dolibaral« "tvM, and thriou 
mppnlrnf tiio o]icr>t»n. Trickery wu euapBotvd, but «n hi* fevt being ex-'tuined, 
tlwv wttt uot found tlie loMt bnmt or lili*t«>«d. A Mtiialmia peon, a Ba'4v» of 
0«Ab, vu thvn uk«l to walkover the fire, whioh liu di<l wiihovt taeleMlheMtatim, 
aa. lin oaid, it vu crhiunwd. Thoogb be moved katl a Iwt at a tune, Uw fleab <C his 
»ii: .- w lU not even ainjjed. 

' I linir rule ibout lauiiJieoe ■• that Hatipava and Vlahicha Knnver ehowtd grt 
a bullock, and iJicothctfdoitio« a lie-goat or a fowl, a ooclt far a god ud a bto tor • 

■ la Cmitral India the Bbil chieli were colled Tadvia. The people wtf* ikvoted 
to tiicin *ad tniiiUuivIf obej'ed Ui«U CManunda. (Makvlin, U. laO). 


baptar IIL 

Uiwrttbd - 



The following are abort aketchea of Boine of the leading tri 
wliicb, Chougb conunonly included under the general torm B 
diffuf in maay roapocta from tSe moro ordwly iMain JihUn. 

NARits, living cbioflyoD t ho north W j icof tb o Sj itp udfa. bord 
on Uulkar's Kini^ and the towna w UalTMi, PaliUiner, an 
Sindra, and in smaller nambera in Chinnin and Virv&da, are tfao 
most HAvago of tho Bhil«. Vory dark, small, and harsh-foaturc<l, 
ther wear liraaa earringa, and, as aboes, pie<»8 of nilgai bide 
tied witb airings.' Thoy live cbivfly on routs, fruit, and b«mctif, 
ahun all intorcour^e, and lend u» utterly mrago existence. A few 
raise a little grain among ibe anliea of burnt boagbs or barter 
Gorest produco for clotlit but they aro seldom soon bwyond tbu 
limiCa of their niitive foi\!M(«. Some of tiicm arv Muaalraina;* but 
moiit hare no noticeable religion, neither worabipping ilinda idols 
nor following tbu MusRlinAn crocd. Thoy have an lioreditAr^ 
headman, ndik. In 1823 the MahAIa were iu a disturbed slatv, kdi' 
canaad vorv great fawmble.' . 

Kh otiI | 8. numbering 223 sotib, dwell aide by sido with tho Kahri 
ftlongthe noutliface nf the Wj^yi^ijj^, and are found in largii numbBra 
at Dhauli, Vaijapur, andinma^yofthe Cbopda and Shirpnr villages. 
Tho Tadviaaod people of S&vda call all BhiU Khotila. Bui KhotJla 
and Nahitla ana distiDCl claasen, regarded by tbu ()uru Bbil «^m 
degraded, because they indulge in carrion, and do not bBsiiale t^| 
tonch the dmd body of tho cow. The Khotilu barter gums ain^^ 
wax for the produce of the plains. In their babita and customs 
the Nah^B and Khotibi aro muob aliko. They are great huntsmen 
and Tery fond of Uquor, drinking to exoesa CRpectally at HoH 
(March-April) tune. The day after RoU they eet oat hunting, 
and sweep the fonosts running down peafow] and jnngtcfowl 
with great glee anil wouderfnl shocchs, and sometimes with the 
help of their dogs and arrows, bagging oreu a spotted deer or 
a blue bull. Many of ihom worabip the tiger god and refuse to 
joia in a tiger hunt. Tbeir religious oeromonies are very Hiitiple 
requiring nn Hriilimuu. Tb© child ia named by ita parents or 
tribeBmen, and aa it growa np follows in ite parent's footMtvj 
If a boy, ho joins his mher in the chase, helpa to catch liali an 
gather Wvua, Ine, tiom>y, wild borries, and otber forest prodao 
which aro bartered with tiome shopkeopor in the plain for caa 
or credit. If a girl, she helps ber mother iu cooking and cot 
grinding. When tho time for man-iage comes, if old enou(fh th^ 
lad%imself, or if be is too young, his father, arranges with tho pirl'a 
father for a cert.iin price, 'fhe costu committoo, jHtneh, and thtjS 
headman, naik, are asked to witne»i the agruomeul, and a ibiy t^H 
fixed for Uio coromony. The officiating priest, u Bbil by c»wti>, 
known as Mdukar or Cbaudhri, ia the Naik'a minister, ;fmd/uii^_ 
For his service he gets a turban or tiomo other present, or a monEC^J 
fee of 2*. (id. (Ite. 1 m. 4). If the headman is present, he also i^ 

* Tboif MfiMMaBn m mnch ilg*iii«t tham, their (eatero* sr« vnm sinra himl 
diMgroMhIo thu tiM Blilla, vary ilwk ami g( n lUintnutav* rt«tiu«. Ur. Gilxir 
&»x. R«c 3W at ISaa. l!!&7. » lad. Ant. IV. S8B. 

* Mr. aibwM C«U«cU)r kA EUndMli, Bov. Iloc. V» o( 1£«, I2». 




^il half a crown or Uiroc iiliil1ing». Ailor, in tlic ordinRTj' way, 
iba brido and bridegroom Iinve be«a rubbi>d with tunnvric, or lue 
&! ' ' vTonmg tha uiiiiiMor begins tha cy>rt>tnoDy by asking tho 
t' ill tbe ninnc of Iiis bride. Hw WIIk ht'x uiune and Hf» his 
- . -; 1 1 ii or trousorclotli In bor gown, higda. ITion ab« is n^kod 
:]i" :u iiii'i^Toom's name, and aftoi- saying it, ties her robo U> bis. 
'Hill* twd Edgotber thoy turn seven times rrMuid.iiiid tbo coronionyig 
ooinplete. A ffinst, costing fnitn IO<t. to £3 (Kit. 5-ltA. 30), follows, 
■nd tbo bridegroom goe>.i to his bther •in -law's but where he livM 
fmrn It viobV In tfareo months or a yenr, and (hen tnkos tbo brido to 
his own dwelling. l1ioy bury tbi^ir dui^ witboiit fonn or ceremony, 
piling a few atoned to mark the gmTe. Stirnomes common amon^ 
tlip S^nVi-il.x nrti Knlamba, Vjdia, Pipria, and Chav&nia; and among 
: ia, I'akria, oud Ghania. ^^_^__^ 

riv, 1 arlis, and DhAnkfta or Dh&nlcaarAn, people tbe 
stib-dtvisioa and parte of Taloda and SbAhAda. PAxfl^ , 
I ' 3PSS homIb, an? raid to hv Rajputs who were dn?ftiihy 
ir chiefit from their liomo^ near the bill fort of Palagad.' 
Ill) from the Mathv^d Htat« north of the Narbada and are 
l<il Mathvndiis.' Thoy are callud I'Avn* Bbils, I'rivra Niika, 
■nd i'fivra Kolift indiffi-rKiitly, but they are more like Konkan 
MM Kolig than BbiU. The l'4vr^ are usually short and stightlj 
botlfc. Th«ir fwrinres, fiattor than thoso of iho ordinary Uindo, 
bL ! 'ligoQce and gnod nature. They hare low ronnd foreheads, 

r. Ills, and thick b'p6, and wear tboir hair long and monstachee 

i! 'V pbtok out tho board. The women are stoul and buxocn, 

i I young, very Ciimely, fair, and with exjiroaaire features. 

Tlifir Jangaagvis irregular, governed by few rules, Kiill of rolling 
vxwelii aud diphthongs it t» morv lik<? Gnjar&ti tj^n Mariiihi. It ia 
Ettver written, and ther are alwayn examined in conrt by interproterg.' 
Thuir iisr\} has no infinitive, and only two tcnsaa, past and preoout. 
The other Ceasefi are formed by the addition of an irregular verbi 
Though they have inHny woi-ds in common, the P^vriw use fc where 
the Viirlis use p, and in words drawn from n forcijjn eonrce, tho 
P4vrds change < into a and «A into ha.* 

A Panu's bonae ia better built and more confortable than a 

Chapter III 





' TM* aoomot ol Um PAvrii ii Bunly c«iniatcd Irnm ui utkk by Lieut. Rigbj 
(l9*9MnTnM Bom-tle^. 8oc IX. 74'89. • Mr. ItevMlMm. C.S. ., 

*lifl. Ant. lU. 3M>. I woct JctohwhoBHaiUoi toino gtMtsUln golui ihoio. 
It «U1 b« obscncd thai t)>ousb the |»i1ieipt« ffglvi apprMwIxa lb« Hantttii gwfo> 
the KMiiliTe in ih axiA tin; lUMlaDilre tcrb iAo<»m« aiora like GnjKrtti 

' Tbe toUowing «n • few el Mr. Rigb]f'a exanplM : 




BttTT** &BII. 




M* ■bwiiw naU» ttOtt. 
Tn Ml khUaka- 



Avtit bu** dUTtlM 
Ha Uilrl Uofti hal. 




t% hhM ctMnk iboIUl 

[Bonba^ OftutUe^ 



ilipttr III. 



VAr)i*9. tastead ot letting his Mtlle live in liu hoDM, tlic Pd 
bus Sstia])/ two thatched hut» of ioiorlac^d bamboos, one for 
fiiinil; the uthvr for his ciittlu. (rvncrallT scattered about in k 
^^ups, c!Kh fonniug % Binall farming CAtnblishmcmt, tho honses 
onclo§ed by a conrtynrd, on ouesideof vrbichureamngcdnnuni 
of cin-'dlsr store hooAes for graict and a shed for the oartlicii vn 
TMKeU which wo alvrays wt on a rnixud bitmboo frame. Und 
neatb this water-pot frame is usually a woodt-u trough wil 
water for thv goats and fowlii. Mango and othnr troos are planted 
round thn hounefl and along the divi^iiou.t bvlwoon finldit, and are 
carefully protected by bamboo trelliii work. The Pivria eat only 
^obIs, sheep, and fowlt^ All smoWo (obacco, but Ihvy never uno 
opium, aud very seldom hemp. Though they drink a grmt quantity 
of moka liquor at tbcir feasts and raarriagea, in ordinary life they 
are very t«nipenit«, Thcinon wwir a red and whit« striped loincloth, 
tangoti, generally made at HoAhitid in Akrtiui nod c»tting from 
8J. to (W. (:ia«Mn«-4 a»*iiM), and a flhouldercloth. The women 
have gvneiuJly more clothci than tho Varha, but they do not think 
it any harm ^> go naked tn the waist. Liice the VarllM, they wt>itr 
braaa rings on tbeir legs, and maRsive necklaces of bratvii and 
peivter beads, silver aruilet«, and massire earrings two or three 
inchi-K round. The men alxo usually woar a pair of large 8ilv< 
earrings, with a square drop heavy enongh to draw down the lobi 
No chddroQ of eitbor eeic, however young, are allowed to go alio 
without some clothes. Distinguished fit>ra tbu Viiilia and the !o 
land Bhils by thnr better condition, their agriculinrnl habits, and 
their language, the PitvrAit deny tliat tk^y are Bhils aud consid 
the name a reproach. 

Though ahy of jtrangers, when their confidence la gained, tin 
are cheerful, frank, and talkative ; they are very honest and 
hanlworking, and full trust may bo placed on their wuni. They 
are very fond of their country and seldom leave >(.' Affrays, 
chiefly bounihiry disimtt-ji, now and then occur between the peoplo 
of diHereut villagcH, but robbery is almoftt unknown. They aro 
very ho)tpitHV>le among themselves, tbeir women and children 
constantly visiting from bouse to house, and some of their 
headmen spending (heir whole alore of grain in entertaining 
guests. Ftui.siounlely fond of music and dancing, their chief 
musical inBtruoienls are a two-stringed fiddle, mnthi, an 
' i^trument like the bagpi]>o without the bag, pattu, a bamboo tife, 
pavi, ainrge drum, m«>i(/(i/, and a sinull drum, tlhol. Their musio 
iH neither harsh nor untuneful, and is aupenor to any beard i» thn 
plains. In their dances, about fifty men and women pass in a large 
circle round the mn^idans, gradually iM-coming more excited as toe 
music grows louder and quicker. Some of the men flourish drawn 
ewords, and, at iatervals, all raise a load sbont aud turn sharply 




' A ynung P*vra i;ini»»iil. who nu htmod <rt-i>r lo rivc 
irl* c«M, vrnnl licnis, iu»l fcaviag tip»k«n vt hit 

inmiediiitvljr V0uuiutt<<t muciOo. 

a h«ankirl* c«M, vrnnl licnis, un\ fcaviag tip»k«n nt hu ilrowl ni the uiptniivbu 

Uonl. Risby (1640) ia Truu. Bom. ~ 





muii] hcing ontwftrds. Tbobalk arehtulMu>(tmon,nianyof tliem very 
riallc<L Tbey mv much nttacbcd to tjitrir tand and finul oj adoniing; 
th«r boioesteada witli vroru of luangiM!* and duiroli treesi Some 
■re carpenters and ttUdranuths, bnl none borliers or abonniakGra. 
Badi man ia hie own baibnr, and each family makce iui own fi^^ld 
looU And biu>kelirark. Rxccpt for their Nhui» whirli they bring 
Kuknrmnnda, and their ailverand broas onuunents which nro 
it by Uiuda workmotu o! Boahmti, they hare little need of 
bivi^ craftsmen. Tlic womun iiuvor wurk tn the fields. Their otily 
OBtdoor work ia gathering moha fluwerii and e/uiroU nuts. 

Tlieir rulitrioQ is simplo. Thoy have neither nrieata, temples, 

»or idoU. Thoy womhip n itDprcmo cn-aUJr, hhufftnn, and strive Uf 

pinse bin with aacriiicuii aud offerings. In the forest near each 

Tilla^ is a sacred tree, round which, before harvest, the rilhigum 

iBt^C and prostrato themwlvonjb^forx) the rising son, offer com, and 

f»Tilioc gimtA aud fowU. 'l%atdoity to whom tUu8C ofToriDgs aro 

Blade ia called B&va Kumba. His wife, lUni Kajhal, haa alico, not fur 

from her husband'^, a s!K'r(-<) trro to which ofFonngs are made. They 

WtfTMbiji the tig*T jTod, t-AijhJev, but only to propitialo it and prevent 

it attiickinff their cattle, or when it has carried off any of tboir 

people. Though they aeknowk^lgeno bonsidiold or village deities and 

rorentorti nu rivers or firo, thoy are ^ery super»titiou«, boliuviug 

ia witchcraft and sorcery. Before the British rule, many an old 

woman had h^r nose slit under the suspieion of being a witch, 

dakhin, the idea being that tbo loss of the noMO destroys all power to 

work ovil. A bt^Iiof in omona U ooinmon. Udd mitnbon* are lucky, 

Init to Aco a black bird, called pifAi, is most ilUoiuoned. At tlio 

begiiiDiu^ of any nudcrtaking they cnsC omens with a bow and arrows. 

Tbey Kulut*' frivnd.i by taking the two hands of the puraon saluted, 

and Haying Ikaj, bhaj, that is worship. ' 

Ko cen-in'mies take place at birth. The child is named on the 
fifth or twt^lfth day, and for seven or eight days its nmther is 
considered nncle«n. The fnlber, mother, or oldest member of Hio 
family mil the child whaU-vor they pIvMiU). Thi^ have no names 
derived from gods or religion, and no Aumnmes. Bhiitia, Rattria, 
and Mangtia are some of their male names, and Jatoi, Guri, Badol, 
and Chinki, some of the (enuilo nMnies. 

The Duirriago censmony is never porformed till both tho 
hride and bridegroom are of age,' aud the young men nro 
generally allowed to choose for thomiHrlvcs.* Though she is generally ' 
younger, caeCB ore not rare when the wife i» older than the 
husband. Th© youth, or his father, givei the bride abowt 
iA ids. (Ra. -15],* but if poor and unable to pay tho fixed amount, 
the youth gives his bullocks to the bride's father. If poorer still, 
be binds himself to serve his future father-in-law for a period of 


> Licot. Rigbjr (l»191 in Tnaa. Boin. Ooog. Soft IX. 77. At pnMst (1676) Hid 
tilth tatrry tlSar Mnk at t«a or tw«lr«. 

> I^tsr (lS;fl) BOMiinU would m«ib to tluw tlut r«laiiaai look oat tor a wifo. 

* 0( UiiMD £3 wDra tor til* bridt, lb. ot 14*. (orlhnl)rid«grooin.aod ilkenat lor her 
biW. OI UbetIi««iiiiibutmaia(raMd to £11 (Rt. 110), tlio lir>d(i &ud bridtgrooin 
B«tti>g tho •"» M Mont, aad tlk« iacnaaed bkUiu* going (v Uia bnd«'a fsUw, 

B 411-13 


Chapter lit 


• l*drnU. 



eig^ht or ten years, becoming wbat is termed tlie bouse nouon-I 
ghnrjava!,, iho Gujanlti yharjfiiniU. Durinif this period t ha yon 
lives witii tliii girl't fumily and is gcncrnlly nmrriod to hor wh4 
half the t«nn agreed to in over. Miin-iii^eH' are hitid only durit 
Phd]min (March) and Faiskaih (May). Tlio fallier of the yout 
firtt dvmandH the girl of hor father ; if he aCToee, the price demand^ 
is paid, and the tUja ceremony i« oyer. 'llio bridugrooiu's woddii 
garments coimist of a waifltclotb,' aboot eight or ten cubiu lo 
and costing from 2«. to I0«. (Rv. 1 • Rs. 5) ; a tairbnn from 2«. to 
(ltd. 1 • Uh. 2) ; a shoulder cloth * jutha ; a long clonk ; and a liettd. 
cloth. He weauv two silver bracelets, six or eijcot rings on tbo right 
Jiand, and Koniv rin^ •to thv v»rlob««. Tho bride's clothe*, 
provided Ity her father, conaijtt of a robe, luqda, costing from 4«. to 
lO». {Its. 2- Ra. 5), and a bodice, hifhoii. She wears tin bracelets. 
The usiiul ccromonios begin by the bo3r'8 father taking a liqnor jar 
to the girl's bouRe and surinklitig sonie nf it« contents on the lioor ; 
the eldest man in the village in tbt-n asked to perform worship, />iya, 
with the liquor, for which hv receives \d. (| aniia). Ofleriogs of 
ric<( and kotint \'n\aoT an; then miidi> lo their deity Bitva Kiinibn. 
The next day tho bride and briilt-gr*>om arocovenHi with turmeric, 
ftnd the lalter, clad in his wedding gnnncnts, goes in procenaion, 
with mttsic and dancing, to demand the brido of her nnrents.* She 
is then brought out and sealed near her himbiind and whilo women 
chant marriage songs,' the married piir are, with dancing and music, 
rauod on the shunldvrs of their friends. Tliun, with no stint of 
liquor, tba bride's parents give a feaiit to the whole ooin;iany, luid 
after the feast, all go in procession to the house of tho bridegroota 
and are entertainw t^ere for two days. After this tho new' ~ 


!■. Aocoiding (o them, on the diy bdMW maniice, all tba 
I go dudnf: to the bri<i«'i riOua and Mm tiiMW for mt night. 
manniA ncit mominiE, and tfaon, one <a then oarryiiiii the 

* Later (1876) aoomntt ahow that tbia rnk U u-'>l ^wnva kept. \ 

* Tlie wait(<Jntti J* tliwl nwnd tbo vaiat after pasting coio end of It round tha 
•hiiuhlor after th* faahloa ol woan«D. 

VTbo ilvoiUilfli doU) la cither |Jaco4 veil (ald«d em tlia sbouldtr or voni ao a* 
cover tbo li>i-k. 

* Lionv Rigby IB Tnw. B-mi. G<c<^ Sao. IX. TS. Latvr (1876) aoooDBt* differ 
■oveml ol tii« drtaila. 
bridegroooi'* roUtiona _ 
parform relj^ona oernannii. 

l>rid« nil hia waiat, tlwjr ooma to tlifl brida^niMn'a Tiilaga lo perform the mnrr-uge 
cemnoaioa, whicli genmllf take plana id ths aftrmoon. V\ni tliny wonbin 
KhaBiloba. who ii repn>«Dlcd hjr a hoa)) of rioa with two pine on it. Thv coiipfo 
ia tten avatod un a atool. Ike oiuli of then- (faniuota are t»d togiathar. and they 

athrow rine aa each »tticr. Wlun Ihii ia dout^ it ■■ a cuatuin with aunu lamiliGa to 
talA thu pair an their •haulitcra and dwiM. 

* Odd nf Ihatr ouirtuso aoiiip rana ; Biva Kamba tUni Kajbal aaf^ viha, Dola 
diilin* Ki-U Kate *iha ; ItArat KonU awe rod dangro, Rial Kajhal aaua vlba 
vadaona : rUrelbi ohulia ponha dekhno )li viha : tliat ta, ' Row hoautifal ia tho 
Marriago'-f lUraKmnha and lUiii Knjlul. Itii colcbtntfd u-ith »n^ia ""^ mirthful 
nilaii:. RdrAt Knuilm am-nar* like a lahant wBrrVir. ItAui Kajhnl aj-pcan l>eautifnl 
to the liohuliUr. I«l ua dock owratlvaa mlj and go to tfae tnarriaga.' AnotliBr nini : 
Runffa ilovin'i viha. Saola riii» nutl haoU iacua riha; Vn Use liaol* riai U^n 
\AtaA, Rant Ka)lMl l*«(* babi i UAoa KnnUia li^tsa hhii, Baharo ducar rlba hate 
dhataa vigrari ; Biiaa jaou rlba bh«d l^o ohcwu ndle chobw : tliat la, ' Tha 
goiMea* n( tba waoda ia aboot lu bo narrjad. lUna Saala and lltal llnoU aro 
■hunt to be uiiito'L Rh« la tbe aiu*r of the wood g.-dUpia. ahe la the aiatcv-in-Uw 
of Kini E«])ia],ah<i la tb«alatirof Rivat Kumha. A niarria^ ia brang <elelir>tcd in 
Um KTttat inuuntkiua ; aiiniul thu happy Couple with tarmoric : Ut tho aaitetv. aa at a 
rojraT ntarriagp, Kait^ tbn aactiNl powder aitd wavit tlie tan abora Umbi,' Ttaaa, 
Bom. 0«^ *»«. IX. 78. 




' - I 1'dro l"ft together For fire d*ys. Od the eitlb the 

. . . uikist tJie girl homo «uil f^ivM ah undMAiniboiit 

Lft llu- wltulu villa^. Two (lays ufter, th« briilogriKim, wiUi his 

feieadM, gom to Ei» father-in-law's honso, aad pwst'ntiiijt him 

villi » liiiuoF jnr, ih-iHiiniI« hia liriilv luiil vsvoi-t* hur home. When 

he leaves, the brulegreora give^ the headman ot the girl'tt Tiling 

mA of each village through which the processiou passes, l)(i, 

' inn). SiiiifttB fomicatiun bvtwuen ao aniuitrriiM] couple ia 

' IimI by A Httiull fint.', nut) il. ia not tmcomniou for n jrirl hi bu Uio 

■ r of OHO or two cbiWren before lier iiiftrriagt!. No inai-riwo 

imy is performed in such cases. She is mert'ly giren to tlie 

ihcr of hiT childroQ after hu hus paid tbo regnlar casto fiae.* 

hough the girl in tint fiiieil, she foregova by such a murriagu id! tho 

firivilogca of a regularly married woman. 

Widow marriage is allowed; but if the widow hua no son, her 
ti(*r>in-I»w live* not, as a tule, give her the clothes provided for 
W by iiur deooa»ed hiiHliand. fk<r children, if young, accompany 
Itfr; but rutarn to their falher'a houttA on coming of au;e, iiiilvwi, 
<rliieh genernlly happoun, the second hiuband keeps t^em with 
himMslf. I'olygamy is coinmon, and (hose who can afford it have 
three or four wire-i. 

Except lepers, persona who have died of cholera and ftinull-pox, 
VDioeD dying in child-birth, and children undi>r two ertliroe months 
wbn, M a rule, arc bonud, tho Pivr^ either bum or bury their dead. 
8t> great is their arerxioii to a l«por that, when living, he is kept in a 
dkitant cottage, and when dead, iii buried by a Mhiir nntonchiM by a 
Pavra. In ordinary funerals a party of them carry the ivjrpse. A 
Ttipeo, or, if thu family bv poor, a pice is placed in. tho deceased's 
mouth, a little Hce, turmeric, and nxi powder, ;/u/'i/?'ar« rublu'd on the 
forehead, and liis sword' and bowaaoa arrows are placed in the bit.'r by 
hia stdo. With the sound of drnms and music tho body is earried Co 
tho burying or burning grotind. Tho widow wvarngood clothes on 
the day of tier husband's deatli, cooks rice iu an earthen pot, and aft^r 
the corpse i« cnrriod away, breaks thepotoutitidethe hou9edoor,and 
followi) the btiriul ptirty drvH^-d in new clnthes^ On her rotom, she 
|MitA on her old clothe.4, and nnhisa tilio wishes to^marry, never again 
wcfirs guy clothes or ornaments. All the furniture of the decoaaed> 
diKlie:*, cutt, and pols cxevpt drinking pots, is buried or burnt 
with him. If tlie dead did not own thwto articles, tlicy an bought 
and laid by his side, ilia silver ornaments are oUo aometimes b«rn£ 
But shoen, cows, and money are given to his sister's son, bh'iclta. 
On Ibu ruturu of tho funeral party, some drink, and all bathe. Oo 
Uie eighth day aft«r death, irieiHls and rclati'ins meet ut the house 
of the d<.-ceaeed and dj-ink a jar of liquor, 'rbnugli the death is not 
eonsidcrwl to hnvc nuulo the family impure, they perform cenomonicg 
DD the twelfth day aft«r duath. i"ho grunna in smeared with 
Dowilnng, leaf plates ore spread, straws arc hiid to represent the 
dead tnaa'a fore&tliers, liquor ia apriokled on the gromul, and a 




yni* twonl and the lupoe er pice pljiotd ia bU igouth g» ia Uio Ml«i£» ot the 

(Bombay Qui 





iliniier- of He?, or mixod rice And pnlno, is giron to tbe ctu<to*fc11o( 
Oa Aat dny thoy drink, but dft not danoo. It is uol obligatory 
perfurm these cereraoaiea on the twelfth day; if that day does 
Huit, they can be performed on any day within tho month, 
tbeae ceremonies arc oven; Uio nmrest relations do not wcnr tnrbui 
Like other BhlK P&vr^ leave a boose in which two or three de 
bBTe t«kou place. 

F&yri» have three chief holidays, litdraja, Divali, and Shimga or 
ffoii. Indr^ja, apparently In honour of Indm, ix held only when tho 
year is Koud or wh«ii a tow haa to be dtticliarged. It is celebrate^ 
«n any bunday, Wednesday, or other lucky day between Dn^ra and 
pivili. Its cliief ocrvmouy oonsisbi in pUuiting u ladamli, Katiclua 
parvifolia, branch in fnmt of a laiidIord'8,i'i''>i)u'<ir'«, house, mu an 
to remain one <;ubit iindorground and a man's height abovw. The 
brauoh '\» rubbed with vennilion and worship begins at midnight. A 
Boat and hen aro killed and oOcreil, and dnnoinjr iM kept np t4ll 
onybreak. Next morning at abont ten they pull up the braui'fa 
and thn>w it into some neighbouring rirer or pond. On returning ' 
(hey drink and danoo, and oat the ^at and hon offerod orumighl. 

IHvali, sometimes called Nagdivaii, is a yearly feetiTal colobrutod 
in the month of I'ush (Jaiiaaiy) on different dates in different 
villages, KO an to iaat on the whole for nearly a month. Four or 
five i)tuua-i are brought from a neighbouring river and placed ontsido 
the village, but within the limita of Ihu villugu lands. They are then 
p<iint(-d rod. Mild next dar at noon worship begins. Ijiipior is sprinkled 
on thi> gn>uud and fre^y drunk, and goata and hena are killed. 
Dancing bt-f^iis at nightfall. Two men, holding two lighted bamboo 
sticks, go from^oniw to hnuse ffillonnd by the villagem. Every 
houwwife comes (At with a lighted biuip in her hand, waves it before 
Iheiii, sputa their with lamp oil, and gives them drink. 
After dancing for a few minutes, the procession posses to another 
HbtiHo and lliero go thrniigh the vanie routine. Next ihiy they feed 
their bullocks ^ith Indian millot, rice, banii, and parol, and give 
them drink. ^ 

Shimga or Uoli talf^ place, as clsowhore, on the fifteenth of tliH 
bright half of Ptuilgttn (llarch). Inimen^te crowde moot at Ohedgiion, 
the central village and polieo head-<)iiarter8 of the Akr&ii territory. 
A pit is dog, and a wooden rod thrust into it and lighted about 
I t|in or eleven at night. Every one present brings a pieuo of brood, 
some rice, and a cock. Portions of iitette are thrown into the flro, 
and the rest is hand>-d round among friends. Then, with the help 
of »ti occn«iitiuil dr»u}jliL, they danco till dawn. 

lo each village the oldest man is looked up to as tho chief of the 
community and invested with a sort of natriarolial authority. Sitnpio 
forniciklion K-tween an unmarried couple ia punished by a small fine, 
and adultery by paying the injured husband his marriage expenses. 

YXbus. ' like Pivrfa. foond only in tho mountainoua tract 

* FroiD Lieut. Kiglif'aarticla on 

Um Sttfuili Uooal«iii», Trwu. Bom. Geug. i 




•Ite:^ about Uiirty m i|pa went of A knini. differ ^rreatly from 
in anpearaoco. They are tall «ud dark, Tory alira htifwell 
witJi foAtnrcs Homewbot ne^ru iii type. Tbey wear no heAil- 
1, but uarling tliuir hair m tuv niiddlu lut it flow looeoly orer 
shoaidera. Tboir women tutuall; go naked to the wai^t. Oa 
I legs, from tliB anklfl half way nn the calf, tboy wmu- t«ors of 
re bniM rings, fitted »o tight M to Ckuae the Beeh to 
Tboao rings ore never liikoii off, and are bnried witli the 
_ Thongh maQV of their wcrds are Uio same a« thoB« osod by 

Ffirr&e, then is mncli difT(.Teun» buth in promiudntion and grammar, 
Idrit iMigiwge being mum liko Oujuriti t;liiin tJm Pdvriji'. Liviog 
iHea meaner and leas cnnfortaule than the Pirr^', they oat alt 
,, of animals, except dogs, cat«, and tigorc. They luad a pastoral 
\ih, growing littlu com and having luurgu herda of cnUlu, tho 
ing of which is tho wonMin's chief occupation. They arts very 
illing to part with their cowh, but freoly uiap-ase of thi'ir btdlocks 
ith«y si'lilom niio tiny ploiiifh, doing most of thuir tillitguwjth hand 
1*beir birilt and di-aih oustoius are Ihu BOiiie aa thato of Uio 
s', and the only difTercnoo in thoir mairtage customs is that. 
King thorn, marriage takes pla^^e daring any month of tho year. , 
_Jiey luive no divtindion of caste or soct, nor have thev any priest, ' 
jfvru. Ail among the Ftivrfci, tho oldest man of each village acta as 
ckJef of the community and ia invested with a sort of polriardial 

aathon ty. 

j^[|]|{L> Haitort, orOXvirBnitA, nnmboring 154, dTrell here and 
there onder the sliadow of Turanm&l, and along the hillit lowarda 
Sh^hAda and Shirpar. Though ntimerous in Nondtirbfir and Nav&pur, 
they »ri> I'hietly (ouiid in liie high wo-itorn Pirapalnvr platuaua. 
{tither tall and fair, they are, perhaps from the v^oalthinesa oi the 
country, wt-aker in body tlinn the Akriini PAvnia. They euDslantly 
change ihiir huts and more about. They eat beef. They uru a 
timid, inofTeusive, cjuiot, and weil-behaTod people, rather given Jto 
drilik, and especially tho wilder onus, tmtlifol. .They are Tery 
ignorant and Huperatitious, tracing all disastoni Db the inflnenoe 
of witclicii. Their commonest crime in tho^iurder of old women 
supposed to be witches. Far less indnstrloHB than tlio PiivniA, 
thoy are greater drunkards antl very fond of finery. They soldoin 
eater Govi^niiiient Hurviee. Mainly cultiv:il'ir:< aome have of late 
taken to carting in I'impalner. Tlioy worithip Astamba, Gnvlt, 
Vigbder, tind rnrmesbvnr. A bridegroom Ium ofton to serve liia' 
father-in-law for a Uirm of years. Five yeara is tho ui*u»l period, 
but credit ia often given and the girl allowed to live wiUi her 
hoiiband before the fnll torm is over. Among the M&vchia, iM 
among tho KaliAls and Khotils, (ho nuuriago tio i« looso, and a 
wiinntu may le-avu her husband and marry another for compara- 
tively trivial reasons. The oasto oommittoe, ^ani:A, naually awarda 
oompBOsation, but cases are not raro wliun tfa« hnsband does 



> The Mivuhia arr nkjii Ui Ihc 8<Ji)ri.<1ri Rotii, Mtd ilerir« (bgjr namv, [lariiApi, 
Emn ■ eontnctKn of Hiv«U<Jio, man of thn minMt. Mtval ov miMct bcuig a tonp 
•iiedt«dia«««<nl pMinofUia OoMaa totho hickUuda whiob lorta ita WMlem hotueo, 
Mr, SucUir. C.S., in Ind. Ant. 111. 187, and IV. iS8. 

(Bombay OuctttlP 








not think it worth liis while to ftpply to IliO cninmitt«!e, nmloomfor 
bimdlslf with aunther wife. Ib aucli cnaen iobiuts t^iiierftUy gt) wi| 
their mother, and (p-o»-ii-up children reuiaio with their father. 'II 
bory their dcnd, und oflon Iny Ihc diMX'asod'a personal property 
th» grore with him. 'rfa»uyJi mdetbcy mn ao improvabio cinw. 

MathtAj' IB. also called F'AKAitiB .' are found in thfl north ,, 
Tak)da, lu the Siitpiida Bliil %'i1[uge«, and in the trans- Narliiida 
st ate of Mathvild from which th ey take their iiitrm-, nnd fttim which 
tliey~ure~sai3~~to luiTe cwmo to the Sitpudas before tliu BriliKli 
oonquest of Khtodosh. Of ordinary gtit«, they are geoorally dark 
with round fii««8. Thwy. allow their hair to ktow hut nbave their^ 
bcurdn. 'Jlioufth at- home they atill apeak MathvAdi, aniixtnr'^ 
of Gujar&ti and liangdi Neni&di, with outsiders they talk in 
biui^agc which ntn-nw U> Iw a mixture of Gnjarati, Noinadi, _ 
Unlu. Formerly they dreeaed in UojarAt fii.shi«n, lint they havB 
now taken to the Uhil loincloth, langoti, a turhan or h<4ul- 
kerchief, rumiil, antl a piece of linen coverinff the cheat. At 
raarria^s they wear nilk-hordereil vraistclolbs. ITimr women wear 
tim robe, »6di. The men's omamenta are aniall silver earrings luid 
, the women's tin rings and silver bracelets. Brass noseringH and 
round silrcr luiklcts aro nsod only by the rich. Their food is rice, 
millet, ti(i;//i, ati<i hhaitli ; tlio flesh of !"hi-4*p, doer, and hens, but 
uever of bullocks or buffaloes. Husbaudi-y ia their chiof occupation. 
The few non-vitltinitorH vrnKo oatUo and m-II f^ss and fuel, and their 
womvn gnilier ehiiroU, unchanania latifolia, nnt«. Their houses, 
which they share with their cattle and change once every thrve 
yew, are generally gnuta hut« witli bamboo partitions. The well- 
to-do use bniS8 vcHseln, but moat of them havo only earthen pota. 
They keep cows, ^utfaloes, sheep, kena, and bullooks for mIo. 
They worship Vdphdev and the liyer Nnrbada. They have no 
priesto. Their chief fcstiviiis are the thirtieth, amdiyUya, of AthdUh 
(Jyly-Augu.lL), Shimija or Hoii (March- April), and IHtxili (October), 
when they eat and drink freely and ^wayti end with a dance. 
After the foriAl c'etnaud, mdgni, Uio betrothal of a girl takd^_ 

Klace generally at the am> of twelve, and she in married about n ye^H 
Iter. The bride's father gets JEO (Rs. 60), besides clotbea aii^" 
ornaments for tlie bHde. Tliey hare tlie regular Knnbi marriage 
cwTcnioniea, tying the knot, and joining luinda and walking round, 
ehavri fihavri. There is no officiating priest. They burn their dead 
'exaept young children whom they bury. With the deceased, hii| 
clothc« und onmmi;nt« are coiTied to the burning ground wher 
tlte Mh&r takes them away. The decuoMcd's widow follows ht 
husband's corpse as tar as the village limits. As on inarria^ 
occAsiomi, cu«t« people are invited and liquor drank. Though they 
bare special headmen, mah'tjant, dinpatca are generally eettlod by 
some old men. If the accused is found guilty, tJio punishment is 
genarally a fine in tliu form of a compulBOTy caste ejit«rtaiuinent. ~ 

Qmi^ and Uogj^, living in Uio hills to^the nortli-west aboal 
Akram and Dbedgaon, ai-e despiged on acconnt of their s kill in 




1 B«v. Bcc 308 of I8S8, laSL 




bi«ket-wearmg sad cnltiratioa. Tliogsh Ihoy are genflnUv bo 
tlaased, Ihc Doi^pia do not l'aU tlieMg^U-wM llhilis. A poor ninid 
Hoe thvy ■ro vcrj- ^<csiitily clotlied, and, nvoiilinjf olhi-r ]>tv|))o, 
rn^TsUy builii a uukI i>f IuiIn ud a Hsinif f^iind about Iwo miles 
' he Diain village, lliey botil iu ptiiut nf n'9i)K.-rl(t1iilil v » )xi«ition 
,.-a th(! Ktinbi nnd iLe ordinary Bhil. Willi uu aUuulimeub 
lo any tnrticular pW-n tbcy movu (rum otw villoRo to anotlu-r, 
W Beldom leave the dialriot. Sucli Hkilfol aillivatore aru thoy 
iW tbo villnn) hiiadmoQ, pdtih, are atwaya auxiuui to eDOourage 
Uwa lo aortlt!.' 

^itoflfi",'" ^ Dj(so Bmij, living bolov. ths Sfthytidris, nni the, 

iii(»t nDLivLlisedofaU^ tlie wild triliet, Htunrwl in biidy l>y tht'ir 

''- ■'l:pu tlisMolnte life, and dulled in mind by tiardahipA and bilter 

-'■y. They aru wry dirty fvodtTS, I'Atin); monkeya, rats, and all 

(iiiaij vermiu, not ta meutiou catllo killod by tigcm or thi'm^i^ilrvM. 

Even on f^rand occaaioDs their drasa is <^>uly a luittrloth, luifjoti, aud 

;> (if ni^ round thu liend. Th^ always carry materiaU for 

riugfirc, a Bint iiuil fteel and Homu 8ilk<.<ottoD in a small gourd 

r-jund the waiat by a strone tliiu ctinl. Tlu-y luin: a v«try high 

- .L if thHr dif^iity asIUjAsanaK^i^' kith and kin. llie Koiikanis 

■nd V'^li!* art) not abovo helping aboat ramp and carrying loads. 

''■ ■ ' be Bhil K4itla never condcscvud to such work, fit only for tlifir 

>iB, and wBen they arc not roatinjr or idliug, wander about 

aiUi twwn and wrrown in svarcJi of such small game as peacocks and 

bares. Thoroughly unwilliiig to work thoy do very little cultivation, 

a&d live on the share th(>T take of ibo har%-oitt« of ihcir «)-<-Jil|pd 

ryot« tiiLi Eonkania and Vw-lis. They hold the tigor sacred and 

worthin ViUAdev.* 


Besides these triben, which, in spite of their- differences, are 
peoerally Inrlndcd nndor the term Bhil, thiirc arc three mixed 
clasM*. one ibe Ilhi!iilrL'<, hnlf-Bliih> mid hnlf'Kajput« or Kuabi», 
aad two, Tadvis and Ninlhiji, baif-.MuHiiliiuiii hnlf-Bhil. 

HtULJlSs, foand at DbanU, Taij^pnr, and Chirmqra, and north 
and wisi'or KhJindt-ob, m Nimiir and the t^^lpnda hills, claim to 
be Tibile Knnbis. But, nn ihi-ir iiamc shows, tbcy uru gwiicniliy 
Bupp" portly of Bhil descent.* They m-e small, sturdy, 

and "^ n-i.vl. In addition to the luiucloth, langoti, for 

wiuring wliicli arconlinff to tht-ir story thoy wore uioknamod 
BhiUlas, they sometimes wear a waisti:l»ih or Irousent, aud alwaya 
carry a long whit« sheet worn as an outer robe. Their turbans, 
ggular iu form, are geuvmlly worn wiih a point lU front, and 

1 Aer. R«c 308 ol 1839. ISS» * Ur. T. & Frr, Ant. Coaurvator of ForMla. 

~> la Cottnl Ijiilia Uw BhUlUa ar* halt ItajpotK, llie tkiatt of thv Blub in the 
noMoaauuii imsInKiatall BbiUlda. Malciibn'a CmtnJ India. 11. \iX Tlie 
I UAnilUta, aa JiUail in the KailMula about aixtyfovr »ilei north ot Ithnikral, 
.J ■ BhiUla cbicJ ttoiwipg deaomt frrcn a Chi^ka Hajpat BfaamUiug wbo ia aud 
b) baTD taken the iaknd Itob a Uiil cliirf io I lb&. 'tin Central I'rovincs BUUIaa 
•TV all dawaidod from allmnnv u( fUj|iata iiith Bbila and take the iiatnu erf tlia 
Kajliut dan to whivli tbcy tnoe tbdr oHgiu. ('«utial I'Yvviiiuo (iaBcttovr, SSa 
Mi. J. f\Jlaii, AnriatantCi^kctor, Khiiwlcali, liolkvia tlicnt tab«"tha dMctiiiUnU 
M tine OMO* flouri>htu ooHivatvia oC tbe Hefa Sdliiuda ralkya vho in *u«ne way got 




Cbiipt«rni. those wlio can afford it. wour plain silver bracelets. They «pc 

PopiJ«tiOii. NinWr IWt, » mixturx! of liiniii oiid Mnriithi. They iiru liii: 

j,^^^. Working, but iud^tiif tv>mi their pnverty, unakilhrd hiisbnndinei 

Tril)««. ^° rehgrion tVy are Uindua, bat are not particular abont "' 

Bhltdhu. presence or Hornco of a BnUtman. They DRme their own chil<h 

nnd bavo no ptuliculiir birth cereinoni4>s. Tboy cclcbrnto tl 

iQarriAgeii at sundown, one of the cuBte being set to watch. As the 

BUD diawpean the wati^hinan clit{M his hnndfi, and the younf^ women 

of boUi the bride and bridegroom's families fasten the bridt.-^r(iom'a 

wai^tctotli to the bride's gown, lugda. Present« are miido and a 

feast to thepoiuA follows. The wt^lding' costs each fauiiJy from 

*£2 to £S <B*. 20'Rft. 5(<). They have no headman.' 

3Wvi*^ Mi.'3al«Xm Bhi lb are of two classes. Tad vis and Nir 

Tadvis iivn cfc'iiUy in the villages at the foot of Ihc Siitpiida hills 
trom Asirghad (o Obopda,^ and Kirdhis along tho Inxse of the 
Siltni«(la ranjje in the J&mner and Pichora sub-diTtsions. Tl>e 
Tadvis are said to be the dt!a6cudiinl<« of lihil women* and ^lusalmlln 
men, and M dat<> from the Kmperor Auninf^cb's reign (ItioS-1707). 
In H{>{>earance they are tall and well roadie, and when well fed, grow 
into fine men. Many aro fairer and much better featnred than pors 
Bhils. They wear earrings and many dres« like ordinary Khandeah 
cnltivatora, llie better-to-do inclining to the kItvm of the Muxalmlin 
aipohi. They wear the sword and niaI<?hlock, seldom the bow, 
Like other Khiindetih Musalni/msi thiiy are liixynnd poverty -stricken, 
and dislike hard work. To the AiusalniSn fault of liixiue^ they add 
the yioee of a qtutrrolvomu and vindictive temper, and a great 
fondnem for liqnor.* They make ^ood itoldieia and constables, but 
are poor enltivaturs, generally livms by wood and graiw* cutting. 
Their women ani^ girls help by carrying loads of wood and bamboos. 
Their religions beliefs, as well n* their manners and customs, aro 
like ihoBe of other Kh&ndtwh NtuKalmiiuH. At the same Lime, like 
wlbiir H iiidu converts, they have a doi-p regard for cn'rtaio Hindu 
deities. Among theiie the AdAvad Tudvii< hold in reverence M&iilbai, 
a godde«.i in whose honour a nliriiie hntt been raised, in a deep 
gorge, near the dewrted village of MAnfipur, about fir© milea 
from Adgfton in Ydval. The hixi attends their weddings which 
cost from £1 lOt.tofU (Ra. Id-Rs. l&O). The village moneylendcir 
freely advances them fundi* taking payment in wood or money. All 
are, in name, )fiib<.>nli until to lien^diutry chiefit, siich as Itnhini Kh&n o£ 
* AdgaoQ tJie head of the Ad&rad Tadvis, Doula of Borekheda the h ~ 


' la th« Bativo «Ut«B on the north-w««t boanduy «l Khiiulab tlittj ars 
iadiwbiaai ud pe«M«liU i»m, tad u« tbo princiuil cnltivatan. Mr. HoM'* Trla, 

* Hie dotail* are. to lb* 1r<ru)e'i Fntbcr, tnrbaii 4a.. ibaiddtfctolk !«., rica Sil, uid 
[«Mt «ipniiiK9 frotn 3(h. tot* I0>. (Iti. 15-IU. U): to ilM.liricl«gro<im^ faili«r, 

rm. (lurfn, S<..snBl«t4«., mkU«m 10*., clothe* £1, and food oxnauaM ftiwD 30«^ W 
lOf. Mr. J. PoU<ui.C.a. 
*TlMgrMUrniuiibeTiahabit the v il hgw «t the toot of th« SdJptKta Mil* in SinU, 
AiUvkI.wkI RtTcT. Mr. Gibcme, Collocbir. b Rev. Itoc :!OS«f ISSS. llTiG. 

* Thon^ thiT own that th«T «ret« tnnDorly niniiua. tlior do not >ckiio«lMln 
that th•T4r«^ nr nvor intFt, lUitb. lUv. lUc. SOS of 19^ 1^. 

' Tbt Mte Mii}nr Fonrth call* thoiu HualMia Bliil* aiad givM Umb • my bud 
ch»nct«r. lad. AatiV.SSS. 





ul tb>: V<v»l Taj\-i8, nnd Sal&bai Khin the b«ad of tliH Rivw Twlvu. 

These cbiefd, calltn) kiidn mkebi' aot nmk* or cbatidhru, receive from 

'"•■■'""■ ■■"'■"■Qtcertainallowan(!Haa»herwdil«ryUill-k«*i»wrs.raiAcn/di»r». 

<o social diBpflWa and are appealed to iu all iniittwn> of 

I ly by (lie TV)vi« ii( thoir own sub-division. Thoufjfa a li(tla 

ivilised tbaa the BliiU, (lie Twlvis' knowledge i>f UIao) may 

' I from Ibe l»ct that the ^eater niiinber da not even know 

.. r' uHt^ when an aiiimal is sUugbtered. As a class they 

vu muerably poor, and tJiougb tlieir fonncr rubbing and plundering 

f^'l" IwTc been slopped, Uiey are stiU ratber given to theft.' 

- ^am M-NlLDi BniLH, the B9«and Mu^1in£n-Bfail tiibe, dw«U^ 

- the bane of the 8iitmiilis in the JAniiii-r nnd Piirhora mtb-* 

lis. Distance alone preveuta their inU'ruiurria^ with the 

-, fur thi>ir cr«od and idean are similar. In forioer times they 

,1,11-1^ flrjuflfl.t During sousous uf revolt tlio most atrocioos 

invariably the work of the Nirdhis.* 

P»rtifularly anmcroim in the ij ftjt i^pd aoatb o f the district, tlie 
KoUh are a fine ntnnly elaitR, both physically and montliy. Tli^ 
generally hold the laferior ofHces of the viilatfe police, Aucb as thuae 
at the }^<!'ii-r»l vraf^.'hmnn, jiglia, gat« ward, tard'i, sentry of the 
villiw^ jKilii-n Htiuiou, i'lUxiula, iind village hnvilJdr, who ui tho 
bead of the village police under the headman, fxitii, in whose 
abeenoe ]»• is respoiiiiiblo for order. Iioss given to crime th^ 
moot of the early triV-ji, they are lur cultivator* and often greiU. 
huDtsmen, as slulfut in woodcraft as the Ithils, and far cooler and 
Bteaiiiur. On aoconnt uf their sntitllur number nnd lt.>ss tronblesome 
sr they do pot attract n mV"'' ^t^^"''"" <" 'I'" RbiU ' 

fvAoadfo are a pocaliar race of drovers who aonietimea via9(|ha 

rn foreivts of Khandesh, though tbatir prop«- pastnrea are in 

J,, .lurtli-wut^t comer of Ibu Dt^-can. Thoyappoar to bo desocndod 

Chapter IH. 



IS, thon)^h often confoundei^with them, hold themaelven Koaia 

num, nnd miiieriur U>^ Bhil s. Living in the samo part 

country as t fe^ CJiv itii. thev rank below them, and unlike 

have no special dialect. They say that tUeir ancestoni 

inally auae from tlii? Konkan, and thiM, their name and their 

iDce, which very cloaely rccembiex that of the Konkan 

(Icars, bear oat.' They are more settled than the TbiikurB, and 

"ce thom (ximtnoDly use the plough. Thuy do not often take 

wrviire or Ittave their vUIageK, ujid many uf them, lik« tho GivitK, 

illa^je headmen, jx'Uih. Thev bury their dead, and in their 

ry niise iiqunru sinj^lu-stone pillars, sometimes as much as eight 

•ghj , 

iiifve are very few B^rooai^ in the district, as ^ho BhisH KoIib, 
in addition to their own duties am water- boa rent, liifhcr«, nnd 
ferrymen, take the fUmuslM' placo between the settled and nnitettied 
triWs. - 


< Vr. 3. PoUm. C.3. 
> IbA. Aut. UI. IW. 

a4il— 1< 

* Onh«ni'> nha TriW, Bon. Oov. a«L JbtTI. SOO. 

• Ina Aul. IV. xaa. * luJ. Aot. IT 33«. 

r^aptcr III. 



from Dravidiao immi^ranhi, >iiit havo no traditioti to tliut (effect nii 
no'Bpecisl ian^a^. Mon^civiluted and rettpect«ble Ihiiii imxtt 
wnndurinff lu-rdwiieii, tbey differ little from Mar^tha htinlaiudiiteii, 
aud, i» porta of N^ik, ljav« tak«D onliridy to o^ii-ulinro. They 
have a peculiar bre4)d of blavk and whiUt outtlo, hailnr, which, 
thouf^h not largo, iu« much pmcd for their atreag^th luid opirit. 
llioy wondiip fCri&hoa, tho divinu hordttoian, nod take good care of 

m tBo Canlral Pronn 


<ltMb; Qonda, wboeo hMd-qnttrton nn 

especially at Niiffi^ur, are wandering cowherda foand cbit'fly at Ch'ilio- 
gaou in Uie soat^-wesb of the diatnct and a few at Bhuiwvul. They 
"are a martial mcu nnd miwlo gOoel KoldiiTS under the HnsalmaD 
Naw-ilh« of Kizttm Uaidarabad. They xpcak Mar^hi, at least out 
of doors, and do not seem to keep any connection with GntidviiDn. 
Tliey oat flesh and drink liquor, and do not t»ke footl cooked bj, 
any Hindus but i)i-&hiiiaus. In their marriage processions, tlul ' 
bride aud bridegroom ride tm bollocks instead of ou horses. They 
worship Ntirayan Kfahildov, Dhanb^, DhanthAkur, IDhangoiiul, and 
Bhavlini. In inciuiring into any alloged breach «( caste rolea they 
meet together, aad if the offence is proved, the gnilty party has 
to shave his be&rd and monstaches. His tongue in then branded 
with n rod hot gold bar, and upon tli« brandtxl part they compel 
him to lay a basil leaf wiih a lilile earth and clarifiod butbi^. 
After going through this ordeal and feasting his fellow tribvtunen, 

ha m lei back i o t o caatc.* ^_ 

rutliMa ViinXBn, nnmhering 36^72 souls and found all over the distriMl 

are of fen sub-di^-Jsions, Ch£ran or Gav&r, M&thure, IjabhSmi OF' 
Laiiianc, I/id, Khudiiu', Ldmgho, Mchnrone, Bhush&n^*, Awitkar, 
and lUvgia.' 0< these the Bfau»hitrt\ Aw>tk«r. an d Itav^n ate not 
fonnd in KhAndesb. Of tlio othent Clulranft are foimcl in all the 

sub-diTJsioD 8 , M&th nr&s and Labhduis in Taloda and NandurbAr, IjAds 
ifi Shirpur, Dholia, and KantlurbAr, Khtidiln&s in Amalner, L£mgh&9 
in Dhulia, nnd Mohnnm&a in Erandol nnd Jalgncm. Though 
ns a class robost and well bnilt, tlio several sub-divisions diffpr ia 
complexion, the MAthurds being generally fair, the Lids, Mehui-unis, 
nnd L&inghlis soniowhnt duskier, and the ChArans and the I^bhAiids 
dark and martial -loo king. h&An and Liiiiighitit speak ^rly correct 
Idarlitbi, but Ch^rans, LabhAuAs, and Mdibut^ use a rough 
peculiar dialect full of Hindi, and, in some ca»va, Gujarnti (ormH. 
Those who have settlod, or are ttottling, as huiihandmen, live in the 
ordinary mud-walled flat-roofed houses. Of those who aro still 
carrient, some of the chief mon have good brick-built bouses, 
while the poor live ontaido of villages in gran huta which 

it (ISW) tb«w Ggnda wmd to htn 

' lad. Anl IV. 336. 

* Nr. J. Tolten, C. S. For tho 
CbtKBgwD. Mr. A. F. Woodbum, C. :% 

* Vaajiri iDMiw k forest Wkodcrcr [mm mH [orett tad f&nr to wander : ChirMi 
eoBie* from U>o udm root ; Gurta ■ uov'kooiwr from gan a cow ; BkniluUe a onua 
cuhor ttom Mkm «)uiS> l^hino or l.aailiw a uJt eanua trom tavan salt ; MltKaro 
ffi'ta Mathunt ia Upper Indb vh«nca tbcy wida i aod Jdvltumne from tbc village at. 
If ahimiiie now Jalgwa. 





take with them from place ia nlaca.' The staple articira of food 

•ru wh<ml nnd Uil> two milldU. Kxcoat the M&thur^ luul iMhhim&a, 

■" ■ il. fle*h nrnl <irinlt Iii[uur. Tliu IjiUI wointin dnsia m Mar&tha 

u ; Cbiran woroea wear a tipht trooBer, Ihenga, aurl a rolw, 

' 'ti, to cover the oppor pnr( of the body. They wear 

I Ui, an<l, likci Uii; Millhurii.x, jin^Iiri^ bnuia anklotA, 

ti*. The Mdihuro, Latibftoe, nad Charan women weor their 

Ir.tpvd over a jKji; net ou the top of their headn. Among the 

.inil l^ihlinniiis this pog is made of cloth nnd is two iiniheH 

■ ^^ I) the L'bdmu'it 19 frutn aix to uight inches loiig aud itt tnndu 

Ahk« tn l«^mper, brave, pron^, spiteful, wiil loachy, the Mfithure" 
lAlihiine and Chiinui VnojiiHs dilTcr widely in the miittvr of (.'toan- 
liDBBs, thc^ Matho]-^ b«itig vurv itEtal aud careful to waab daily, whila 
1^' IinhlninnK nnd Ch&rans do uot bathe for moti(h!i at a tiue- 
/b^onumily {lenirvfnl and well boh a rod, Iho wiwdertng Tnnjtiris 
*if undtT police aurvt;illunco. Tbei» cftrryiag tnide, unticwl by 
almoH nil Eiiropean travellers of the lost three ceuturie^,' has greatly 
goffered nincB the opening of cnrt ruad^ and milways. They used to 
wrry liifir wares ou pack ballooks, moTiDg, Boiaotimea io bwidK or 
■ • *',0OU strong, to Snrat, Navsari, and Kaly&o, OQ the westy 

ai ir, N%pDr, and J a bill {HI r, to the north and ««st. Frotn the 

inlaad distriits tlioy ua^d ditetly to carry wheat, and from Lho 
KDnkoD, salt, dates, dry cocoa kernels, and botelnuts. Though tlie 
ffreat«r nninbcr are now settled as huslmndmun, a few find a living 
by driving twrttt, spinning coarMO hemp, t'uj, soiling grass and fui'l, 
lud working as labonrerH. Except the poore«it wnoaell wood and 
gnuw, tlii^ir women work oidy at homo and in the dairy. They 
mostly worship lUlitji or Khuudoba. Their priet^ are Bnlbnians. 
They kec-p all the ordinary Uindu holidays, but vxpecially Gokal 
Aiihliimi, 8th Shrdvan Fadya {Angiist- September), in honour of 
Krishna's birlhdny. Thongh uoine Bub-divisioDs est with each 
other, intermarriage i"), aa a rule, forbidden. Lids, KhndAo^, 
and MidiamniiH diue together but not vnth LnblianA^ and Char^ns, 
thoagb tbeso tsat out of l)ii-ir Iiands and can give them wat«r. 
LfUls, Khuddnia, and MeburutijLi do not eat with Lttmghds, and 
LlimgliM have an Pfjual objec-tiou to cat with them. M/ithiiris eat 
food cooked by members of thvir own tribe only, aud soniearo 
bclioved, like Uie Pnrabi^ii, to nifuite to eat food cooked even by 
thtiir own tribesmen. At the same time they eat food oookod by thvir ' 
women, who are privilegod to eat with all Vanjiri Hub-diiisiouii. 

KveiT sotUement of Vaujiiris ha-t its horeditarj- headman, iidi'ft. 
Bo m bound to help the rose in timv of aced, and to be their 

Chapter Iti 




' ThxM 0vn buta iro almyt moved ■ftnr ■ il«sUi. At fint sn opraing ii inMt« io 
tbt twdi of thfl hut Bod iw«ne coten it bjr tWonlinuy door, u the dixit it beliuvol 
tn liBV)) b«aa poUnlod hy Uia pMwm n( the tfitH of Uw ih&4. Afterwards the kut 
Is Ballad d^wD and act up at a littla diilanM^ * 8m b«k>w, \'. 1 tO. 

■ In 1938. under lh« aama VoD*fini. ibaj *r« aotie«d \ry MandeUlu m buviiig 
^but aad riro offorvd tat ulo id tha Dmcaii townt once s week, and oarryinit.tnnM 
LBinliutia ia oatavaiu of five at uK aikl anmatiiBa* n)n« or teu tlin»Maa kBlnial*. 
, Uiom iTMit tkcir fcBuloi, «ap«cully tbcir nivc* "hn kmrw to ir*ll Ii(** to wield 
I bow that tii« Kajpuu dand not attack tbcm, MtudoUW to Uania, 1301 




108 DisraioTs. ^^ 

represdutative and arbitrator in caste disputos; to nccotntn^^^ 
bII^bbU comin;; In hu e>Kwitii>iii<.<iit, t/miln ; aiid t<> din^ct tbo 
moTamnntH of the caravau wheu trarc^lting. U the old family has 
representative, a fnitih mftn of some rioh and ^ood fnmily la chos 
mtik. On vloction he ib pnynnt^d with n turban nud olothws 
tolfon of allegiance. At every council meeting, the ndik is pre«iiiJ 
with ten or twelve adnit muw a» membera. Witoeseea come 
r^nlar ordvr and f^vn thoir evidvnoe ooo «ftvr anotbor. Once thuj 
have itat, the paneh uwer rise without Doming to ft final deciaion» , 
ereo if it be at tlis xncrifico u( thi>ir rcf^ular work. fl| 

There iiia bo littlu doubt thnt Che VnnjinM will, in time, mvrnii i9 
*Uio general mass of cultiraton. Alreod; one of them is a village 
headman in Jamnc-r. Theycat, if theydoQot marrf, withKunbi§, and 
even Cbin»n wunum arc iilr<!iidy, in some raro instantx-n, K-friiming 
lo lay a.iide thciir picUireaque dresa audaKHamo the ordinary Kuubi 
robe. Careful in matt«r8 of aocotmts, of simple habits, and of a 
BBvinff di«p'}r<ii(ion, thoy promiso to become a wualfhy cIims of 
onltivutorii, and when they loae (heir Kiniiigi) lieliefs about witchcr^^ 
and death, they will provo a tractable and uneful Ceoaotrj. ^| 

Amon^ wondering ViinjAris, children aro often bom away from 
rillagC)-, and in the absence of midwivea, womttn attrnd women and 
no oereinouies are performed. Afterward?, when thi> enravan, tantla, 
meets a Brahman, a i?utincil ih r»ll<-d. THk lime of the child's birth is 
explained to tlie Itr^bman and he fis6.s the name, iho f.ilhvr paying; 
him 2«. (Ke- I) and the oommittoo giving him 6d. (l antias), or some 
other prci*ont. Among ttottlc! families, when a child is bom, they 
bent drtim!<, Gre guns, and distribute sngar among roliitiotm, frli^nds, 
BhittM, and prieats. On the fifth day women worshiji Sali aud uro 
given a few grain^and some pnlHoand flowers. 

Among Chiiraiifl Muthnni«i and Labh&ulU who are of TJpj 
Indian origin, girlo remain unmarried to twenty and thirty; 
winoug Uecc&D Vanj&ris the marriageable limit in for girls from 
ten to twelve anrl for boy-t from twelve to twenty. On marriage 
oo-nsions, two days before the ceremony, the boy and girl are 
nibbed tvith tnrmuHc. On the marriage day, with music playing, 
they aro smtod aidu by sidt, on low wooden iitooln, the girl on 
the boy'it left, and the hems of their garmenta are tied. Ttie 
priest repeats verses, and the women ra botb hooitra sing souga 
and sprinltlo handfiiln of mPlet, jvdri, on the conple'a brads, the 
ffprifmony cloning with the interchange of clothes. On the morning 
of the second day the boy and the girl aro bathed together, the 
women standing roiiml them siuging t«ong« whilv thw boy and girl 
■plaah water over each other. After this the fatliers intrtrc^hango 
preeenta of turbnns and waistclotbit. On tho third day there is 
gri^t fnuitiug, and if ib^ pri<>«l is pi-eaeut, hu ia pelted with onions 
nud shells, kavdU. Another feast closes the ceremony. Tho boy's 
father retmntB to his village taking with him the girl aind her sister. 
They stay for a day or two aud are then sent far by their father, 
with whom tbo bndo lives till she cornea of ago. Except Aliltbuiii! 
and LabhinAs all allow widuw niarrin;je. 

When a \'unjiri dies, a white cloth u spread oa a bamboo 

tire , 





tad the body ia brtmfcltt frotn tfau hoiiitu nn<l laid on it, nnd 
rxc:i';rt tbnt the bead is left bare, it in covered with a wkito nheeC 
lietl with ntrinff ia five places from the neck downwards. 
iled powder, iiuldl, is «prinkk-d ovit the Wlj, and, ou tho 
KTs nf ftmr i^lntioti-t, il ia tiamed to the biink uf tho 
t i^tn^am nud borut without reli^ous ritos.' On the third day, 
four |)»ll-boaivrs nm given n dinnurof ri<'e»nd milk, a ceremony 
^erfonned.and a featit i» held cnnting about 14)<. (Ita, M. For oina 
iiy» nfter death the nearest relations are considered impure and 
iireuiit nllowod to mix with other people. On tbe tenth day th«y 
the and ^ve a taiHte foMat with flvKh and li<)Hor. Iti tlio firat 
" Tch) or Vaiahdkk (May), after the death, a caste feas> 
. but nut nlwaye, fpvon. Except that kunku instead of 
. nuklcd OD tbtr lH>dy, Ihi' (dminilof awonmn in Ibu sameM 
1 il of a man. When a iliild die^.tbe b-ady ia wrsipped in a 

dean white, c l uth, and carried by the fat her in his arms and boned. 

The available detailx of Vanjiri divinionn miiy bo thun Huranmd 
:_yp- „ab^QU Vnrjiiris, about one-half (lS,OiiO) of the wbtile VaajiSri 
~ , anil in many ways the moat peculiar and intertwtiog 

.1 Crit>eft, itre found nil over tlie district, i>(ipeoiall]f in nnrt« 
f itarer, Stlvda, J^mner, Shirpur, Chopda, and JIaeirabad. ilioy 
~ m to be Rajputs and art^ divided into Poriirs, Chavh&ns, 
a, and JniUuirK, who eat together and intermarry. Thoae 
in Sivda aud ChoixU, n)iin)|( the base of the S&tpud&i, 
bolnnirlo lheCbav)ian, It^ibud, and Povfir dons. The Chavbins have 
six Kiib-divini'inK, Pnltya, KorcJi, Lovua, Banod, Alodh, nud Sap&ral, 
■11 foond ill Khaiidi-ih. The lUthod^ have i'lgUt Hub-divinionH, of 
which >(ix, Bukia, Kiliit, Muua, Vat, Vartia, and Turi arc found in 
Kh&iidesh. And Ihu Foviirs have twelve, of wliij^b neveu, (iuramD, 
LoQs^vad, Vuihravat, Am^t, Vahiot, Jarrtbola, and Viniarvat, 
■re found in Khiindesb. These intermurry and cat togetlivr, llK)Utfb, 
as nmoDK Rajputitj no marriage tn (lie aame clan is alluwcd, that 
is a HfLthod may marry a Chavhiln or a Povdr, bat may oot man^ 
a Kathod, 

Ohiriin VaiijArif may, for wnvenience, bo dividod into those who 
keep to their old trade ot i-arritTs, luid those who have begun to 
aetlle as huxbandmen. In appearance they are strong, well mad^ 
and ^ toil. looking. The men tuke a epocial pride in their looks. 
Mid (ri'uendly t-irry n sraiill oumb iiinl l'itikiii)|r iftass in the folds 
of their white luriians. Tliey wear the hair long, and are hirer- 
akincil than th^Bhil or the ordinary Kunbi. Thoy have, as a role, 
regular and while teeth, full Itpvi, l»r^ eyea, ^r hair between 
brown and yellow, strai);bt noaca, and a bright wide-awako look, 
llietr women, though some are pretty enough, are by no means 
cleanly. Thi>y never botho more thnft once a week, and their 
oiletl and plaited hair i« coustnnlly titled with dirt and dust, while 
the tiers of bracelets and anklet« keep tlieai from eleiuiiuo; their 
limbs. Their pettieoata are aeldom washed and look much like a 
well- worn quilt. 




' AMong CMnai Iht body ia bnnit or bnriod with Iba Uoe dotm. 

• ■--_i 

IBomtojr Qautt 










Ctillrun V»njtlrui Bpeak wlint in locally known aa Vanjdri bat, 
mixkure of Mar&thi and Uindw Jealous to a iegKo, paBntonnto am 
headetroDg, thoy mro u Ughl-hwirri-d rnex\ HimpU'-mindiKl an^ 
eswily iiittniigi.x]. Tliey nbt^j' their chief liku children. Kxtremot 
credulous awd superstitions, they beJiovo that all minfortnnes, cvi 
tbe sligfateet, are the work of witvlH;^. Tboy arv fond of danci 
and siof^ng and hajLfaaiiy pocaltar war dances. They like iiothi 
b»lt«r ihun li.4teoil9% son^ and tnnaic, and their women, at tim< 
join with the men in a wtlil whirliDg daiicw. A» a rtilv tht^y ai _ 
not macli (fiven lo lying and have pood menioriea. They tell a atory 
naturally and weU, pi'viuf!^ the minntoet detail. Though foud of 
4iqnor they seldom drinkV) iiKCt^tts. Like Ktmliii* lliry iifNind larg« 
Guiiie on niamiigi» and other festivals. Uut especially in Amain 
and Erandol, they haT«, aa a rqlV) a naa^for being gr««dy and to 
oE driving bard burgainDu 

Except that' tlKj wenr tlio long-pointed Hindns tJini Hhnp anj 
t tHnte turba n act janntily a little on o ne aide and penerailj 
EaKteci witu a strip of rvd cloth'Vonnd across it, and that thf^; 
are very fond of omiunen)!*, the Nilika wcuring bmcelvta, gol 
cliainfl, eMringii, armlelii, and finger ringw, the inim's dr«tt» does no 
differ from that otioioet lower class Uindus. The women's tight 
fitting bodice an^1k>ng foil potticoiil, their BJlvct ornaments plaitW 
into the hair and falling over the cbeek, their huge i<ilvcr anklelH 
with iangliug bells, and the tiers Of brass and ivory bracelets 
Btrotcning froin thij wrLtt alinoxt to the arm-pit, uro strang* in ^^ 
ManStlia couDJljby. But more strange than 4lieir ornaments ta tb^^ 
iashion among married and nawidowed women of drawing thei^B 
flltoalder robe ovur Uio point of a narrow stick about eight inches 
long, cnp-nha]>od inhere it roata on the head and narrow at the jioint 
standing, like a huge comb, from the knot of bair at the liack of tl: 
head, jiie mnk of the womna is said to be shewn by the angle . 
which she wears thicJc atick. 

Pack-carrying Ch&rans bay cattle in Mtilwa and lako them t^| 
sell in Poona and S&tdra. They titay there during the raina, ao^^ 
about October, novo to MAlwa, where tbey buy cuttle and load their 
bullocks chieflv with vrhont. ^Iiia they carry to the Dec«an where 
th«y Mill it fvnii such cattle aa they h«To for sale. Then they go to 
the coa«t and bring back loads of salt. They move with ponies, 
bullocks, cows, and dogi", the whole procession being called a Itimla. 
* Thoy occnsionuUy halt at one or two places when travelling with 
loaded cnlile. In the rainy aeaaon they buIR huts, kudi 
encamping on aomo dry spot where there is'fbod graxing, T 
hnvu groat nkill in driving caltlu, four men managing a bund 
bullocKs. 1'hey say that by their slkDula tlK'y can make the buDoc 
charge and overrun a tig« or amBsU body of men. WTien they 
halt they surround their cajSp with a pile of sacks, mn.<(kct- proof ivnd 
too high for a horse to jump. Of late, in consequence of the decay 
of the carrying trade under cart and railwity competition, many 
Ch&ran Vanjiiris have taken to husbandry. Tbey make excellent 
cultivators. They clear brushwood in a wonderfully short time, bum 
the useless wood as uunore, use powerful ploughs, and thoroughly 






break tlie soil. Many are ricb and till lartre tractH of laud uobikly 
in RitVf.T, Jnniner, Oiojxln, i^ntl Shirpyr. It is more than pi-ntttble 
Uuit iluriojf till- riiiiis tUny ttlwiiys tilled i littlu whenever their 
enc&inpiuent hapjttm^d to be near waste land, lliey Ibox tooh to 
hnabAndry niitur.tlly, thougli they felt it aomeWjiat dognulinfj, 
kurin^ Alwaya mn^idored tii(MiiitcU'(*4 itlwru niatiiuil labour. By 
" I thoir chiefs found that till^e pai<t b«tli>r limn cnttlo- 

•»nd (^D-carryin^, and bef{»t bo settle aaLintlholders. Soma 
iu lUver, S&vda, and Sbirpur, uro nlmoet outiroly peopled 

The marrying age depenidfl on the parents' nn«anH. In a rich 

Ennily th« suDJi aro marriod bvtwMin twelve and fifteen and tbtf" 

daug^tcTii bntwiN^n t«n and lifteeu.' Aiiioiif^ the poor, girls sometimea 

remain unmarried till thiriyMtd boys tlH forty. Wlicnnmiin can afford 

ta pay for his son's marnnge, hl'i nL-arest ^yelatioas fiud him a n-ifo, 

bKtri)ib»l, m-iyni, fiiUnvfn ; ihn Iwy'u falhor wid other relationH 

ig on ponios and bullocks to the girl'a houxo. On arrival (he 

'a bthpr oumos to meet them, and embracing the boy'ii fatliar, 

him into his houHe and seata biiti on a blanket or carpet. Tlio 

ceremonies are the promise of the father to give hia«d»ught«r 

marriage, and tho dUtribitlioii of molattaca, tatel) and liquor to 

llui wholo unciunpmeut, '/i»'/a. The betrothal irVitniTSHvd by the 

caste committ(>e. The fathers of the bride and bridegroom uliaru (ho 

betrothal enpeuses, which generally amount to £•) (Ks. 50). In tlie 

Chopda and HAvda S^tuudiL^ tho fixed price of a wife is £12 lOt. 

~ii. IS.'i], and the boaegroom mnv givu moro ^fat not less. 

itrotha) is binding on both parties. ^.The marriage may tn\to place a 

inth after tlte betrothal, but for want of money, it is often delayed 

for ycorx. 1'hu britle'a father ia expected to jfive her eiiongfa 

olotkoK and ornantenta to laat hor tor life. For the marriage, 

(he boy and his father, with n^lationa and h'ionds, atart fi)r the 

girl's village, riding on {tonioH or walking, for carts are forhiddcii. 

On arrival thoy art- given aeparate todgmgs, with, in front of then?, 

H booth covered with mango and nimh boughs. Marriages take 

place at or near midnight. The ceremony is itimplo, The presence 

of a Bniltman, muidly the ivitrologer or the beredifar^' priest of the 

nearest vili-tge, in essential. 'IVo Acacia cat«chu, kner, posts ore 

fixed in the ground, and at each comer of a Hquaru nine earthen 

pot« are piled one on the other. The nine pots probably reurcwat 

the niu4; plaouts, nuvu'jraha. Near the posts ttit the briae and • 

bridegroom, wh<%-jHBt before, have been rubtwd with tarmeric ana 

bathed. Then the Bi^ninii worships (iaupati, joins the hauda of 

the p<n'r, and tiuH the niot, in the aame wny ^ ut a Kanbi wedding, 

except thnL H rupee, given by the brido'it father, ia lied to the knot. 

Then, between tlio points, the Ut^^an Iv^ta the sacred fire, and 

mntlering some naci-ed verses, manfrag, teads the pair seven times 

rounil tho lire from right to loft. Thiti endif the nujitial curemunies, 

the Brdhman being paid 2s. t'ul. (Ktt. 1{). A feast to the whole 

encampment, Idnda, with plenty of liquor, Collowa, and the 

Chapter IU. 




' Ago doc* not matter. CaM* m nut rorv wImu a wile ia oliteir Ibu b«t baifaaml. 

IBomb«7 Ouettcer. 








liridcgrmoTO ^TMja wiUt the bride to lier fnthor's booM and stays tbi 
frov two jnoDths to a year. , 

Widow marriage is allowed and practised, thoir rule bcinj^ that, if 
t)iC)' can bvlp it, no woman should leave a ^miiy into wbich sho h<L 
nuirried. When a woman b<*<Tome8 a widow her btisibnnd's youngS 
brother takes her to wife. 'J1ie caste cooocil meeta and the fact ™ 
ootod, but DO ccr(>inoDtfS »r» nooe«Miry. If tho voungur brother itt 
dead, t>r n.-fiiHi.'H to take her, the next neansat male relative ih callajta 
on to marry her. They a4:kuowU-dfre all llindu gods and believe ^| 
witchcraft. Thry have no regtilur priiist^, tint ihiiV n^jijKxrt »ud LimHaH 
Bhagats, and employ Br«hiuans toconduct their religions ceremonioal 
yrhcHigh. as a class, they fiavv sufFcrud from the docay of ibvir atllin^ 
aBcarri«ni, many of ibcwi are pni^tK'ruuii trjidors. fv^iiio of tho leadem 
have been most auoce»afuI in dealing itt'oattle, trading in grain, and 
carrying. The poorer families, when tbair fi«td work is over, brini; 
wood and liatnbooa from ihu hills. 

Itjjl"), "'■" probably came up the Tnjiti from sonlh Gujarit, are 
ftmnd in large nombeii in Nandnrbir, Uhulia, and Shirpur.' Liko 
KunbiH in appuaranc«, thoy xpcnk ^fa^filhi and drv»t in Mar&thi 
fashion. 'Mitd in diHpneiition, ihcy aro moHtly Im.tbandmen and cart 
driverc, and afew have, for the last tifti^en years, taken to selling dried 
fisb. Though none do so in KhAodcsh, many Litds hold pAtil^liipH 
in the Deccan. Thoy worship all Hindu god», but oapeci.illy 
Khandobain whose bonoar aGondhal danco is oft<^n performed in 
discharge vt a vow or after tho comph-tion of ii marriage. On the daj 
after UoH thej carry in [imoessiou tlie desceniftnt o£ a L^ warrior wl 
fellinbattle. TheceremonyiBcaJledlbe warriorji-ifippoceiwion. Th( 
keep the ordinary Mantthi fiiHtx, and rvspoct BrlUintnnii calling ibet 
on marriage occj^jpns. Their religious teachent arw (los&via. Thej 
marry only amongthomsclvesandhitvea rale against tho intermarria^ 
of two families who have ihesame guruame. Their girls inntit 
married Iwforo thoy niK-h wf.niiinlnxHl or ihey are pul <ja% of v*»t 
UB the wedding day, two niarriwl coiipiea, one f or et tc h party, bareJ 
fact t ho wholw tia y, and at night cook four pounds of nco and thfl 
of aplit gram with raolasiM^ iiud uluritied butter. While cookini 
thoy ooTPf their laves with a cloth, as the tonch of ntoain from thf 
dish is thought to bode bad fortnntt to the couple. Wlicn cooked, the 
dish in eatru by Iho meq of the party, and anything that reinaioa 
muet either be eaten by c owa or tlirown into a r iver. To allow a 
stranger, or the son of a slave, to rfiare , i s a great ain b ringing a 
liaavy cnrwe on the family. Thi» is calfedThe vroru^toV^hi J>aivat 
or lie god of increase. If Va4ki Datval ia not worshippod, tho 
wedded pair are looked down on by the whole commnuity. Wid oj 
marriage in Ihe (iandharva f orm Ls allowed.' Alter death, mourn' 
goes on for ten days and ^neral eeremoni«<s aro performed on 
eleveutli or tlurtecDtb. The authority of their headman who livcN 

I T1«N 1* B loal InrfitioB Ibkt th«y «iiiiw In KtULadoli fro* th« Mutbeni 
&b^idii«, Bih>^>, »1ioat 100 rMn ago nartlr (or trad*, ptutl}- 1««*i«pa a tuuiiM, 

Vftuit uiid till K«ahtu, tbalr mdm poiati to LU or 

Bat like lb« Ud wil Uilukka 
Ut D«ah. Sm abortv p. 97. 

' See abora. p. 73. 





in the Bilegb&t rangfo, in the Nixim's dominions to the so<itb>eaflt 
of Ahmodnagar, ia merely nomiiiiii, his power Ikiio^ chiefly 
rocogoised hy the pftytnBnts mada to him or his agents by tho 
caaie. Social diaputeif ore HUtllcd by tho nuijorily ot votes at a 
luetitin^ of adtdt niale memberti. 

t.«lili.<nv Tuid M itthoTB VanjftriB, found in Talods and Nacdorb^r, 
have come Eroiii ITppiT Iiidin. Thoy are gonorallj fair and stoat, 
speak a peculiar dialect, aud do not «at aoipial food. Their heiartlu 
arc; Rieru hoopa of vowilunff cakea or other fuel. VThile at their 
tneala they are very careful to kut'p fire barniug in their hMu-thn, and 
eat nc more if, by any chance, the fire goes oat. They eat wiUi no 
other tribe of VntijAris. Both MiUhur&a and LubhiiDis wear the sacred* 
thread, worship lUIijt, and celebrate Kriuhna'a birthday, thj) Qok(U 
ilaAtomt holiday, wiln f^at rejoicinga aad public dioners. Their 
pnest* are Bnitmians and tbuir religious tMcheni VaMgis. Their 
widows are not allowed to marry, but though their bracolott, 
cknddg, are broken, their heads are not shaved. For nearly a yoar 
after her hoaband'it death, tho MAtharc widow, boforo tlw uvuniog 
meal, with her dish in front of her, mounu the losa of her huabaaa 
for aliout au hour. 

Mmgh^ living ia Dhnlia, Kjj^ ^jtmi* in Aiiuilner, and Mehun nKJa 
in ^rumlol and Jalgaon, are like one anotlier in many respects. Like 
Udfl ih^'y all marry their widows in Gtandharva form. Tho widow's 
father formerly look from £4 to A6 (R». W-H* 60), but of late he 
has raised his demand to from £10 to £20 (Ra. 100 -Rs. 200). 
Except at tlie Qondhal leatival in honour of Rhandoba, thi>y nover 
eat meat. Their roligioua guides uro G<K*iLviti ur M^ubhiivs. They 
all mourn for ten days after a death, and pi^rCunu funerHl 
oeremoniea on the elvrenlh. Kbudlijids and Me^ruuds dino witli 
one amrtheTj bat not wi th Leimglidji^ 

VXnonn, a low wandering tribe, commonly hnoters and gnarer*, 
are found all over Ehdndcsh, cspucially in tho Amalner and Erandol 
sob-divisions. Ttwy aro of two oIas»e«, Pirdhis proper and Phis 
Piirdhi«i. Pirdhis pnipiT, known as Gujariti and MarAthi PArdhis, 
are found in most large villages. Though some aru t<till fond of 
hunting and poaching and have not got rid of their turn for tliieving, 
many have taken to labour, somu fretting stones for grinding grain, 
and some, especially in Amalnor, proving snccoasful cultivators. 
Othera act as village watchmen, i'i'jU''ni, especially in JSmner, 
Amalner, and Knuidol. The Pliis Pdrdhi, a wandoring hunter, •« 
noarly always isggod and dirty, walking with a sneaking gait. He 
wanders all over the district, iiegai, and eats whatvvcr ae can find. 
He will eat food cooked by a PSi-dhi proper, though tho latter will 
not eat with him. They wander from place Co place in bands of one, 
and sometimes of five or six £arailies. 1^ man with the nets and 
bsskots is followed by the women carrying the rope aad wood of tba 
cota and tho t)amboo fntmework of the mat-huts, and the children with 
earthenware pots and pans or a brass drinking poL Occasionally there 
is a bullock, or more often a buSalo, loaded with tattered blankots, 
baaketa, bamboo sticks, and extra neta and mats. Though they 
Kimotimca tret millstones, their osual calltog is to catch pig and 
• 411-lS 




TBombay QuetUOTd 







d«cr by m«uia of a looped rope featonixl witli rnnnini^f nooses 
guW This ihey \ny »lon^ tho«gT«untl, fastened with jwk*! ^I'l (''*'< 
drivo tho ftiiimaltt towards it, ITieir plan for calciiiiiff ({uaiU snc 
rairlridffeB is much the samo on a smalltir dcade. Aitor imitatinff than 
call of partrid^cfl, thoy pLiice on the ground a rook-liko Iwrnhoo 
mil about four iuchea high. Thia rail, or frainv,hiu npright pieces 
of bamboo fastened in it, nbout four incheit apart, like s paling. 
Betwoon the piilvs in u running noose of horse htur. In trying to |wis 
biytwveD tbi3 pales the bird ia caught in tlio noose by the liBad^ 
neck, or foot. Anotlior plan ih to throw the net over a hedge, a 
troo, or a well, and anare all benenib it. 

' Vadam , a wandering tribo from the souUi Deccan, are tonnd 
cbiorty in CliAlisgwni, Kmiidol, au<1 the oentral sob^diriHrnns. Thoy 
ore divided into Hhoj As, BhcndiSf Manna, and Kri li*.' The last 
three divisions oat tugrllior and int«miariy. Stjwng, dark, and 
with regular features, their h ome tongu^is Te)ag n. and thi-y live 
generally in cano huts in tho outskirts of vitingos. 'Fheir dresa ta 
liko thiit of low caitto HimhiH, their women wearing a mbe with nu 
bodice, and round their wriata brass or silver bangles. They 
eat millet, vogotsbtot', fish, fowlv, goat*, and mt«, and drink liquor. 
Hanlworkiug, thrifty, and hospitable, they sell charcoal and 
oement, prepare the comb which Koshtis and S41is wm to Kcporate 
tbothrends inweaving, cut atones, do c ftrtfc work, ilrjve carta, kill 
nts, and beg. They worship all Uindu deities. They nse Briihmana 
aa priests and consnlt them as to their children's names- Thvy 
have ot'rtain ^tocial oiTonionios at l>otrothal, jnibi'rty, and marriage. 
They choose a headman, obey him in all social matters, and leave 
bim to aottJe social disputes. None of thuir children go to »chool, 
and none of them have riwn to wealth or position. 

Leather Workers are of three main diviriooa, Dohoris, 
Chibnbhitr«, and Mocfais, with a totnl iHrtngth of I3,87o suiiIk, 
^DoHOBis, found in all parts of the district, but nbiefly in Uhnlia, 
Piirohi, DharonMon, Amalner, Shiihiida, and Taloda, include four 
anb-di visions, MarAtlm, Jdtuva, J&ngada, and Ahin-Ar, who nvithtir 
many nor ent togother. Among them the Mardtha Dohoris hold 
a specially high piucu. TtioJaluvas.Jdn^^iis, and Ahirvirs appear 
to he foreign immifj^rants, fianlr-'hi^, mid thvrv in a tradition that 
thuy came from Bundelkhand. The AJiirv^ra make leather jars 
for clarilted butter, and oobblti old bIiook. Mocuis make all kinds 
OMnaMrt. - pf shoes, boots, and other leather artideM. CHAHitR.iRs have 
e^hr Kub-divisions, Mar^tha, Kitthi, MitrvAdi, Purbhai, D&bhoU, 
Uijsslm^n, MAaa, and Pardeshi. The MariithiU are of two cUeeos, 
Dukhunis and HarAlbhaktae, of whom the latter hold a specially 
high place. I'he village Ch^mbhAra preparu native shoes and 
(he luathoT wnter bag, mot. Though at preheat the Dohoris and 
Ch&mbhfira prepare bIodb n« well aa sew leather, the Chdmbh&is 
declM^ that fifty years ago they uBod uiily to «ew shoos fi-om skins 
prepared by Dnhoi-is, They chiefly worship Man&i and call thoir 

■ Ad'ording tootlm wcouiita, Vndu* ue of. (our (tlviiiotia, Vidnn proper inolndtM 
BhBDilia, Bhuj&i. Kalb, and M*niw ) Utdia or w«U buUd«n i JitU or MiU nuk«n ; 
ud HUtit «r well dignvn. 





prieat Bh^t. This Bhitt is a Cluiiubb&r and o«t« with tfaem 
khougli tbe^ do Dot eat witli hiiu* His part id tbo • marrtii^ 
ceremonies is to beat the dmin and repeat holy vitrscs, aud bo is 
geDerally paid 5*. {R», 2 «*. 8) for his services. Miirnugc cuatoina 
nntoDK ChflmbhArsaQd Dohorisaro ftomcn-hiit ptx-oliar. (ibniTitllj 
no BnihinnD utUiDds, but villaRe Br^unaua, atttrulo^TrH.and beggar 
Brihrnana help tbu (lli4nibliiir by iJxiu^ the luarria^o <luy nod 
tolling thu hour. Thouvb tboy dctiy it, Ihvri) can be little doubt 
th<i Bnibnuui receivee soni« pay for bin tiomcos, and is 


out-of-tbe-way rillagitis:, it is prubiiblf tliat the BnthmaD would, for 
a consideration, attend a CiidmbliAr'i* wi>ddinf;. The tnarnam 
curiitnony UKUidly takes place in ike monii%. Tho hnsl^und of tb^ 
bridegroom's stMter, ur Itis putumul uncle, acts as boatman, and 
tflkes a leadioff part in tbe centinouie^. \N1iea ho, as he usually 
dooM, bas tied the knot, the married pair and walk seven times 
round » |»iat, usually of Boswollia thiirifera, galai, wood, aet up in 
thp middle of tbe marriage shed utid Murixmnded n-ilb twenty-one 
earthen pots, maticas, A son's marriage ooMi* about £10 and a 
daughtei^.4 uothing. Tliey Iniry tbe nnmarried, bum tbe married, 
and monm for three day». Death expcusoM uinoitnt to from £1 &i. 
U»JE2 (Rs. I4-R«. 20). Widows marry, but not with the honoum 
of a fimt weddiug. It w a favour conferred on tho widow, and her 
father pays all chargea. The catite hag a committoo, pantk, to settle 

^pressed or Tmpiire Castes number, besides the Chimbhira, 
six classes, with astrfiigtln.(7'.',.'j2l R')ulKortt;J2 per centof tbe whole 
Hindu population. Of these tJtt,ti2ti were Mbini, scarengets ; 10,067 
MAup, Iwtlier dreHSers, indndin)^ 27-^ Bh)irot4ts Dr'DcnlA6,tfaieve8 ; 
447 Boruds, basketmahera; iJ8l KitlkiUlU ; and one E'arT&ri MbAbs 
Are said to be of tho following twi^lvo and » Uttlf cast«s : Soma, 
LAdhaii, Andhon, Tilvan, Kochrya, Bikmya, Bunkar, Uoblr, Balhi, 
Konkanya from the south, Khar»e. Oond from N4gpnr, and GoptUs. 
All of thceo 8tib-divi:fion» art- known in Khiimliuli, but the bonft 
is niueli the largest. GondU, the ludf-tvuite, are iMImr itHiH'tioH who are 
fount) in the Brandol sao-diviaion. They arc said to take their name 
from serving at a shrine at Domigirhan on tho Qodilvari near 
Kaygoon Tlmke in the Nixttni's territory. They wear a neckbico 
of sheep's hair and wander about begging, clashing little cymbsls, 
and invoking blussingv- llioy do nut eitt bread preparod by 
Mhdrs, but iJiey take wheat flour and other alms from Mli&^ and , 
make their own bread, llie communoHt. Mh&r snmumes are Ltid&T 
and Surytt. The first four sub-divixiima eat togelher bot do oot 
intermarry. They vary much in appearance, and when not suffering 
from hereditary or oGber disease, am well made and mtisctdar. Liku 
the Knnbis they speak a Ktuindeidii diab'^t, a kind of aborteucd 
Uar&thi.' Theyliavenepvoialformof greeting,inBloadof 'taldm' or 




Wtnea have rmMOwt 
Wlilttaf u« T<™ fins > 

Kcikon UU. 

KMbE jltM. 

KdhMhnll DDt. 

Chapter in. 


(MaMdn. ' 


IBomba; Oawtt 



(waptor in. 'ratn rdvt* Buying 'johdr'^ to astran^n^, and to each other, namasttt 
Popalatioa. or • 1 borf to yoa.' Though Itfty, uuthrifty, mid fond nf plRatuiro and 
PrpriMcd drink, they are trusty viUag» aervantd, fairly free from crime, 

CtMMB. int«Uigunt) quick, and kecQ observers. Tbevilla^Mh^ Hwoopa tho 

Mkdn. village stroi^, avIh as giiido and measeng^r, and carrios off dead 

cattle. Other Mlidra earn their living aa laboarera or busbandinen, 
chanting TnkitrlUn'B verscB, ftd Bulling fuel and grass. They make , 
nxcvlk-ut milvDiy gang Inliitun^ra aiid liftTo gained almost a oionopgHI 
of the unskilled railway labour Aarket. ^| 

Tbey livo ont«idu of tho Tillago, a few in houses of the better class, 
but moat in ihatohed ahe^a,jAo2uf(itf. The houRes have wallsof unbunit 
* brick and mud with only a ground floor, a email front verandah, 
and tho initidu di^-idcd, according to tho sixo of tho family, by one op 
more partitions. Each family has aa many metal cups as there are 
tnumlwrs ; ono or more earth, wood, or me^ water jugs and cooking 

Gt«, and a wooden or nwt«\ liidio, a stone ciirry Biab and roller, a 
ndmill, and a large knife for outtirig vogt^tables, and a col or two 
with a blanket or patchwork covering. Their food ie millvt broad, 
carry, curds, iv mixture of garlic onioiiB and chillies, veg<'tablefl, fish, 
and the Qe»h of goatii and doiul uctttlo. Ca»to ^linnorfi are given at 
births, betrothals, marriages, and doatha, and when a man who has 
brokun unv of their ikkiiu mlvs i» received book into oaHte. Theea 
dinneni, generally cooked by their women, consist of rice, wheat- 
bread, spht-pals^ one or two vegetables, and a dish of milk and augar. 
The dinner in serred on bcIl-mot<l plntos, belonging either to the 
boat or to his caste -fellows. They dine without taking off Ihoir 
impor garmonts, and four or five cat from the eamo plate. Children 
dine with the men, and women and grown girln when the men have 
finiabed. At their caste feasts tbey uoe neither flesh nor liquor, and 
except at funeral feasts, end with music. The men wear a waistband, 
waistcloth, turban and coat, and the wornvn a robe and budice.' 
The children of the are murriod before ibey grow up. But 
in moHt ciusiua want of money forces them to pot off marriage till 
the girl is from Conrteen to ai.vtoi,'n mid the boy from eighteen to 
twenty. Polygamy and widow marriage are allowed and practised. 
A yoonger brother may marry hi» t^lder broUier'3 widow, but thei 
appear to be no traoea of polyandry. 


nTion a marriage is arranged the boy's £athcr auks a Gosiivi, fihd 
or SfUlliu of liLH own cante to &x llie lucky day liud hour. This hQ 
generally does after consulting a Brdhman.' Before the roarriagoMd 

■ /oMr oMnu from tha Suukrit ToddJ^rak, ricton. It U th« nnul BhrivAk or 
Jaio erMtini(. 

■ N«u th« nil<iroy Mici in lufo toxma, Uinre la no ptcvlianlT in tb« pment drem 
of Uie HhAra. Ii> out^f-lbe-vfty Tillage Uio MUr ia readily known by hJi long 
Btipk. Utt«r«d tarbaii.KDddirtjrcloUioa. 

* TfjUuDaU-iSm th at tlitfy aver tetc p art (n a MhiU w»iilin g. And Moorallf aU 
the hdji theyciv* u ttuit thoy aillow a UUr to look on at a KiiiiU wvdilniK and tail 
their Qiru Mhjr pricat when lh« Brikman haa clap|)«d hb liacda. In aoino (if tbo 
largei towna Brihrnaiw are aald Monatiiiin to he amci1uy«d by Mbtni to pre tham 
tha ngnai for the hicky nnment. But llify do thia aumliug at a diatanon 
aod naver inti with the p«oplo o« t«)i« an airtiYa part in t)>a cRramony. Abont 
Rrifanaa pn«ata tho Imtli aMini to be that in t)i« ninr« civ ilia ivl (<.wTia iticyilii niiejid 
Uicw w«ddiayi,bmia ranot^ TiUxgea ooly Uu SUbuoi Bhit, htnuoli a il\>At, atlenda, 




din n er, nalloci gadcujner, \» f^ven either to the boy or to the girt and 
their relatione and friends. Then qDmos tho tfli-moric cerenwny, 
whon turmeric ia mixed witli water and rubbed on tho boy's body, 
and K4>mo of it is t^ikun t^i ihu ^t by a party of the boy's relationn, 
who, at the same time, make her a present of vli>thc« and omamenta. 
Ruth at tho hofi and girl's houses, booths are built, and at tho 
ffirl'a house an altar \* rained. mOa tiie marriago day, an 
Hour or two before the time fixed, which ta alwayii sunset, 
tho boy, ridiDir on horsoback ^h a marriage ornament tied 
to hia turban, gov^^, with musio and a company of bionda both 
mon and women, to Mfiruti'a t«mple. He \» loDowed by hijs sister 
carrying a walor jar with five copper 'coiite in it. Meanwhile thtt 
girl's parents and relations, going with music to lh« same temple, 
present tbe boy with a turban and waistcloth, and bring him in 
proceeeion to the girl's house. On reaching the bouse, either k 
coooanut or a ptooeof broad is wared round his hvad, and thrown away. 
Then the boy and girl are mndo to Kit in btuket« vuntaining Hoe, 
betolnuts, pan leaves, and red and yellow powder, with a cloth 
between them. McMmwhilo tbo Albar priest, or if one has been 
bribed to help, the Br^tnan, tttauding at a distanoe, mutters texts 
and watches tho sinking son. As he watches, the brntket is 
twisted round five times, and as bo claps his hand to show that Uio 
moment haa come, the baskets are turned a sixth lime, ihu cloth is 
snatched a^ide, and tbe bride and bridegmom tlirow garlands round 
4»ch other's uocks. Bet<>lnut aud Icavosare handed round among tho 
men, ami twrra«ric and nxA powder, kunktt, among tho women. At 
the sacred fire lighted by the priest in the c^iiilre of Ihc booth, tho 
boy and girl offer sesamuin seed, ricv, and clarifiod bnttor, and after 
walking three or four times round the fire, present the priest with 
money and metal pots or othur gifts. Then tbe boy and girl are 
seated on the altar, and the laps of five married women are filled with 
wheat, rice, five diy dates, and an equal number of betelnuts, and the 
boy's and piH's right wrists are bonnd by yellow strings with piecen 
of turmiTie fiv«leii<?d to them. Next they are taken to Marnti's 
temple, aud on reium to the girl's honse, at the booth door an 
oart hen pot tilled with water and floating mangolcaves is waved roond 
their fact-s and wich guest dropM oiio copper coin into the water pot, 
and waving another round the faces of tbo con pie, gives it to the 
mnsicians. These coppora nro then equally divided among the 
bridegroom, the prie«l, and Uie musioiaas. Next day the girl's ^ 
mother lakes baskets of sweetmeats and split'palse to the boy's 
housA, aud after washing hi» mother's feet, pn^scnts her with the 
basket*. Next comes a ceremony caWeAphiMhami', when the girl 
is given clothes and ornaments, and her lap is filled with wheat or 
rice grains, a piece of coooH komot,drydate«,nlmond8, and botclnuts, 
the mother and relations exchanging presents of ckiCbes. Tbo 

Oiapter lU. 



JU&dn. < 

As mimU tlio otdinur tnatmant ti MUn by BnUnnMu, Ur. Poltui write*, 
• A BrkhnuB clerk will uot ■•« * Mh&r touch IiU ovt, nor will be Ulu • pipor or 
anilhiiifl fron tlio lunil* of * llUr. Tbo Mhilr Uir»ini ly toff tt« p>pt:rdii» n uid / 
Uta duikpioki im p- So, in rMiiniiiig ■ iiajiur, Ui« OtOmta Rla^ it towards Uia A 
Mbit, bvl dot> not hud it Imk& toUai,' 


[Bomhky Oai 





boy** mot)i«r luid hor njlatioiut And frinn<laare then, vitii rauiito si 
clolJtea apread for tbem to walk on, takon in procoesiou to tlic girl'a 
faonse. On rciacliinff tlio houi^ the boy unii f^rl aru mlilKtd with ail 
and batbud in wurtn wuUtr, umiuiiiig thonirtelvea hy squirting walw_ 
at each otbor. If tb» girl's &ther can a&ord it, g'lass b&n^es 
put round the women's wrist«. During this timv, till tlw rutiu 
procpB»ion, tho boy and girl luniuio tlicuiselTBS by biting pivcoH 
betvlDUt or cocoa kernel from between each othvr's teeth, by hnntii 
for A betelnut hid in vach olhur't ctutlivs, and by funding each otln 
While tho boy is at hi3 botiae the giH'a father gives two dinnor8 t^ 
guiA4ts,caate fellows, and tvlutious. Bilhoron thr third or fonrth diiy 
•after mnrringtr, llio bridi^nnd bridi'gi'uinn are Keatod on a borHO, and 
wilh Groworks, mnaic, and a large body of friends, are takvn to the 
boy's house. Koxt day the boy's father ffires a dinnor, tho yellow 
tbnmds itro btkou from tha wriKLt and tieiMCH of the boy njid girl, and 
Ibcy tire again bathed. The ordinary marriage expenses' in a poor 
fomilvrarr, in tht) case of a bov.froni £2 10«. bo£IO (Rs.2f>-Rs. lOOk 
and in tho c»»b of a girl from'fl lOo. to £2 (Kit. 15 - Ra. 20}. la| 
well-Lo-do family the expense is nearly half as much again. 

When a member of the family is at the point of death, the heil 

S've alms in the nnmo of tho dying porson, and when lifo is goi 
<i iKHly i» laid on a blanket or a pieco of nlotb, wiuthed, and pla 
^thor ou a bamboo bior or in a sling. The thumbs are tied with a 
p'ece of silvor wirw ovor tho, rolut.ions pour a littlo water into 
th« nionili, and tho wife or husband drops, wiib the water, one or 
more false p«»ris.' Tho boily in thtn carried to tho burjHng ground, 
laid in tlio grave with the ctolhes on, and earth thrown ov(!r it, 'irsb^ 
by the chief mourner and afterwards by the rest of the eompauni 
When tho grave is filled, tho cbiof monmer, with an earthen wataff 
pot on his shoiildltr, wivIkH round it three times. Ikfaking a «iimll hole 
m the pot with a stone, the water trtcklQa out, and witen the pot is 
empty, he daslies it on the ground, calls aloud, aiid returns home. 
From Uiree tu teii days the mmirning family is impure. On the third 
day the grave is Iwollod, and on the tenth, Uie cbiot mourner with 
a priest, relationa, and friends, giving lo (ho river's bank, has bia 
head and monstuchcfl shaved, and after batbiug, offors rice, doagl; 
bulls, and oaken to tlie sjiirit of tlm cK^ud. Then, placiug some call 
for the crows, he throws those otfered to tho dead niati'ii spirit iut 
the river, and returning home, feasts hia relations and caste 
, follows, and in presentod by them with n now turban. Death 
eVpeniiea varv, in a poor family, fi-om £1 t<i £1 10«, (Us. 10-Ra. 15)^ 
and among the woll-to<do from £2 10*. to £5 (Ha. 25 -Ra. SO). ~ 

Mh&rs keep tho r«gnlar Hindu fasts and feasts. Their favonriJ 
doitii.« arc Vilhuba, Khandoba, Mhasoba, Bhalroba, and Aibbav^i, 





' TIm dDl«ll« an* : datliM R*. SO, two Uisnan Ri. 2i, drink Rb. 6a Mr. J. 
Pollou. 0. S. 

* Ho «<i»lnm vaiita in dllfiMBt piMM. TTi* Mhln of Pa3dlii my that at Ibc time 
o( itmoriitg tb<i AfA bchly ii( a uiAnicJ luaa truiu tlio lioaM Hit nUiifnt put mtn 
luK Baath juda loaf villi s^i4il timl nriibwifa'sneL'kUcv. AtthegnrcUic dccna 
In«Ul«r or KUi wuU Um «ad at hi* torbut uil drops a littlo wat«r on Um da*d 



whose imti^s they keep in theip houeos fttui wrmdiip. It<,>s)d«« 
these they wonliip siiakeB and Um spifits of the dead. Thi-y bhvo 
on ffpeoial places of pil^m»^, vitiitin^ ^11 Hindu HhriacK, Ik'nai-os 
iBcluded. In m>mt OMes MhAr Sddbua luivo Ix-oii w<inihi|)}M'd by 
olbiT Hiiiduit. Their priests arc Gosivis, Sddbus, and Thiikui-a 
or Bb&t8. T1h3 SftdhiiD orw Jlliiln*, wlio Iikto bwn inilistod by 
other Uoif^vtH or VuiriL^iii, and wbo have devoted theni»elTe8 to 
a religiooa life, chieHy to the worship of Vithoba. The Thikurs 
are called Mhflr TltAknrH, and are prvbnhty Bhfilii who hare br-cn 
def^nulcd by mixiuK amonj; Mhiirs. Their form of ^^reeting ia 
different from the llb^r*, enyitig ' ram rAm ' to wwth other nnd 
*hrahn>a* to stmntri>rii. Ui-Midea officiating Oi their pHeiit, thti TbAkiira 
•CtAM tbo Mhfirfl' banker. ITe eats from a Mb£r, but no Mhjlrwill 
fiat with him. To csrapo from lliu iinpteivi<»iiliii,-:«8 of their po^ittoa 
as an ' impure ' cImk, some Mhiirn dre^m like devotem and pn.«i aa 
QotAvh or as MnsalmiiD lie^^rs. But as a dIosh they aocopt tJicir 
podition, live by thomitelvca, and nro citreftit not to touch, or cv(mi 
tn out-of-tlie-way parts not to allow their shadow to taXl on a high 
oasle Uiuda. 

1n cnch group of Tillairea there ia a chief &tbAr hiradnuui, who in 
Jauuier is called jiaderfar and in the south wnehetur. The office 
is, as a nUe, horodittiry. The most »cni<iible luid worthy of (ho 
sons is ohoiKCu in the room of hia &tber. Failing sons some other 
member of the family, and failinff the bmilyi an ont^sider is chosen. 
Caete disp«t*i» ar« Delllcd by tho mnn of the viilw^i with, or without, 
the help of the headman. The offt-uces puntshiHi by t^xpitlitioii am, 
the ^iluro to pve c«flte dinners, diuiui; and smoking with one 
of lower ciuttv Kiich aa a Hiing, and aduitory or iMnt'tibinsj^. Men 
haTfi games of chance sach as drafts n'ith shells and canls, boya 
play marbles with wood or stone bullets, and girS luivo tboir dolls. 
Men imwliito athletics sodi as prostrations and club ezercusos. 
They have no profcssioniil JMters or story tollers. Thvy arc fond of 
masic, plnying a onc-»tringi^l instrument tunlune, a lute vina, S 
tambourine da/, and a smiill druin dM. 

Of lata bi-tw(.<en liuidhoidnrs and viltago Mh/Lrs complaints and 
foods have gn>wii very common. I'heir hnrvt^t grain doloH, which 
nsed to vary from fonr to forty pounds from every hnabandman, have 
l>e«n lusst-noil or withheld, and tn some vilhiges Khaofips have Ik-vd 
cnllod U> do iheir work. But as a nile Ihejia diaputefi are sottJcd in 
the Mb^r's favour. Tho railway has done much for tho Mbfirs. * 
Thoy mako excellent gangmi!ii, and Komo of them, ^theriitg (Nijiital 
as petty oontractors and m on ny tenders, show much indepeudiiuce, 
and manage their business withottt the holp of any high caste clerks. 
Of tote, too, they have begun to send their boys to school.* 

MiNQS, foand in small numbersall over the district, belong to three 
cl&Mes, the tocnl Murjtha Mfings who have settled in tho district for 
generations and ilo not eat with the other clftHH<-!i ; Miing Gilmdts, 
wanderers and dealers in buffaloes ; and Ddk&lrili- Mdngs, beggan. 



' Dayrwnd 


> A Uliti mIumI «t Yivnl hM tliirt}- f ujiUi, aiid unther hM bora Utdy optnod u 

IBomlwr Oitzet 

pt«r ni. 

• PopnUtion. 


Ma »iji. 




The G^nidifl sbaTa and clcnft bnfhiocfl ; tliey beg and wsod 
abcMtt but uover «|k;ii<] tii<>i{ mouey. The D^ktUvi&ra are M^iu^ 
beggars takiug aluia from their own caste only. Tho repiilar 
district M^ngB are gvncraDy dnrk uud Dtronglj made, ptuwioimtv, 
rcrenfFoful, rudo, nn<] greatly feanMl aa soroeretv. They apeak a 
Kb&»deali dixlect like Mhdra and Ktmbis. Sturdy and fit for hard 
work, thoQgh truBtnrorthy villugo itorvantfl and not addicted lu crime, 
they uro, as » clnett, Inxy, unthrifty, and fond of pleasure and drink. 
Some who hare recently comit from the SitmAlds, csltod tho Ghjit 
Ullngs, make ropw of coir, twine, and leather, and the Khindeiili 
or &UingM proper, with the help of their wives, make bamboo 
•baskets, tent screens, and ropes. They are nlao villngv watchnwn, 
giiidpi>i luid niuMicitiTi», MungHtvra, acnveugera, and hangmen. Tho 
proudcat moraeut of a Ming's life is said to be when he hangs a 
Mh&r, the hereditary rivals and enemies of his tribe. I'boy live 
ontaido of villogeii, • few in bouwa of tho better olaaa, but must in 
thatched huts. Their food is millet bread, cnrry curds, vegetables, 
fiah, the Rcsh of goats, sheep, dead cattle, and except those who 
keep au iiitage of Khandoba or Devi in their houses, pork. ChmIo 
dinners are given at births, betrothals, marriages, and deaths, and 
whi-n a man who has broken one of Ihftir .toeiitl nilus is received 
back into caste. At their caste feasts they use neither lleiih nor 
liquor, and, except at funemi feasts, end with music. The children 
of the well-to-do are married before they grow up with lite same 
rit«8 aa the Mhdrs. On the eveuing of va& nmrriage day, the 
Mitngs generally, at a respectful distance, attendaKonbior M&rv&Ii 
weddiivg, and at mindown, n.t koou a^ the Brithman clap» his hands, 
they tie the knot. Tho marriage is generally performed by 
Hang SidhuB each of whom has a group, of from twelve to thirty 
viUiigi>» to wander ov(<r. The Sdtliiu'a preaenoo is noi eaaential. 
In his absence the beadntan, meketar, who must be present nt all 
weddings, and if not he, Home member of the marriage party 
^>erforms the marriage. Polygamy and widow nuirriage are allowed 
and practised. They gonernlly bury their dead. 

Their favourite deitiott, all of Minn n^d stones, and their fasts and 
feastH are tho same as those of the MbArs, and liko MhiG-s, their 
prieiits, (losAvis, Htiiii«, and S^lms, fix their children's namaii,' toll 
the IucIq' day and hour for marriage, and |ierform the ceremony 
with ParAnic verses. Like the MhflrB they have headmen called 
mehetart. The offences punished by expulsion from caste are tho 
failure to give caste dinners, the dining and anuiking with a DAkilv&r 
or Oirudi iiiug, a Vador, or (t PhAs Pirdhi, adultery, and killing a 

Some few MAngs, who have driven a suceetuifnl trado in boffaloes, 
are well-to-do; but the majority are poor and obliged to hibonr 
constttntly for their daily bread. They arc much looked down 

■ Tb« tUUec BrlhiDui oatoe* tb* ehfld il Mkcd by th« iiiat, ud tbongh be AeOM 
it, upud for tin trouble 

* Thii i> duubUnl though «omc Micin aMerttt. Th« J»IgMa Mian Mrtftiiily wt 
the Stoh of Um oow. Mr. J. Folleo, C. 8. 





on, but to some exteot comfort ttiemiielveft bv holding in coDteit^t 
tbe Mflug GirudiB and the DAkftlvArs, " 

BcHUDH, found in &niall numbera at Pfipola and Dbulin, say that 
they came from Ah mudnugitr about two gonorations ago. According 
to their itt'iry, V&rv&ti, on re.-iching womaohuod, was prvwntvd by 
tlie matrons with tbp nsnal Upfiluog, ottbharan, offering of whi:at, 
cocosnnte, red and yellow ]>on-<Jor, betel leaves, and u oomb. 
To niuktf n nhoveUaliaped winnowing basket to hold ihcso ofTvriiigs, 
Khiv tailed the Buruda into exifitence, and allowed them to cut 
down five Uimboo troe-s in PAi-vnti's garden. Instood of five the 
BnnitU out ten troea, and through llit? u-mth of Shiv, lost tht-ir < 
ciule. There ia nothing poctUtar in their «p]iearance or dialect. 
They live inside the town nvar Yiiuts and make bamboo baskets, 
tup and 1114^1, littlu winnowing faint, cagcn, and oradlM. Ktinbin 
«moke with them and ibey do not eat with MluLra or M&nga. 
They risii MAheji and other fairs, and their priests, the LJng&yat 
JanguniB and BrilhmaHM, ntu-ud thrir wtnlilings. Thoy h»Tti no 
beitdman. They are hardworking, all the tuombers of the family 
helping, and but for the money tbcy waste on their weddings, thoy 
would hftvo n giio«l rhanw^ of rising frnin their present low pwiition. 

KaikAdis, found al Aiiuiln4>r, Bhndgaou, Cbopda, Dhulia, Krandol, 
Jdmner, N&xirabad, t'irola, flivver, and 8dbli, am of two clans, 
Jfldar and fJdikwiir, who eat and marry with each other, aa no 
marri.tgi^ brtwt-vn two nn'mbers of the same chin is allowed. They 
aity Ihoy know no homit but Kluindctfh, ami tluit they hnro no 
tradition of having come from the aonth. They have houM^ in some 
central viliagvs, but for xeven months of the year, from October 
till April, they wander in iMi^trch of work. Their H«ttled abodeii 
ore often well built houses in tbe middle of Villages, as at 
Grandol and Siikli; tbi;ir wandering htirn art; mado of matting 
Hft np on bamboo polea, which, as they move from place to nlac«, 
they can-y, with their bou6eliold goods and dishes, on the back4 * 
of asses. Like all wanderers they are a suspected class always 
undvr piilioe supiTviition. Tlwy wkoiI to make biiskot-i of lliu 
branches and leaf fibre of the wild date or dwarf imlm tree, 
shiwi*, which formerly grew freely tbrougliont KluLnaesh. The 
fewnoss' of date trees now forces them to make these basketa of 
cotton litalk.s, aud they plait Iwig.t of the Hiiino material into wicker 
work cages which husbandmen smear with cowdung and store grain 
in. This cott<m.8calk wicker plaiting is their only work. 

They worshipj they H»y, nil Hindu i;<>*i*, nnd apjK'nr to be a 
religions race rovfirenring Muhamiuadan Hsint^.* They deny 
^^^at thoy eat cow's flesh, but, except iho followers of Musultnllii 
^^Ksta, they admit tboir fondnusa for pork and liquor. They 

F ■■ 

■ ElOfrpt t-- [ wbcrn itimtitt* tT*«* jiiiattm l«nk* «f all tba 

■tmumritti: il*W t> iiou'iinlilnna (uuii'l' .Mr. .1. rolUn, C.S. 

■ la oiraibuii 1. 1 [..I ti'i. iIjikIiih llity hnv* » vvcy Anfi rvvcrDit-^ for 
Dinlinalik iIm fuiMmi taiul itt Miillirr in SHUiTia. Hia dnxilMa k*np • ttiuk. jnli. 
la tlwlrbooMB wrApiMd in x mnn clnlli or tuu in miiis raoou ia hMioDr of ibu inuit, 
and it U no uaonul Uilug to k«cp tlia Mini'* ]iiti ud Hi* itai^ie of tUuniUn^. Mt 
liy Bib. 






IBombar Gtmtteer. 

iptor III. 








have oo fixed age and no flxml time for their inatTiaReB. Though 
they cohsnlt tlie Tillage Bf&liniBn as to tlioir children's nam**, 
he has no Toico in mnniage mstterB and does not att«iid their 
wpiIdiiigM. IHie only wedding cervmonies are the anointtDg with 
turmeric und the knot. The ponsent of the girVf pamnttt i» all tluiL 
is necessarv, and Ihin ih obtaint^l on payment of » lump (lum nf from 
£2 10«. to £10 (Ita. 20- Ks. 100). A feast, wiih [ik'nlj- of liquor, ia, 
then ffiven, and the pitri>nt« of the f^ir] tie her K>bc to the hn<k'grooio9d 
waistcloth. ThiM finishes Ihc rcn^mony. (lirl.* urn miirrii-d bi^«H 
thoir tenth vear. Though ui;irrtngv is* cheap and eaar, it ia burdened 
by a couditiou that reouirea the son>ia-Iaw to live with hia wifo'ft | 
family an (I help lo Hupport them, until he hM> thr«e i-hildren. If 
i<«pArut4»l from hia wife by muliml conaent, the huaband ix bound to 
make an allowance to bis wife's parents. Tbe Kaikadis recog nifls, 
no heudmiui ud HOttle dispntee by a committee of.any four or 

PartAbi, tboTigh, especially by the EIngltNh, often applied to) 
IfhArs, ia said strictly to helong to the musical Mhir. lie uaea a ' 
double drtim vnlled tnmhal ; a email flute of trnmpi't, nifulc of wood 
and tipptxi with bniH.'<, called fitnnt ; a long lrum[>et or tliilo rallt'd 
itur or turai, with a paint-leaf mouthpiece ; a thin dram stick culled 
buk ; and a homeci or crooked stick called rh^p. Thiwe, with a 
wooden flate, ali/iua'r, are thechief inKlntinentK used by the mu»cnl 
iib&r. Ocoasionatly he blows tbe bom, tiit^u, but uerer beata tbe 
tambourine or btowx the big tnimpot, Jtamo, these being exclnsively 
M^ng insCmments. 

Devotees, and religious und otber beggars of rarioa« names, , 
number about J2,0(lO souls or 1*24 percent nf the whole Hindu 
population. Of thi'se 7220 wore Qoa^ris; 1318 Minhhive; 1054 
Ghondlie; IGU Kolhitiis; 467 Shil&vants; 435 Gop4U; 274 JobArtg; 
,230 Holsrs; IbS PAngid-n; r>9 Bhflnds ; 39 NAlhs: 32 KApdig; 
Vibiadevit ; and 10 KillTieliU. Of tlwa© GosXria, recruited from all 
olassee, worship either Vi^ihnn or Shir. They rub onhos over their 
bodies, and wear the hair dishevelliKl, and xonielimes ooited round 
the head. They wauder about begging and viiuting places of 
pilgrimage. They wear oohre-ooloorc'd cloth<-« and vni al the hiinda 
of all Iliudni. At death their txKlios ;ire buried. GosAvia M>em 
inclined to give up begging. At Piichom, a G<3sdvi is a revenue 
•peon, and otbero have takeu to labbnr. Their local hi-admuD, a 
grral saint, mahant, tivits at Nngardevla. Gondrlis, called 
BluinldiH, aro a set of wandering iM.'ggurs recruited from all castes. 
They wear long dirty clothes and vasder about chanting son^ in 
honour of Amh^b^i, Saptaehringi, and other goddoSMOs. They 
attend marringi; nnd oilier ci^nrmonii-s and diinco with lighted lamps 
in their haua». MAnuiiAvs, found throughout tbe district, birt 
especially in Cbili^gaou. PAchora, PrakisFut, and SbAliiida, aro a 
sect of Krishna worahippvni who wear black gannrrits. Of Lite 
nwny hare given up begging and aetlled to tmde and husbandry. 
Borne are labourers, some cxtrso cloth weavers, and some carriers , 
with cartii and bullocks. Their dislike of idol worship lias inada 
theiD Tery unpopular among Brdbmautc Uindas. Bt^hmaas attend 




their mamsf^. They Mt with Kunbis bnt not with Tvlis or 
9'4tuboli8. They bury their dewL Their Ik^iIhioii iaa wauderintf 
ftuiDt. mahnitt. Hi« office is. eloctiv«, kiiU whuit bu diuH, oiiv of ms 
disciples is geaerally chosKti bitiidruati. 

KoLaAns or tumblers, taking their name from kolAit » term 
Dimiilly np|ili<-d to th« loofir bamboo polo on which they display their 
featfl, ore a very JMeliigi'tit looktug race anxioas lo r'rne from tbeir 
|>rc»eut poeitiou. Sbgnl aud native, of fair complexion, with dark 
eyvB and eliort-cut black hair, tbuy Npcak a mixtnre of Marfithi, 
Gujar^li, and Uindu»tnni. Rxccpt during the minn whoa they 
generally lire ontoide villagea, they have do fixed Beltl»ment« unrl 
no^-e from plaoe to r^nce carrying with them tbeir loog low mat ■ 
iul8, kiiiiimaluitt, Thoy live tof^lJiiT in wDall groups of foor or 
ire families, those who can afford it keeping pouiea and donkvys, 
fhom tlioy use in traTollinp from place to place. The men earn » 
iving by Itinibliu^ and thcJr women help llicin in tho p*'rffirmane©. 
I'b^y abo muke tbc HTtinJI biifTolo born pullii^ which nrv iirx-d nith 
art ropes in faeteuiog loads. Iliey worship Khandolm, HnnumAn, 
('ir, and the godd^ Mari. They believe in fjhosta and spirits. 
>a reaching womanhood every Kolhiti girl ia twllod on to choose 
vetween manage and prootitulion. If she prefers marriage, aho is 
esloosly watobed and ia usually well behaved. Ifeho choose to bd 
i prostitute and a (MmbhT, h«r pari'nU tnko tuT before tho tribe 
;ouncil,^iricA,gct llit-ir liravc, and ^ivo thi^m a diunor. The children 
)f nomarried Kolhiii girls, tbotigh held degraded, are supiwrted by 
ho vusto, and are marrH'd to other bastard Kolh&tis, Suca couplee 
nv oonitidcrt^d oi]tai»tox and vat by theniMlve«. Bat their chilaren 
tre admitted to tlie full privitegt-s of Uie cast«. Snvh of thvir 
romon na practise prostitution are always under police surveillance, 
IS thi-y aro euvpcctod of kidTsiipping high canto girk to bring up Ha 
iroatitiitex. UoPAr.t are Mh&v in-i^Ai^ who sing and dance, and also 
vreatle.' IIoLAea are Mdng bfggars f/x^m Burh&n|nir, who dance 
fith a stick oriiiimvntod with iK'«oo<'k foiithent and hung with beils.*- 
'AXOCLa lire a rrtco of Mar&tha Kunbi Wggar^, who wander through 
he Htrects early iu the morning shouting oat the names of Hiudn 
tida. They dance and sing and often climb troesj calling oat 
'ithoha'M name, and shouting for ulro>i to the pajt^rs-by. Tho 
'ilnguU of E'aiaMkhedii iu ildtuner are chiedy Mar&tb&s, some of 
hem culnrators and some beggars. The latter neither dan«? nor 
ma. hilt big in tho iiamo of^Vlthoba going about with blankuta 
H^hru over (heir headii. They eat from Marathiia and Brdhuuius; 
Kboth bum and bury their dead. UrUhmane attend their marriages. 
Iioy liavR » council, panch, to itottlo di.-s{>uteH. Nj^tsa are a class of 
eggnrs touad at Navlrabad^nd here and there in the eastern 
a&-divisions. They are also called Sitip&dris and biivo bwn for 
eneratior? in tlte district. Thoy wear huge glass earring and live 
eDttrallybybeggiag, though, when pre'tsed by bunger,they sometimes 
o a little bed-tape weaving. They worship Mahfldov. KAfdu* 

Chapt«r IIL 

■SMaboTcv p. 115. 

> fWtbur dctiila oi tlw Kipdia m giir«u in th* BonilMr GaMtt««r, T. S*. 

[Bombaf Guett 



cbipter ni. 



are a clan of bef^rs, n-Lo, when hvgKiog, dmw their wniHtcIc 
nviy theij- hciids. CK>«>elj' itlbbd witti tliem are VistTDsrs, who heg 
dothod in Ituifi; robes aud with a head-dress ot peaoocfc'a fi-aih^n^ 
KjlNPa.vTAs or slit-eared beprgant, fonnd in ultnofll nil (Mrtn of 
Kh^Dde«h, are follower* uf ihc grt-nt "aiut (iiinikhisiiOi wnd worship 
Shiv. 'ilipy wit with Kuubi», driuk liquor, iiud eat HeMh. Girls am 
marrivd l)«twe«u lire aad ten, and remarriage ia allowed. They bury 
their dead and observe mourniDpf for suruti dny^. Tliv cwrvmunjr j 
oittiDf? tho car t8 {X^rforuied by tkvir |iri4>tit when the boy ia 
ypnrif uld, and 'in. GJ. (Ita. 1|) are ]Mid to liini. At the close of i 
cereniotiy a fraat ia given to ralatioas and friends.' 

MBMtndnt. • According to the 18T2 ceiiwUK, Khltnili^sh Miiwlmitnfl iiiiml 
75,090 Bouls, or ("JJ'i ptir cent of the whole {Kipulaliuu.* Thevarefoi 
in every sub-division and in almost every village. The balk are 
oonvertt from Himhiintn. 8iioh of tJiem as haves Strain of fon'ij 
blood arv pi-o)»ildy the descend a tit» of tlio Aniba lAo took Bp rvjco 
nnder the FiJruki dynasty (lltr o - laOtt), and afterward^ hired by 
Mojt halB, MarAthiH, and local chie fs, »rere, along withtbeir countrf 
boni or Myrall ad tw nw, w linyo and TorinidnbW u bolly of men 
the time of tfae British conquest.* OihetH/ftf foreign extrat 
are the Malika the descendants of the first Mubainmadan codi 
in the north, who followod tlio antiies of AIn-ud-din (1912) aud ot 
Ghori kingK and ohii-fit. Betiides thosi! wlio claim Arab desc 
some KbAndesh Mui^lmiina hare a tradition that their forc-falh^ 
belonged to KhorSaiin, whilo othors reft-r vaguely to llindiisti 
and niithy >i;iy that they came onginally from Ahmodnagar. Kiicl 
Moglial espedilion seems to hare brought fnfsJ* settlers ti-om the 
north. Of Khrindi-sh Mnaalmfins about one-fourth are auppoaed to 
bo servants, and tho rv»t traders, critfbcmvn, husbandnirn, laMmre^ 
■nd bi^garK. They are potir and prond, Jind, except the 
Buhonla aud a few wfao Qa|£ lately bdcoine Wahbabis, are 
Buiinis in name, bnt careless ^pot their religion, almost half Uiadll 
*tD thought, feeling and castomn. 
^^ Tho diiTcrcnt chiHMM into which tho Mnsatmin population' 
divided may bo arranged Dudi-r two gmtips, one including tlut fa 
general classes of Syods, Shaiklla, Mogliids, and Pitthana, and 
other ombi^ng tho KCjMrate communitio* which are based on ' 
aamcticss of origin i;^ of employment. Of the four gencrai chutsefl ' 
the Mogli&iti are very few. The three other clasncs ivro nominally i 
■ large bodies. Bulvosl of the memliarit have no claim to foreign, 
descent, rcprvsvntinB loi-al Hindu oouverls, who, following the Deccao \ 
custom, have enrolled rhem^elveK in tho class to which tndr pntron, 
• OP (converter, belonged. Thus the Ttflvis, converted Bhils, and the 
NAilcvndiK, probably Hindus from Mysor, hare chosen to adopt the 
title of PatlUns. To this rule the only laceptious are some famUioa 

■o iff 



■ PnrUim dcUiU or tbs Kdep!»U« m* tilvan la th« Banter GuetU^r, V. SK, 
■TIm datailt am ot little vkIuo; lSi$ Diijiri* or <«toii clransn. OSCMci 
tir«rMVim^S3SK«aii««rb>Dt«lMn. 2IBMaaiinor bncalct iiwV*r», VIS Bohntixir' 
tmjkm, SOI Bhaagi* or nreepcra. ]30 F«kin or Iwiiinn, 1$ Kilbanib Vt Uniar 
KamkiUi*. 8 ShBdH, uhI Tiw* Otbtn. 
• D«tallB arcgiirn twlow under " Uaitwy." 




of Syeda of undonbted foreifrn deaoeiit, auil in tlia [iorfcb<east sonw 
Sbuiklis tho rDprCMMttutirps uE the Fi^niki kiiic:^. 

0( the tweiitr-two local commumlius, <if n-liJch infomwtaon haa 
lieeu obtaio|d, oae are traders, twelre craftairieu, four ItunlmndiuoD 
Bad cattlo lSsi;dcr«, four servants, and one aclora or muaicians. 

T\w uiu' :<pe<!inl communitir vi tnidiMM is tliv BouokAs/ Shiiiis by 
religion, and followers of the ituUa .SiUioli '-f Suiul. Sinm; fnmilii^^ 
of tradint; Uofaor&s, i mm )g rants frum tiujarat, are foimd in vnrat 
KtulndcHh. But nio«t of tlicm have come from Burhdnpur, once 
the boad-4]Diirt«r!i nf their mxi, mid arc fotind in tho cnat of 
the district in Bhilsdva), Ohopda, R&vor, nnd Jalgaon. Dunne Ibo 
Wt five yi-Ars their oitmbor hsH incrcasH) ^xinHiderabtf . Id JalKatm 
tlicn* nrv iii>w hcvch or int-'ht Bohoni idiopkw|jcrs #hvrc there used 
to bo only one. I'roluiWy with i» ccrlniu utrniii of Amli and IVrsiiaii 
blood thoy are chiefly nescendanta of Gujaraii Vdniis, They are 
wisily kiimvii»fn)m other Mu«alm&D» by their small tightly-wound 
whiti^ II^Ikum and litUo ykull cn[<«, and their long lluwing nhito 
robes and Jooae tr<ouH«r» widening from the ankle upwardH, and 
fautuuvid rcrand tl^ Kaifit into puckers with a string. Tboujjh their 
Ordinary biitttnc^.t Wif^nng^u is llindustiini, thoy ittU spKik OajarAti 
at hdine. Tboy ruarrv uuly ainmig th«;ni!*i'ivc«. TlH-y hnvo UO 
special pluAof worship. They do uot attend the regular Sunni 
nio»quuH. At c-acli of thcJr BOttlomonta theii< is an ofiioe-benrer, 
Jdullii, under the Mukilitir of BurlitiDpnr, who (x>aduot« their 
uarriaji^e, death, and otJier ceremonies. Thoy nay a. yearly 
c^tributton of one-Sftb of their incomes to tbe Mulla fijUio)) at 
Surat ; thoy nro all traders douttng chiefly in iron and hardware 
^nids. A.HacIiiAA iht^y are pro^iperuuH with a ntvodily growing tntde. 

The twelve c*inmiiiiiti(s> of ci'aft^men are : Attiirs or perfumers, 
Bhondeknrs or nottors, DholdlioyA* or CnrtJi Vnnhon, Kiulia» or 
brickl»ycn>, GAi KiiHiibttor \n:i>f buli^era, Kh&tkiit or mutton butchers, 
Alomnia or weavers, Nilbandsaftr farriers, Saikalgars or knife 
grindoi-4, Sliisbgars or gla^H bracelet makers, Sot^n or citrpcat«1%, 
and Takiirix or milUtonegriuden). ^ 

AiTAirf, p<tFuwo«<, are converted tUndii^. lliey are tall, spare, 
and rather fair. Tli«ir home language ia ilindostini. They drcs« 
like ordinary DbcoMi Musalmans oxcopt that thoy vmnr smaller 
turliiuix. Tbv wonifin aliti^ wear the &iui44)n&n sbirt, kiidti, and 
trousers, ijdr. Tliev have no great name fathoneaty, but aro tidy, 
ardworking, and thrifty. ♦They uxtract Ph-fumw from flowjrsj 
od sell coKUioticx, dentifrice, aud hair oil.^BtloxnEX.iiLS, potters, 
are a aniall claaa of local converts thinly scattered over tho 
district. Thoir homo ton^o is Hindu^tiini. Their dn-as oouaista ■ 
of a large UaritJm-iiko turban, a jacket, and a waietcloth. 
The women wear tbe Mosalm&n dress. Tliey niak*«arthvn pots. 
PuuldhOtas, cir JuAiUs, are a mixoil class. I'bcir home langoage 
is Hindii.-<lani. Of a modiuui height and unare habit of body 
they are of a light bniwu or saffron coniplexioii. They drcas in 





' 01 tho oii^ lit Um aMM mtmwI ilmiiatiMW an givaa. 

CBombAf GuettacrJ 










tho ot^insry DeccAn-MiisnlmAn fiubioa except thiit tlioy wear tlia 
waigtclotti, ahnli, itiMtvftd of trouaer*, tziir. Tbey wnsh tbe .twcopin 
of gvld or itilver Huiitlia' BJiflps,*snd gaUier the particles of giAd 
silver tliej 6ud in ttie daat. Their ecsrch go dv Tally yields a very. 
poor return. Tlicy im> aobcr, bitnlw-orking, tlirifty, luid olflsnly, 
Gil KAaXu, beef butchers, are local converts calliDg UitmiMdroa 
Bhailchn. Their lacgaage is HiaduBlini. Thoy are tall, welUutado 
men with wheat-coloorc^ complcxion-i. Excopt thnt tho turban ia 
large and folded sumuwliat after tJie Mar&dia fiiKhion, Ixith men aad 
woinvD winT the Mosalmiu dreas. A. butcher i» a bye. word for whaB 
is raeaii aud shabby, but viccpt for tho tricks of their tmdo which they 
]y«ctioe without shiitnu, tjn^j- tiru religions, thrifty, and »ybcr. 
iwU oitly btief or buffalo 8esh as beef, lliey bavo a w»ll-orgnni: 
community. KkmAs, bricfclayers, are local converts. They spi 
HindoDl^i. Thvy aro of middlo height, dark, and strongly 
Tito men and wonten dresit in Uu«alitidii fiiahion. TJiey aro qniut, 
Kober, skilful, aud thrifty, but owin^ to the scarcity and uopertaitity 
of work, poor and sometimes in debt. Thoy have a well-organia ' 
community. KnvlTEia, mulluu butchcm, arc 1u<;iil co»\tlrt«. Tfa< 
home lanenogo in a low Uindust&tti. Tbey iire'V^Hl, ratJier etontlf 
made, wttli black or brown complexions. The men wear a large 
three-coruer^ turban, with a oA and the Hindu vrni^tojoth instead 
of trousers, and a handkerchief, ' iiioh, iii-doon*, ihey wind round iho 
hew] on laying aside their turban. The women dress like Hindus. 
Their character is much like that of the beef bat«hcr«, except that, 
being believed to practiclc^ many Hindu ril^'tt, they are looked down 
on by other Muaalmina who uoithor ask them to public iliniit-ra itbr 
eat with them. Thuy sell mutton, but neither sell uor eat beef. 
I'hey are sober, thrifty, and untidy, but well-to-do. Mo»>.U, or 
JclXbXs, arc local inverts who embraced IsUm during tho rcigu oE 
Auraugzeb. They speak Hindustiini. They are short spare mon 
with wheat-cotourcd Gomplexions. They havo large t^ii'bans of a 
r^hor jaunty make, au<l iuntiwd'of trouser* wour the waistcloth. 
Tho women dress like ordioary Mnsalm£u womeu. tjimple, timid, 
and stupid, thoy are wunvvrx by trade, making turbans, cotton roboH, 
Nud small wui.itoloths. NAlsaxm, farrii-rt*, are Hindu converts. 
Their home language is Deccan Hindustani. TLi.ty arc thrifty, 
hardworking and sober, but untidy. SiixAbaAKs, or anuourem, aro 
a mixed cliu^ including^ both local and foreign Mosalmiua. Those 
amr^ng them known asGhas^riits, have lately embraood IslAm under 
\h» preaching of Syofl Safdar Ali, the K&tX of Nat Irahad. Thoy 
»till lire by tucmHclves in tho village of Kotiamba iu Jalgaon, and 
speBk their own dialect. They liave not us yol mixed with the 
Saikalgare, and beyond the profeasiou, 4iare nothing iu common. 
The Kaikffllgarv, both mon and women, dress like ordiimrv Deccan 
Uasalm^s. ■ 'i'hey are hardworking, sober, and tlirifty. Formerly 
(buy used to make knives and lazois, and even swonis aud diggers. 
The order again»t wearing arms and the com|>etition of English 
hardware goods have niiuod their businms, nnd they now earn a 
poor livelihood by grinding knives and sharpening raxors. 

SHianoABS, or MakiIks, are a mixed class. They are tall, spare 
aud muscular, witli wfacat*cok>ared complexions. Both men and 






fromeo wear Hba ordinary Deocan-Mi)Mlrn£n drasa. .Thej; are 
sober, nleadj, ttiriftf , and witll-toxlii, and, except in Ihtt dxorciKO of 
their profeMion, fairly trutliful. They makugliiss iknd lac bracelet*. 
On acconnt of thv oomprtitiori of Jahalpar-raauufnctured gl&sa tiia 
KhiLndeoh tmdo lias tat«ly Kiifferod, but still yields a fair roium. 
SttrXm, carpenters, are the descendants of onnvorts made daring the 
reign of AnrsngEob. They are of middle beigbt and tniiscuW, with 
wbeat-colourcd complexions. Thiiir itomo language in Hiudu^Utni, 
and the dress of men and women is liko that of ordioary Deccaa 
Mtisnltnftns. Thry aro sobor, st«ady, industriona and thrifty, but 
poor. TAKj(RAa, known aw Phanibaxds «r UlKiue, are a mixe^ 
cla&s. Their homo langua^ is Uiniluat^ni. Dark in complexion and 
of modinm height they havo n»gnlar features. Except that thu mim 
wear tnrbanK with twintod bands, both man and women dress like 
Deocan Klosalmflns. Tbey are fond of aniit»emonl, thriftless, and 
poor. Thoy mako and repnirmiltstooos. Moat of them liave some skill 
msorgery. cutting for Ihiistoni', and cowobing for cataract. TAiia4-ra, 
coppersmiths, are immigrants from UirvAo. They arr wotl-mado 
men, with whcat-coToured complexions and regular features. Tbear 
bomt^ litnguago is Hindual&ni. The men droia like common 
MuBalm&ni^, and so do the women except a few who slill cling to the 
MarvAd petticoat. They are sobor, hardworking, thrifty, and very 
r«Ugiou«. They mako copper pota, and some aro cuiutaltlea and 
messengers in Oovemmeni and pri rate service. A few hare risen 
to high places undor GoVernraont. 

Till? fonr commnoitieit of hnsbandmon and cattle brooders arw: 
BiighbAus or gardeners, BohortU, ManUs or Deahmukhii, and 
HultAnis. BAuubAxs, gardeners or (mitorors, arc local onnrorta. 
Tbey speak both Ihlan&thi and Hindustani. "RiBy are of middle 
stature inclined tti stontneiw, with wheat -oolourod complexions. The 
women are Hghtor colouritl tbim the uten, and as a rule are band- 
Bomt'. The mtm dress in Musalm&n, the women in MarJtba ^hict. 
BoNiilc^ working as gardeners they sell fniit and v«^t(iblo», buying 
them wholesale and retailing th»m. Though hardworking and 
thrifty, thwy are fund of plesaore and fairly well-to-do. BuhobAs 
are fotmd in amall number* in the west of Ehindeah. Tbey aro 
Sannia by religion. MacLi^s, masters, also known aa Deahmukbs, 
are the ropreseiitatires of district rerenne officers and village 
httndmen, ao(!onn taut s, and scrrnntjt, who, to preserve their olHoeaud 
pay, or, on the promim.' <>t griiiitM of laud, embraced IslAm during ihe 
izeign of the l-'mpitror Aurau^;aeb. It oflon happern.!*] that of tba 
samt! family one branch became Iklusalm&o and the other remained 
Hindn. Not having mnrriAl with Uusalm&ns, except that the men 
wear the brartl.they remain Elindn in apponrance,dnt.->«,nndolutraoter. 
MultXxis, husbandmen and cuttle breedera, are the descendants of 
oomi> followers who came with Anranpwb's army from North India. 
Their homi! tmigiie iti a mixture of ^(ult^ni and MarAtbt. They 
drowf like Uindu Kunbiii, the women's robe bein^ something 
botweou that worn by Di-^caniand Vanjiri women. Though quiet 
andpoacoful, (hooe are not wanting in oountgc. 

Of thefour commnnitics of servants, three, the Maliks, Nitikviidis, 
and Tadvis, are chieBf employed oa constables and messengers, and 












■ptar nL one, ,Uio Bhangis, m menial^ servanU. MiLita, kiiiOT, are tlio 
AipaUtiotL ilwcendante of converts mode prubnbly during tUo bral (13C 
„_, , . MDliAinmadAn invasion. Tbey flpeak Deocan Ilinduitt^iii, and ht 

' aoiiuag (tpodal in th«ir Rppcaninpo. The mon wpar tur}>nRB wi| 

fcwisted banda, conta, iiud tiglic ti'nii.ierH, and iV women the rcgul 
MuBoIniAn ahirts Jriii/fiM, tronsers iifirt, and a^-arrea iklhnii: Uijii< 
tbriftloM and sober, thoy fin<) (•iiipi<iy(niuit in pablio und prii 
iwrvipc and as Irtbiiiircm. N.iiKVAms are noliprcd to be deacondat. 
or tlio MilctiPntof Tippa, who, during the diacorhancea that fo)lo«ri 
hia overthrow, settled in thp north DeccBD distri«ta. Orif»ino 
Hindns llioy aro said to 1)Ato l>««n converted And named by Hy^ 
Niiik. Bbtck, with high oheek bones and Marilthn-like fealur 
they am t&\\ and strong. •Thoir home tongoo is Ixith Hindnatiinr 
and Mnrdthi. They arc OoTOmment mi'Hitciijri'ra and husluindiueu. 
11u> int'n and Honio r)f the women dresit likfl AtarAih^ They 
hardworking, ("^ber, and thrifty. Somo of them hare a l(«nii] 
TadMt. towards Iho WahhAbi faith. TAPris, ko calkwl from forming 

wpanth* branoh. tnil, are Bhila said to have b<ten converted 
Auraiigzeb. In appearance they preserve tracoa of their origin bflii 
Hwarr.hy, thick -hpixid, and mnxcidar. Among tbeauolvm 
Hpmk a hHir-UiudiiHtJlni half-Ithil dialect, and low HinduatAni wij 
others. The mon droas liko AtiiKnlmanK, and the women like Guja 
TFindtia. Thev are hardworking but thriftleiia, and fond of plottau 
•ud drink. Thi-y are generally police ouii!<(»l>li'!t, CJovernment 
raflHM'ngDra, or Inlwurors, except tnnt tlioy novofiwurk fur hire i 
t4iD fiohlft. The women help the men by gathering and moling sti 
na lirewood. 

BItaofit. Uadev tho hctul of Servanta also come th« Biunoiii, anvon 

of two clasWM, ^Bcal ponvcrl.t and recent Hotllem (rtmi (ho 
north. Both speak HinduRt^oi. llw men are Mwnrthv, tall and 
Hpare, and the women inclinud to pluuipni'SK and generally WoU- 
fantiired. 'I'lio men have ni> (larticnlar drea^i, wearing nay sort of 
cloth they may gtit from thoir employeni, be th^ MTiTiamma<lan or 
Hindii. 'Ite women have a rolw, jwi./r, jicculiarly worn and a 
poltiocat which, when at work, they Inek above their kne<w^ Thev 
are bonvat, (jiiidt, thrifty, and hardworking. ^■ 

ilirt. Of Actont and Sitigera tho only clam aro the Miim, or noWos 

inimigranta from the north. Their honu> tangmige i» Hindagtjtni. T 
,iueu are black and spare, and tht- women well featured. As fiddlei.^ 
or^am boa rinv- players in tho serriot of dancing girls, tJiev bear no 
T«fiy good character. Their women siug and play in ZonAnite orf 
marriagea and other ceremonies. 

Ptoli. rAiisi« nnmhercd forty-threo souls. Almost all are shopkoopera 

and liijuor-sollvr*, mo-st of thom from Bombay since the onemuir 
of the railway, and aomo from Snrat^ where they are the chief 

EuKiMuu^ Etrtopitisa nombored 552 souls or O'OS por oonf of the whole 

ire i^^ 


■no ^ 

population. Bcaidos tJie Govornimmt ofHciata and a few Kuiopi-ana 
in tlie Jatgaon cotton inilla andwotton pr»ss factories, ' 
chiefly railway aervanta settled at Bhua&rai. 


-,i?>-».in(— ar- 




CRRiBTiJtKS, otlior thftii Etimprons, nunilxtrod 80t mnU or O-ffS 
p«r cetiL of till) whi>li> |)(>jiulnltuH. 'il'kere are a few at. Dliulin, 
a few at Dliarangaon, and iho rest at BbiisAval and Jal^^u. 
I'hc few ab Dhnlin aru chicRy Porttiguoye aorvnntv aa<I converts 
r)f n-linm uot moi'e I linn four nr live are Protestsnta. 'ilirvc i« 
a small RijmsQ Catholic chape) at Dholia with n coa^c^atioc of 
atjoiil fifty. At niiii«ivnl, where thi^rc is n congr<^atnm «( i^onio 
buudn!<Iii, a very pretty |ti)A»n Oitholiccliafwl has lately been liiiilt. 
I*ortapne«e workmen, wrvant», and Madriisis, and Pon^irtH or 
(liwcu'wdant.? of converts form tho bulk of the oungrfigalion. Tho 
DatiTO ObriHtiaiiK an-, ua a rule, poor and bardpi-e.^-icd for 
aabsiatence, and are not among the beal^biAiaved of \ho Shue&val 




lu lhi» district thorc is one ^Hllnge or town t« cibout wvory thrwi VflUf** 

sqiiare mileti of land, ciwh rilhig):) (.-outitining an iLvi>rago of ii9'2 
iuhabttaata, and al>oat eighty -eight liousoa. *Vilh ihe exception of 
thcpv<jplu of twonty-two towns, nnmbtiriDg 174,908 aouU or I7'00 
per cent of thv vntiro inhnbititnM, the population of Iho Kluludcsh 
uifttnct, according to tho If*72 L-entnui returns. lived in 2600 vilbgea, 
with nu avomgo of ^28 souls per villapo. Of tho wholo nnmbcr of 
towns and vUli>gi», K103 had lc«8 thiin 200 inhnbilniit!* ; 778 from 20U 
li> 5(10 ! 3iJt> Emm 500 to lOiiO ; 117 from lOliO to 20(tO ; 22 from 
2001' I.. :iOO^) ; 1.5 from 3000 to MOO ; 17 Erom 5O0O to 10,000 j and 
5 more than 10,(H)0. 

Nearly all Klutndtxh villages ar c wallfd, HOmo with hrick-facocl 
mud, (itliers^th solid stones and hrick onuuniented parapets. Some 
old vi91>ig<'.4 havV »lAteIy gates and remains of old forto. Though 

Crood of their old walh< and goteo, tho villagura seldom take atep« to 
eep them in repair. 

Am regards th« number of hoosee, there was in 1872 a total of 
220,800 or on an avprHge 2204 hotiHcis to the nqniire mile, sihowiiig, 
compared with ITO.JtJi in ISUi, an incrwwo of 3i7S per cent. Of * 
the total nmiilxTr I2,0ts housett lodging 67,322 persona or 6'54 
per cent of the entiro p<)pnlatroii, at the rato of 6'5K »onl» to each 
hou««, wore bnildlugs with wjdls of firo-bukod liricks and iMufs of 
til*. Tho romuimng 2I7,8ol h<>usi-s accommo&ting 9(>1,320 
ixtrsons or !)3-tO per cont, with a population per hoiiso of 4-H soda, 
includ<-d all buildings covorod with tbntch or leaves, or whoeo outer 
walls were ol mwd or snn-dned brick. 

Tliere arc two chief styles oi honses in Kluindesh, tJio flat-* 
i-o affwt and tbc tJIwl . Tiled roofs, forniwrly confined to Tillages north 
of t^e tfipii, are everyday liecoming more popular. In somo villngoa, 
an in Jalgaou, there was til) late)y a feeling agatn^it ti)ed roofs, on 
account, apparently, of the failure of two or tliree wealthy morchanta 
who had built htrgo tiled hounoit. The houses aro for tho moot 
part built of baked or nnbaked brick, cemented with mud, mortar, 
or moi-tar-iMiintuI mud. The window frames, door posts, and 
rafters am generally of t«ak or «t»t wood, and very often tho door 
panels and window shutters are of mango wood. Stone in not oftoa 
UMul orcept for the foundation anf the Tcnuidah tliat runs ronnd 

j tho groundfloor of the building. Uoasea aro usually built fac ing 

I a 411-17 




north or jtou tli. ftnd in Roino Ti1li^;«i there is n stroD); foelii 
Hy^nitj jjiu'jri j^mr a hous e fi-qntipg east or 'ves t. Khnndo^h 
are commonlf divided into fonr cIomcs, best, middling, ordinal 
nn<] hnts. In Inrgo townn tfa« )>eat kind of houHe cost« to ba 
upvrarda of £^00 (Ub. &<HIO), tho tnidaiiajf from 2100 to 
(Rs. lOOO-ita. 4000), and the common from £50 to £100 (Ra. 
Rs. luCH)'. In mnkll Tillitg«« the tiina kinds cost respooth 
from £50 to £200 (Ks. &0O.B«.2(J(K>), from 120 to £50 (Ra.2( 
R«. MO), aad from £5 to £20 (Ks. 60- R«. 800). 

A trador'a houso begins wilU a veraudnh, eta, which, if he 
retnil-dealtir, id his shop. Inside of the vomndah is the sittiu^ rooi^ 
* and bejond tho sitting room, tbe dinin^r hull in (hi* middle noil 111, 
rooms ou «ach siil». jMoug iho Hido rouni.-* nre, to ihH lefi 
the dining hall, the office room, tlie shrine, and the Ijing^in 
and to the Hf^ht, a trcasare room and two Gton>-rooms. BehS 
this group cniui-fl thv Imck roranduh, with » privy in one coni 
There usuallv is a back or a aide door. Another common form 
well-to-do villaffD p^til's houiio begine vitb a large tfate, wit 
ward-room on either side, whoro watchmen s)oep niul kit is 
or wheru ofili^o work iti done. Then mmoH a yard wilh a cont 
well, and cattle »hedii on either side or all round. I'hon a ftij 
of steps leads to the first door, and a long honse with, 
a sitting room, where swinging cols, chopaj/ui, are kept, i 
II diiting i-oom, with two rooms on each side. la sach houses 
cattio enter by tho front door, « 

Tlie bulk of the husbandmen's dwellings are oith<[%^e snpc 
house called JhdJta, generally inhabited by Kunbin, MnsAlmftiJ 
and Pardeshis, or the inferior hut, or Miappar, used by Ki 
Bhils, Vanj^ris,^and Mhfira. Tho dhaha i» u wtlMtnntial boon' 
which, when ki<pt in good repair, lasla for many years. The wnlb, 
of clay and chopped grass or straw thoroughly kneaded nndsr 
^ bnSaloes' feet, tnpor slightly and uvcrugo about a cubit bl 
Ihickneiw. They arc built in layers about a cubit deep, each layer 
bein;^ allowed to dry thoroughly before tho nort layer is added. 
The flat, or nearly flat, nx't rwotH on strong t«ikwix>d buams 
which run irom wall to wall. Over the boaraa ia laid a layei* of 
strong branches und a coating of dried sugarcane leaves, the whol 
covered by fonr to six inches of ola; or salt earth, boiUen si: 
with a gentle slope to one of the ooraers wharii a wooden sf 
' throws off the water several feet from the foundation of the wall. 
The clay wall is gcnorally built by professional bricklayers, Hiildi 
and ia paid forat from &r. to Sit. (Kg. 3 ■ Rs. 4) a hundred solid cnbif 
Tfae entint boose ooeta from £5 to £10 (Ra. 50 ■ Its. 100). Thu hi 
or chappar, has either clay walls er merely a thick fence of cott 
stalks or other wattled boughs. The roof is made of long gr 
tied neatly to a bamboo framework, with an inti-icato layer 
Butea frondosa, pojtu', loavos, in the middle of the grass so asl 
make the roof thoroughly waterproof. Over the thatch, to make ! 
look like lilos, split millet stums are someiimca laid. 

The furniture of an ordinary Knnbi's bouse is worth from £2 
£3 (Ra. 20 -Be. 30). The astud details arc: two copper vesset 

.j£ :;k- 

gHjid and ghada, for Btoriup and carryinj:» drinking water, costing 
ttlwut 8*. (Rs. 4) Cftvh i six or vigtit viirliiMi couking pots, costing 
about \». 3i2, (10 anna*) ; two or three flat utito diitbci< or p1ut««, 
tkalis, v^ued at As. (Bn. 2) «i«li ; a few brass drinking cups, 
cAarri, cosLing a sbilling «acb ; k )Kiir of vurr/ stoiius, pnla crania, 
coHting itbiiut & ftbilliug; a hand mill, chaUd, for grinding irrtun, 
worth about A». (Rs, IJ) ; two bedHtoads, tchtits, wortli two ^illingti 
(Mu;)], with qiiilt« or blankoI« ctwling ubuut 1(^. (Rs. 6}.* 

A nian building a honae seldom works at it with his own bauds. 
Be supervisee tb« work and pays tJio tabonrcrs weekly or on market 
d»ys. A* a rwlo bicky dnya urv chosen for laying the fuuDdjition, 
nli^illg the pifU, fixing (lie iipnt;bt and crftaa beamn, placing the* 
doorx, and digging the wel(. 6q the {soudation-laying day, the 
owner worships the ground whorw the whIIb aro to bo biiitl , digs a little 
hinm.'U, uiid tlifn tho work l>L*gin!t. Ou tlu> puMt-raiHiiig day the ownor 
paUt the corner stontt of the plinth in its place, seta the post on it, and 
woTslups the post, ponring clariGitd bntt^jr oror >t« top till it trickles 
to tho ground, tying round it a yellow cloth with rice and Indian 
millet, and fi^tttninggruM on it^ top. On the b^^am-fixiug day he 
ties nmad the beani a raw cotton thread and nyeltow cloth with lice 
and Indian millet, and then worship*. Whon the doore aro so) up 

*, the snaii: cercmoniw are repeated, and before digging tho well, the 
owner agnin woriihipa the ground. At all these ceremonies a 
Br^mau usually attends, and cocoanut« are distributed. When a 
houHC is fiuislied, Ihc a-strolwger, j'wAi, fixoa a lucky dayforvntry. 
lIouKOH w-tMj: fiiniK'rly built with no regard to vimtilation, but iho 
newer buiWngi are ranch opener and more airy. A family ill 
middiinf,; ciiiiimstancct is Hsiuilly obligtti l*» keep a wry Ist^ slock 
of ro'iking pot-1 fur (niiiily giit,h<-riui,ii, but them are ciiui|iani lively 
few familioa well enough off to h a vt> cooking pots fftr a casle dinner. 
On such occasions a supply of cooking pot« in guncrnlty colloctcil by 


'Hh' Tilln ijo wtab lJHhment, btinibfifutf, of KUltndeRh, found by 
Ciifitain Cia^aHrTsTo^inoIudcd the hereditary Uindn priest, ;;"r« ; 
tlie Mulianttnadao priest, miji/«; the astrologer, jii#fti; tlie carpcuter, 
fHlitr; the biuckiiinilh, fu'uir ; the< potU-r, kiiml-hir ; ibi; l^^l'lKmith, 
tunur; the l>arber, T>A<ftM'; the wasnernian, iwri'f ; the Tillngu bard, 
bhdt ! the nllnge watchman and giiide , j'tQlia ; and the scavenger, 
1 ■ 1 cfiira'iA'ir, Of these tho pru-st, guru, oSiciated at the 

I . fuiivnilii, and other een^mrmie^ of all Hinduit excc))}. 

^ i| MAngH, attended to tho vilUge idols, cleaned and lighted 

t' [■li', and took to himself thinr oiTcrinfpi. In lutdition, ho 

iiKi.if li'.-il' |iii>t«» fi-r well-lo-d" Iliiidufl. 'Vho uiulln otTn-inti'il at all 
Miiliniiimatliiu ceriiiuouies, gave fiaths, cootiecratcd all animals to be 
riiti n, snporintcnded fairs hnld in hr)no»r of itatnts, and repaired 
.Miiliantmndan gmvcs and tomba. ITifl astrologer, jorhi, read tho 
alnunao, puinled out lucky days for marriages.for beginning to now, to 
plough, and to renp, calculated ci;1i{>3e» and drew up haroBCopo8,and 
with the Quru, uiriciatvd at tunrriiigvs and fununila. The carpwteri 

Chapter XXC 



■ Fioai ft paper by Ur. Stomiout, SupnintMnUnt Khtail«»li Uvdvl Futta. 



.pter 111. 


*■"/■''■, tuuili' awi p^jMiin.'J fii-iil t noli- and bicli woodet inBrri»CT Eiooh, 
•:i,ii^iiiiiijfaw\ ><ii|i{iIk'iJ tnivt^Ut^i- villi teni and c&rrif pec^. Tbe 
bluuKMjiilJi, /■'/',(*, riifnii- iiud n']juir(;il the iron work of ploniia txA 
wirij-. Iji fii'-iinT tiiii'.'- ui hiiik-sw-iiicinff fesrivak n -was bis doij 
lu lorci tlir ii-'iii lio'ik iiii'i tin* niusclt:*- of iht di-vMee"? back. The 
jwliwr, li'imUf'ir, )uriiiblji-d viliuptTB and iraTelJers -with emnhn 
jMjir and |«irii-. At luurriupep lit* beat tbe dmni sjid c-xJced 
iiiiiiluL Hti'"', li'irhul, fur tiie Kuiilns of tbe villape. Th? ^>Idsiiutli, 
«ufi('r', )iMiuyi-(i <-'>ii] jiEiid l<i GcTenimC'Ui atid made CFm&oc-ntS. ThB 
barbi.'!'. iiiit'iil, wii> ill'.' vilhii'f Korcccin. sbjiriiiff the riluicrtT?. Trimtniiig 
buU'ji.ks' tuilK, uu'J li'iriuL' ihc ImlVickV ti.'-rf- to rective the noserinit. 
afjutiiL- Uirliunr Ifiint tin 'Ir^rii. l-inho. iiiid nthers acted as lorc-h-ba»rera' 
At iiitiiTiu;."'K ilii'v |i".i tin- liriiU-eiMomE horse and esCi^rted tlie 
)iati!V diiii;.'lit(.'i t'> !i't iiu-lmudV hMu-^t. Thf wa^bennan. i^jrit, at 
liiarrmge.^ spn-iKl wliit* cl'iths fnr ihfc bridcHT'ioiE's ivlarioTis t« 
walk "II. Thr vilhcM- Ininl, Oh-U, uTtt-ndcd all viilasre ft«-tiTa]s and 
(iertiuduio iiiid n'l-iicl v^■l■•i^:^. Tii{- watchmen . /'-ifffi-iK. BhiiS, K olii^ 
and ilhajv, ^.-iiardi-d the Tilliiire and Liiided traveUer?. TEfiiFi-inj 
Ijt-at the titiiili'iuriue, C'Hsrrutfd tciuhit cattle, and a Mails' Tconun 
aotud as mid»ifv to Kiiubis. and, when ihcrt was no one else, t* 
Bfuhmaiii^. The •Irimhli'ir lunde and rejiiiircd shoes, leaiher tliongs 
aud water Iwj.'ii, (Liid im j'ltlu i Autrusi -Septfinliorl and other day^, 
pitivided the t-liitf villai.' wiih luaujrti leaves to hang orer tbsir 

J>iuci' Cnptain Bi-ifrirs' lime (181?;, the Tillage cmnmnniry has 
hiMt iiiufh (if its hnpriil.auct'. Nmw, iij an ordinary vi]^ee the staff 
of wniiuts i'-llie hcHdiuaii, ji<ilil ;^ hi^ asj-ist«nt, chanJnri, now his 
wjiial ill aulluij-ity ; the aivntnilant, h'lll-urui ; the sweieper, mlidr; 
till' wati'Liiiati, jiiiy/iri ; iitl-ihii'"^ and iarulf,* M^asalm^s and KoIU, 
wh'isf duty Li is ft dean the villiigf office, rhcri, to light the lamp in 
il, til cuny the titvoiiiitiiut's books, and to clean pots ; and in villi^s 
whiiv iheif is no river, the water drawer, hath/iri, who fills the villajire 
i-«lt!i-' Irinif-'h. In small vilUtres, the p-itil, knlhiriii, mh'ir, 
Hiid i-KjI'i lire ah.'ne f.iuu'l. Kseept in a few places the following 
KiTvimt K lire w lonift^r reci 'gniscd. The villopc priest, gram jo^h i ; the 
Mii.->uli]ian reader, khaiih ; the Mnsalinan judge, kizi; the Mnsaliniii 

' Si* nl-pvf, p. 77. Ahir IutImts drum hut dn not carry torcb«« ; Tlysde barliai 
■'*rry t'iri-hii Iiiit do nut ilnun ; l>nkBhiu anil Gujamti bkrtien do both. Ur. J. 
|k.ll.'(i, C.W. 

- 'I'lif cliii'f li'inuu™ line to the hpadmiui at public religion! ermnoiiieB are : oa 
jwfc' <liiy 111" liiilliK'kn hi-ad the pnHxtssiini ; on dniriJ day he leada the worship of 
the i-li-iiiii trif : mi the hnii day he wnrahips tirei anil givei the order to light the 

Siilu' At luan-tagoB he it the limt to get the l>ct«l leaf which the barber 
lixtriliiLtL-it aniiiii^ the other village officers .' and it i£ the /xifif vho iliattihotaa money 
aiiiniijc tlie iitlitr villiige iniMif «rvant«, htiruf-aliitf. At Tillage feaata thapiUil and 
hia wife are (■iveii tlie place of hononr. Both are conitultod in matter* of diScalty, 
and petty Wjualjlile* are referred to their arbitration. The jnUiTg wife taWl 
a most ac'tive iul«rert in village aSaiis, and, though not publicly r«c<^niised, hia 
a very cunaiderable voice in the settlcnieut of diaputea. la many villacea the 
headman lenda money to the villager* and liaa a good name for naiQ^ hi* debtor* 
kindly, hiany are known to have for year* never sought the aid of civil coart* ot 
prcKHed their debtor* severely. 

> Itetwccn the InhMln and the taral there is some distinctioD m viUagq Bervaub^ 
but no difTurcnuv u{ caste. 


prioid, mtiila ; tho citteror, ftargai : ihe temple Kerviuit, gurap; 
the bnikor.cAWya; the mcssi^ngt-r, hqrildiir ; and tUit litjfjr-kiijjpvr, 
darviijddr. Hvon the 5iuaUe<4t viilajfw luivo two or three otticialiug 
lieflulmen aad one or two asHisiants. Some rillugv» havo ux or 
ei^lit ptUiJa und clMiull>n», and Chopdn claima to be reproMCiitod 
by fifty-two sharcnt, tak»hivuldra. Tlw) tr«igh fillor, hawari, » a 
very Deoessaiy and imporHaQt sorrant, and iu thv abtience of anjr 
ndetjiinto proTij^ioD, tbo villn^orH usually §ab»icribti to pay him a 
fixed aum in adililioD (o any runt-froe land ho may bold from 
tioverument. Ho ba-i to keep two biillockH and the lonther bs^, 
tnot, for drawinR water. The tanner, r.U'imhhar, is ex)>ootetl lo keftp 
in repair, and m somo cases to make tlte village water bag-, m^tf 
tho Mhiir giving him tho ttkin. The catorcr, }fur«ai, ia often foand 
BDpplyiug IntvclK-r^ nith butter, milk, and mJHCollaiieouA articles. 
Tho broker, thvtyii, who used to arrange between sCnuigvr^ and 
iiliiipk<.-v]ATs \i seldom found. 

In th e west, ''ll''g<' hi.^iidni cn aro tisnally Gnjar Ku nbig. In other 
parts they are nf tJiHerent caal fa, and very ofteu in ilie same rillago 
will be found a Hrdtnoan headman Berviug with n Kiinbi, a Koli, u 
TMiimj^r, or A MuKnIman. Here and thore throughout tho district, 
bsptH^iaUy in the Yavat, Nooirabad, and Ohusival Hub-diviHionH, it is 
common to find the same family of p&tils with one braoeh Hindu 
find another Hiiisalman, tho latter frixdy admitting that they 
embnvcc<l Islam iu order to secure the right to serve. 

The people of n inllti^ are genotally mi xed. It is oomnarutivoly 
rare lo 6nd a whole villa^ held by one caste. Especially among 
high caste nindiis caxtc dinners aro much less common than iu 
Gujarat. In smnll village* on Ruoh IfAtliug ffsiivnl.t mm UoU, 
dinners are sometimes given to the whole commmiiiy and the cosi 
met from money sabscnbcd by thv entire Ixxly oT villagers. 1) iii 
moat unusual for ouo man lo enterutia the whole village on tnnrriagu 
or other feiwt oecasious. The different classes entert«iu tbeir owi^ 
caste tellowa. At village dinners given by pilils gne«t« of various 
castes aro invited and sil in Mopnrutc rows. HhiU and MlutrM are 
wjrvod by nii-mbors of their uwu ca^te or the dinner is seni to iheui 
At4hetr lioueea. Special dinners are sometimes given at their o»7i 
ooat by hends of trade guilds when they are nppointH. On such 
oorasion» except among HouArs, women dine after the men have 
done. No Mpedal arrangements are made for the exercise of 
common ripbta. All tho cattle drink out of tho rillago trough ^r • 
fi-om tbe riTur, and im »ooo m thu eropn are off the ground, gmu) 
all over tlio villago lauds. Tbe villagers pay the herdsmen so 
moch a head, but often tbo cattle aro Innicd 1'K>^<o and allowed 
lo graze and go anywhere thi-y like, a Uhil boy being scut to 
drive Ihom home in the evening. In the rains, while the crope 
are on the ^p-ouud, greater caro is taken, and cattle not wanted 
for immediate use nro sunt to graze in some nei^hbooring 
npland. Mhirs and otlier low castes are allowed to drmk below 
the village only, whoro there is a river, or whero lliero is a well, 
out of the catt]c trough or from a si-jiaruLe ci.-tleni. Iu some 
places the rillugem object to (ho Mhiirs drinking out of tho 

Chapter HI 


tBombay Gatett 





cAtlltt troaeli) »°il ui "uch i^asea Uiey haw geaerall; Ot soparate 
Kic«pt oU ones, uaed solely fpr wasbitig and cstUo ilrioking, 
are no nUogo pomU in Kltiinclt.-!i]i. Fur dtg^nff veils or do 
poodB s tubwiniittoii Ufud tn Ik! loYied from eacn mao's botdl 
ploagli. Now iJbe rillagera look to Govemmoni and the local 
committee. Foraierl; ft rilloffv Wrrowod money to repair its t«uii 
Bat the old spirit bus, toa great exteut, gone. The t«mple oiaj 
to rnio, and anlefm aome wealth; p4til or cullivator takvti im inter 
in tbi! ijiiitter, no one cores. Sticks (or fircw(>otl im; ^ratbt 
from the common Inud^ round thn viUitgu, or fmm tlie liusli land 
nenr tbu hille,. or from the buHbiunlmau's ovra land. Among 
«'illiigi;r8 uo diHlinction •-Beenis to bo drawn botvroen aow-courn 
and members of tho original oommnnity. This is probably d 
to lliu fnct tbnt during tiio tmublotl lime of Mftrtitlia rule (I7fl 
1818), aettfi^' ev ery village waa more or lesa dese rted. In tbf •■■■■ 
a deserted village it ia very oommon for the poighbourin^ 
to J^JILilflJgfid)!, and siooo miuiy villngtM buve oulr lately tiucn 
MOplod, a Toty birge aroa U tilled by thoiie oatatae rs who are 
known as vaea nda or valand *. 

In most of the smaller villages the grain-dralcr or n^ongY^pml..!- 
is an institatioa ot not mora than ont- gt-nL-mtJoo old. The 
aaciont vitlngo moneylendera are Mtid to luiTe ttisapneareil in the 
eighti.i-iit)i cuntury troalilee. Their place baa been ttucen by now- 
comera from Miiltva, KfArvad, QujarU, and Hindnstao. Some uF 
UioKu, Mcttk-d for one or two geuunition:<, liavc grown kindly and 
considerate. But the bulk are very late arrirala, settled for ii fow 
yrars, and in their dtalings very bard and exacting. The bre iUc-up 
of so many village coi nmunit ieai at the bi^nning of the present 
eentiiry grf'atTT" ^ft^e"e3 the tie s which bound the villager* to thr: ir 
bcAidumu, and th^ influences at work under Hrili!<b managenuii: 
have done litUe to stiengtben or reiM^'w thom. Tho rilUge couiii^il 
i» now little more tluin n tiction, and though iho villngcn still pay 
Bim outward respect, the intlnouce' of the boiidmaa is, in man]' 
villages, almo.stai an end. The rdationsbetwcon tho craftsmen an^ 
tlio rettt of the villagers do not seem to hnvK much changed, 
specially clever worker itomutinHM leaves hia village and piijihos liij 
fortnno in one of the birgcr towns. But this ia nnuaual, and, m i 
rule, the old practice continues, (hat wbilo tor ordinary aorvie 
villagers pay the craftsmen by grain doles, for largo works, iiufb _ 
b house building, payment U made in money at llie ordinary markd 

Very few of the people leave, or oven raovo about, the district i{ 
flearcb of work. Living ts choap and the dt-in»nd for labour strot 
The only claM willing to work, even on the railway, ia li. 
Mh&r. During the last famine (187t>-77] many Kllnb}!^ came Frot 
the southvm Dcci-an districts and settled in Kh/indwh, and sine 
thoir Bctllttmeut they have been joined by frienda and relationi 
Besides these there como yearly by mil from Ahmednagar, Poon 
ShoUpnr, and SiitiUn, a ccrtnm number of Marfilhia who settle 
hnts onfcaidv of Jalgaon, and during tbe f»ir 8e»i*on work tta etyrrit 
hamdit, at cotton presucs and mUU. Whvu thu cotton season 




over most of them f^o back to their villages and some statin Jalgaon 
and work as labourers. From Gujarttt there come and settle in ^all 
numbers Vinis and Knnbis and Parsi liquor- Hellers. From Bombay 
there come Bhtitia and other Ciitch merchants and varions Bombay 
traders who have settled at most of the local trading centres. Mdrrdd 
Vflnis and BMhmsns, and other Pardeshis come from the north, the 
Mdrvddig serving aa clerks to Mdrvtld traders and moneylenders, 
and the Pardeshis finding employment as railway policemen, 
messengers, and priv&te watchmen. Some Madrds servants also 
come from Anrangabad and Haidarabad in the Nizam's territories. 
Of temporary immigrants there are Brdhman priests from Surat and 
-Ahmedabad who conduct marriage and Seath ceremonies at thS 
houses of their Nandurb&r Vfini patrons, and Vani aod Kanbi cloth- 
dealers, who, during the fair season, visit their shops at Piirola, 
Dhatia, Jalgaon, and Dharangaon. 

Chapter U 

(Bombfty QuetlMr,^ 




AaRlCTLTDRS, ttio ino«it important indaxtry 6f tlio dietriotj 
&tO,mi1 persona or about oiut-luUf uf tbi; pupolaLion.* 

Khiiiiilfwh ciillivniortt aru Ktmlnx, MUiirs, Dhaaffam, Pkr^e 
HnjtiiitH, KoliH, Lodbis, Vanjiiris, lihilH, aiitl MiDuilm&iui. Kuul; 
hnriiworkiQg and uost skilful luislKiiidtneii, nro n quiet b> 
abidiuK |>vuLilu, but iiiost oiiix-Ic-hh in motley matters. Komu nf It 
well-tn-du but most are poor. Of the tlirti- cliusfe of Kiiube^] 

a'nfa, tiuiare, and Tilolas, Pajnasnro by fiir thv most nuiucroii 
as a rulu tlm bo»i farnuT!*, and (Jiijars, wealihier (ban vithvr i 
10 otlKT cin.'uiefl, form a ^reat portion of tlio cultix'atora in m>tnd 
10 itortliem sub'di visions. Pardeaibitf, RAJpiittt, itud &fu»alni/ii)ii : 
'id'ivc'idr n-orlciT". Koti.-« and Ijodhitt are iuduiUrionK btit 
wimt K'Vfn t<) drink. Vaiij&riA haw taken to tillage chiefly niiir-e enr 
and rnilwnyahnvcpiit a stop to their ciirrvin)^ trade. Dhang^r ' 
Btid RlitU am found htrre and there tdlinj^ on t.heJr own :i 
lEotno of the younger Bliib tako yeairty aervice, mild'iri, 
'unbis and other cultivators, but most of th«m are small laudholdor 
■ biro fields fftm Guiar and other CHpitaIii<1« on the xl 
arviW, pHnoiplo. The landowner fpiinn mnttt by the barf^in. 
irovidoH the land and seed, and ibe Bhil the labour, cattle, jiod took.] 
iinbin iind MiwalinAna, whi-n field work in not pressinjr, do a lit 
vt\\ cartinK; Kolia catch fi^h and j^row vegetables; Ubaiigara 
irool mid woavi' hlnnkel^ ; and VanjitrLS deal in rattle and inaka 
large ([uantilic'H of hum]Hiti twine. Kbitndo-:<b eidlii-alors aa n ptii 
are poor. Wiihout forotbou^rbt or aelf- restraint they r(!ndi!y 
to debt, and by {^rasping and nnaerupuloaa moaeyleudisra, 
'orcbd to pay Iwick very largo sums. 

,ludry-erop land, from two to four or (ifo himdrod ncron U > 
large, from eerenty-live to one hundred and tit'ly a middio sized, 
and from ton to twenly-fiTO a small holding. In gnrdcn landx, from 
twenty to forty acres \» a large, from Ion to twenty a middle xizodi 
and loss than ten a small holding. In 1878-79, including alienated 
lands, Ihv total number of holdiDgs was 142,03<i, with an avets^ 


• crMterp«rt allbi*c)Minl«rU coiitri1iut«db7llr.A.St4TmMil, Stip«ritil«ml«nl 
iMh €avamm«nl Mcxkl Tkira. 
*lli« lobtl BIO.^Hl iTii>)iut>« biIqII aialiw, Yi'i.Vtf); tli«ir wiv«a MNWrdiog tn tib* 
'orduiftl? pivpoitludi III moil ta Wnnscn, ll>4,l(M ; «ii<l Ibuir cliil4tTO, 171. 4B8. Ju Un 

Mfmi*t«tciDento« Urge uuinbcr a( tlis weuu Mid cbUdnni m bffiMgbt undcf 
■ Miwril—xm*'. 



of nrPDtj>threo ncTPs. Of iht> wbolp nambcr, 12,995 irere 
ing» of not more tJiiui five aer«»; 21,62-t of trom five to too 

; 40^24 from ten to twenty j a7j765 from twenty to fifty ; 9602 

fifty to one Imnclred ; 1 iSi from od« hnndnxl to two hniidrcd ; 
froaa two hundred to Bxo hundred ; twclvo fmm live huudrttd to 

ihoDsand ; Sre from one tboueand to two thousand ; and four 
e two thouEnnd. Thp largest boldinj^ nrc m Vird«l. 

e pair of oxen can till about twenty acres of dry-wop aiid ten 

rdon land. Prom twcnty-fiT* to fifty acres of drj'-crop land, 

from ten to twenty of garden land, wnuld onublo a cnllivator 

ire like an ordinary retail dealer. Fiftj acres of dry-<;rop bind 

aaleBS iu soasona of failure of nun, )fiip{wn ii husbandman, hia' 

two children, and one field labourer, i«iUhir, comfortably 

ont the moneylender's help. 

an area of 10,431 milca, 7402 havo heon snrveyed' in 
il. Of xhvso 163 are iho lands of alienated villagcK. Tlio rest 
tna, according to the revenue finrvey, 3,iJ82,t!50 acres or 
liperccnt of arable land ; ■'•81', 7S1 or 12-73 pt-r cent, of unarable; 
17 or 0'7o per cent of graas, kuran ; 13,203 or 0'2i> jRir cwnt, 
i«et reaerveaj* and 4!s,771 or 8-iil per cent, of village aitea, 
rirer beds, and hills. tV^m th« 3,.^82,g59 acrtts of arable 
, 222,014 or 6^ per cent havo to be taken on account of nlienatod 
da in Government vitlagee. Of the balanra of 3,360,645 acres, 
llip actual area of arable Govemmfnt laiwl, 2,603,073 or 77-45 [>cr 
Bent wuro, in 1878-73, nndor tillage. Of theae 2,571,551 acrcis 
etw drr-rrf>ii, and 3i,ri'Ji irrigated garden land. 

According to the cuIti\-ntioti, jamihanAi, report, the slock in 
1670.80 amounted to 9S.M7 [iloughs, 71,377 carta, 330,818 
mllocka, 218,012 cowa, 114,140 buffaloes, 15,357 harses, 73111 assea, 
ad 1115,143 sheep and geata.' 

In 1878-79, of 2,00:1,073 aon-.*, the tolnl lilh'd arwi, lfi2,.'.27 ai^rps 
or 7 per cent were fallow or under grass. Of the rewaiuiug 2,440,540 
unrea, 2802 were twice cropped. Of the 2,443,448 acres under 
kdnal tilhtge, grain crops wrciipied 1,51 7,884 or 02 jut wnl, 700,635 
pf ttit>jn under hii_;r», Peniciltaria epicaia; hS7,VJTt under ivdn, 
Sorghum rul^fare ; 155,083 under wheat, gahu, Triticum a^stivnm, 
l4,odd under rico, hhdl, Orj-iea sativa ; 1 1 ,483 under harik or koda, 
Paapalum ncrDbiculalum; 5108 under mva, Panicuni nuliaGenm; 
t05l under maize, makka, Zea mnjTH ; ft768 under rigi, Eleuaine 
e(>T*cana ; and 10,222 under nii:><:cUaneou)t cun-alit, oompriiiin^ 
liarley, jVii-, Hordeom liexaslichon, rdltif Paniciun italicum, and 
others. Pulfios occupied 121,568 acres or 5 prr cent, 45,5Q2 of ihem 
under kulith, DoHchos bifloniN ; 39,155 under grain, liarlihara, Cicor 
anetinuni; 2y,027 under lur, Cajauus indicus; 3805 under udi'i, 
hill mungo : 2370 under peas, t-aiana, I^iHum sativutn ; 206 
lentils, uui«itr, Enrum loiut ; 370 under mu^, PhaMvnlua 





* Dtlafls id tho iiaiHfjml Mtioa iffll la tnmui tii lltn luli-diTincAkl mxouhIil 

* thm fcws t kn* ba* htolj b«c«i mnr—inl to 1 ,43a,$40 tent of 2SM »tiur« mila. 
■ Ftam lk« Urgff numW of *ilby umlar wtch kocoaaUat, JhiUiinii, tb« 

Kfc*ndi»fc ■took rctiuiu w* litUt mm uui miiiuw*. 


iBomlifty Qftzett 



radiafns : aod 207 iintl(>r olhrr pulsi*)). Oilisoedit occupied I68^fl 
■cfwtt ur Z pvr cviit, 1 18,728 of^hviii umioreiQ^f^ll^ seed, til, Seatini^H 
indicam; •tl/tr>7 utuJor liosoed, althi, LiniiJi) ii>iiliili>^Hiniiim: a^| 
IS.'ibb under olher oilseeds. Fibro» woujiind .Vjl.'.tJS ttcrcn or ^M 
pprcftiit., .'i'.IO,7l'3')f lUciumidiTii'tlftu, /.:<i/'ii#, (iossvpium hcrl»ux>a^| 
iZ'Z'A uiidor t>niwu biimp, nmlnidi, UibiMniH csntinbiiiUK ; and t^| 
onder lk>mbay hemp, fiij; or mih, Crutninri» jimoi-u. ^i iHi-ollRitc^H 
enpa occupied l-'},7'2^ mn^^^ <ir 2 per cent, I42U of thorn uoder Bit>g^| 
cano, UM, Soochftrain oBiciDaniin ; 4!)3t> iindur indigo, ^>i/i, Indigfif^^ 
tinctoria; 5572 iindcr tobucco, (amWWw, Nicotiaualabacum; I2,S^| 
nndorvhillifis, MiiTAc',(.'a]iiiii-iini fniU-ac«!n8;aiid thoromaiuing lOr^^l 
•.under rarioUB oth«r vcg^etabloii and (ruite. H 

fChindo^h conteins soils ui nil gntdos, fniin the deep ricli black^| 
ifae 'I'lipit valler, to the poor Htony nd and white of the low tT^| 
rsngies. The character of the soil dcpeudit ax much on ita coudttifl^ 
118 on its cxjmpiwition. Tlii' ndlcy hind, whirh under tin- i-ffect* of 
moisture aud lillagie ^'ioldn tbi) ricbeal cropa, ah<f<Ta, under :trin)ysis, 
the same substiuicea in almost the same propurtiotu, aa Uio hiiL| 
Imum' which is bnro of everything bnl thorn bushex. For purpo^| 
of pi'aetica) lillagx.', the most uxefu) division of soils ia tbat of t^| 
oative buabandmen into fo ur class es, b lack k ali, wh ite ptititlk^M 
Ball kh dran, and nliite an Jsalt burkj. ^M 

Black , kali, or collon tan] includes two Tariotiea, a betKr, fc^| 
icili, wicfa a moisturo-hoUlintf snbiMJtl, which, in seasons of ordiiu^| 
rainfall, vieldH a full cmpof wheat orgram, ami un inf»n'-ir ■ ' .9 

its sticky clayey nature, kuown as rn^chiini. The better ■: iU 

not want ploughing for tea or twelve, and somutimes even f'^r Uiir^| 
years, 'i'liming this soil, the iinlivcn ln-bevu, lns-*«!ns itn i:!r<>]>-bearil^| 
powers for two y^'sirit. White, yiimlhri, tbouf^h iiatiirally p(H>r a^M 
yielding only the coarser jtraina, will, with abundance of mauure n^M 
vrntvr, boar hcnvy ve^eta^tle and sufrarcani; eropc Sitlt, khdn^M 
*lau<!, U al most^ uae h'wM aw a plant -grow iav noil. Imperv ioua (<> wat<^| 
it is inirticitlarly sni table for iho outw layer of flat-roofed h ouxj^B 
and ba^ for this purixisv it uiiwkct. viiliie iTTW.Vi ton [I anna the earlfl 
White and salt, hurki, land iiaa au uppe^r layer of while, i'fia4JA^| 
and a »:dt, ilfiran, subsoil. With a pleiitifid rainfall, it yief^| 
good cro]X4 of cotton, e(t{>eciully of t)tv New Ork-iinit kind whoAO r(K^| 
keep much nearer the sm-face ihitn ibontt of the local variutt^| 
, KacR of tltesc main c-lassos has many Hub-divisiona marked by su^fl 
bameii as light, heavy, or sweet, or by the preseuDe of some foreifjrn 
element such as limestone, kanktr. Mucii of the blat^k I'lipti am) 
Ginin valley soil, with a deep clay subaoil, is very fruitful, beariiiff 
abundatii^e of healthy w('ll-i»Town m ango and tanmriad trees. Th» 
table-laud ou the top of the southern hiUa, Chough riuh, has so 
pprou a a subso il that much losa of crops follows even a slight, 
failiin^ of nun. With irrigation, this dniiiiugii is highly favonrabla 
to the growth of fruit tn^cs, eap&cially the vino, orange, and 
other sub-tropical plants. In years of average rainhll Kn&ndesh 
yiftlda a good cold w<N»ther, rahi, harvest e*ixKriiilly of oili-eed.". 
On the whole, tlte land ia more fertile and yields heavier cro| 
than othiT Doceaa or Southern Mar&tba diatrict«. 



Khdndovb irrigation vorks cnmo under two hoada : works of 
nntiro cunRtriifltyii, Am'iont, and as ariiio small ; ami Inrgp modern 
works carried out by tint irrigation briuicli of the public worics 
department. Khiindc>Hli rallevH are o|i«ii ainl level, and the 
Bmaller rivtirn, rining' in tho Snhriidri hills, flow in kIiaUow beds 
blo cked here and tht^rt* by rocky Ifil^cM o f much service in maldnir 
maaonry wwira, bitmth'jrih, while from thoir llainctw or vory gentio 
cross §lopG larffo nrcai.t of land nro easily commanded. Tlitj* irrigation 
from weirs is chieHy praciistnl nwir ihe billa ou llio upper parta of 
the rivi.?r cutinwts in tho anb^iviBioDnt of Pimpiilnor, l^bulia, 
Nondiirbdr, ami Amaluor. Am the rirors rtow lar^fer and draw 
near Ihc Tapti, their beds are loo d<'«p sunk to bo vastly dammed. . 
And thu Tiipli it awlf, flowiuff more than lOU feet below jKo lev el 
of the plain, in, except near Bhusilral, not suited for irr igaUon 




b-yilfui riu, must, lU one time, have been very 

the west there is sewrcely a istrcsm of any aisw 

Tradition aUributet* their constniction 


without traces of them. 
Ui the MnsalmAn ralent, and it in probable that many of lliem date 
from the lime of tho later F^mki kmgs. In mniiy plncos fonndation 
lio lea, cnt in the itiieet roc k, arc iImi only traceii of former dams. 
Others are found lu every ato^ of min. Many aro entire and a 
CTLTat uiitiilmr arc still in hub, while others, npiwiviitly ax perfect, 
navelieeaabiiiiiioni^d from Ki-arcity of water, silliuijof tbedistributinfj 
canaltj, or other caotwa, Uere and tUore hngv maivtoH of overturned 
miMoury, lying a fowymslsdown thostrK»mfnim tbelineof Ihoweira, 
Bhowtho violeneo of occaxionnl floods and the excolleQce of the old 
cement. The sites of these dams were, an a rule, well chosen. 
Except a few bnilt i>traij;ht acroiw tho stream, the dams are more or 
lees o bljim o, the w.^len-oHrse issuing fro m the lower end. Where 
tho rock below is not continnons, tliT-ir tor ma are moat irregular. 
In Imildin;^ a dnro, ho b-^ wrTc cut in the rock in the proposed line 
of the wall from six to thirteen inches wpiaro, the same or more ' 
in depth, and from three to »ix feet ajxirt. In the holes, stone 
n prigliL-i , Kometime^ Mranl) pillurx taken from Hindn temples, wero 
set. and tho dam was either beilt in front of these, or the stones 
were built into the dam, leaving only the backs of the upright* 
risible. Tliw dams arc ytronjr clumsy walls commonly gloping on 
both Hides to a Dam)w top. The materinl" are common black biLwalt 
Stone, coariso coniivto mixed wilh sinall pieces* of brick, and ihe 
very best cemonL Occasionally largo bloi-ks an) found in thu £ac« 
of the wall, but the inner stones are all small. Dressed stone is 
seldom used for cither fneing, ([uoins, or Doping. Except somo 
small openings at the middle or at the base, no provision tfcems to 
have \)wa inadu for removing the silt. While the dams were built 
with the grrcaU'stcare.tho watercourses woro laid out with the strictest 
economy, following the lie of the ground and uuddug long bends to 
to avoid L-nttings or wjucfliictM. By some, these long windings are 
condemned as causing waste by absorption and evuporution. But tho 

Chapter IT. 



Bconliay Qiunwiy R««iaw, T, 4S-QX 

(Bouha; 0«nUMr. 





prewnt genenition defend tfa«ir uioeatoni on ibe ground of or< 
III grigiu^] outlay, and l>ecaus^a^entlfi gradient. an<lthen!foi-i 
coune, waa rcqiiirod to nipilato t>ko How und prOTvnt its 
woatofuUy n^piJ. To l(H>k afivr lliu djima and the ^r»tl■mtD 
c bminpl Ittfopcra or pdlkari t were appointed and onduw^Ml 
couHiderable gmate of land. But (roin cnreleexneHK nnd ignot 
those irrigtttional mirka wvre frequently mianianaged. In 
mitttcr of olei&riag the waterconreeB, ex oaratioo by the fffl lattem i . 
niuoh harm . It mndv the rolativo ievcUi of the land tuid the wat» 
coiirso very diffunfnt fiijni wiutt they were when the v ' 
OountruottKl ; and aa the watercotirees wera not bridgod, . 
aOtlieiwiflo protoctod, tVi v{llii)fv au-l-i aud rattle oui^hI 
injury and waste. In 1867 the channel keopera woro eaid tu nt>L 
Ihvir work, and allow siit and mad to settle aa high ft-s tho top of Ai 
widl, whilo thu wutiir(M)un<iivi, chokt>d with reeda and mud, lookoj 
like st^nant pools. Now the worka are betCvr toaoagdd, b*lq 
undor tho Hupt.Tviition of thu irrij^tion dvpurtment. 

Of works ' carried out hy the irrigation denartment, the cLief m: 
the Ijowct Piinjhrawator works, the Ilartdla Inki', th^'JAmila rAuab, 
and the Mhiuva lake- Tho Ixiwit PAnjhra auil Uart&la achcmcs an 
old works iin)>roved and extended ; the i>thers are new. Drawing' their 
supply froai rivera that rise in the Sahyadri hilU, the Piitij)u-a uJ 
J^inda cnnnlit uro tiovvr known lo fail during the rainy ntid ooU 
aeaaouH (Juue-Kehrnary). Even in 1870-77, with a miufall uf anJf 
ihirli^t'ii incht'^, their tiiipply was InviftOy in exOMM of tho dematia.' 
The sninllaesH of iho irrif^ed area (1078 acrea) is dne pariJy tu tbt 
miwiHinffni!»> "f ihe |)Oiiplo to my the water nit«, wheUj^jf ''* 
r ainfall is go od, they <:«u grow ilie i^ropii to whiilj they ht*ve lun 
tltHmstomea wi t li i m i anv H>«-r\:i\ jiaym&Di ; partly also to the fiu-i that 
mowMiBpital ;i re rcqiiircd to cnlllTate a frlTOU amt 

with i mgai<!it ■ !•.) .;• ii..ii. nun <-nj[M dojiending only on the rnin^j 
and partly bocartae, between the two kinds of cnltiTntion, t)iore a 
■-■udch iho siatne diBoBenee bk hotwoon fa miiwjj' and market gard ouiniT, 
unil tho hu^^bandnmn in loth to a^udon the ayatem to whidi 
be ia accuaiouipd. Still the tiete of tho water la at«adily fpi-eadiuir, 
and I'Vt-ry neiumn of ithort rainfall greatly encourages irrignUr.n. Iti 
many plaoea walfr is now iiwd for tho prowth oven of the inrertiir 
grains, tlxcopt in landa along tho Luwcr Pdujhnt, whore the wat«r 
untl hinil rat«« am fvnsoli dated, a separate wat«r rat« is loried 
Tarying from 2j.. to Al 12*. {Be, 1 .Bs,l6),* 

* Tho Lower Pinjhra works coniiiiit of the Unkti rMtrvoir, tn 
dams acrom tho Piinjhra, and watercourses from tbeiie dama. Thi 
Mnkti rvRcrvoir, dt-»igm-d to Mupplumoot tho supply to tho whole 
fli'riei* <if w^'int, is formed by two earthen darns, in nil 2770 feel longi 
thrown across a gi>rgo in tho ralloy of the Mukti which joiaa lh~ 
Panjhru 2} miles above Obulia. llio greatest height of tho mti^ 

* Bambar IrrigKtion Bapwt^ tATA-TT. 

* Bnddca thia, a «e« kaown u pMplalta, at the nU «I BiH f 4 irmuu) «n acr* fa 
mijarcatw am) XdL (f amtas) for Mlirr irrigUcal <s«]a, i« tnvlM to 
pUanuiue «i<l ])Otty rtpotra to tlio r.haniKl*. 

DWet tiM) «C«| I 


dftm i« !(ixty>6Te feet., luid Ui« flood watore eiicnpo over two wnnte 
weir3 13(W feet U>ag. Wben full, thf lake covers 6U2 aeresi.jiud 
ootilnius 36S uiillions of cubic irvl uf wi>t«r. The cat*.': h men t basin 
hiui an area uf lUty itquare milea, and with an nvirru^) ruiiifall 
{10 iocboa) the reaervoir ia calculated to fill IJ times iritb a i-ua-oQ 
of uno-fourtli. Tbu weira are »l Dliulia, Ninikhoda, and JApi in the 
I>hiilia Ntil>-diviai<ia, with channeU almoet all on Che left tmuk ; nt 
Ikliidi and )Iaii<bd in lliv Amalnrr i<iib-<li virion, with channels ua 
thv right liiiiik ; and nt Valkbtni and Uet^vatl in tlto VirtUd snb- 
divieioD, wiib clumnels on the left bank. Of these the NnhAlod 
£a{>adus chanric] Icadinir from tlic Niinkhod woir is now. ITio rest 
fim mUI tvtirk.s iin])n>ved and extended. Tbe outlav on thv Ijuwuc 
Panjlira works, to the end of 1879.80, amousted to £4fi,653 8». 
(B».i,b$^i). Inthal}-o»r,22fl4 acreg were watorad, b«eidc« 1504 
ftcrea on which fixed conaolidated rates are levied. Tho Mukti 
reservoir enenroa an nnhiling perfiiniid Mipply to all tJiQ lands 
coiiinuindod by tltc cluinncl--*, and>atidiuuu aro «nablod to pal 
into practice a )iroi>t>r rotation of crops. Xlie achome has not yet 
provod financially successful. 

Tliu Jidnda canalx on tha Gtrna, one of tlw v«rlie«t Governinflnt 
fttor works, havea drainageareaof 2700aquare uiileR. Thn work* 
Hist' of a masonry weir, nrnir Jiinida across tho Gima, lo40 feet 
>n^ niid ciglilot-u ftn-t at the hii^best point, with two rnnslit, ono 
OD the li'ft bank tvrenty-Keven miles long and commaudin^ 87,122 
lu'rcs.thfot boron tberi^htboDk twelve inil«>s lonj^and commaodinff 
6281 nrri'.-t.' 'llie iitvaa thus coroinaiided are in ChAlisgaon and 
Pi4:hora. Tho left bank canal has a dischai^ng capacity of 261, 
and (bv right bank cauulof 121 cubic fi>etu Kecoud. Both canals 
are completely bcid^d and regulated. The left bank canal baa been 
in working unlor for ihirtiH-u yimvs. Th« right lAnk cunnl was not 
ojwuod till 1878. Up to the end of 18?J-1!0, the capita! outlav on 
both canals amounted to £9 t.S.'jn 1 2*. (Rs. 9,45.506). The loft bank 
ciinal (-omiunntlit ft large area in the adjoinin)]^ valtoy of the Hon river' 
and llie aiiueducta and bridpes hare been built to admit of an 
iucreiiHed discharge. Tlio ovorbrtdgi-K uru high utiongh for the 
pa»a|];i> uf boat*. Along these canals aboat 35,000 Idh^h hare bt^n 
pUati>d. Id I879'80,tho area waturod by tho J^da canals amounted 
to 4925 tucren, of which 40 per cent wore iluvotvd to oarlv, kharif, 
crops. Till! whole area ia watered by flow, without the use ot any litt. 
PurJOf; the tiret six ycnrx irrigation w»m wriimisly hampered, fintt ^ 
by till, toliil failure of the hot wt-aibor supply in 1869, 1870, 187», 
and 1872, and in 8<^-ptcmbcr 1809 by un accident to an important 
croMi dminagtf wnrk Mvitr thti head of the cano). To insuru the 
ulliuiaLo snoceas of the Jfimda canals a storaf^e work ia wanted 
to equalise tbo disohargv, and in years of short minfiUl, to furnish 
a certain siiippiy. iDqairiea have been going on regafdiug the 
feoMibilily of such a otorago vruHc. 

Chaptwr JV. 
Wktor WmIul 


■ TliH *m utiuUy aiider conunAnd d( tho left iMak ««aftl ■■ 3T,ISSacrM bdongiag 
to tliirij' oiiu viUi^c*. Tlic water luia not yet beon brauglit within raMb «f lb* 

IBowba; Oauttwr. 


AT IT. Tho Hart^la lake, in the BhiufiTol sub>c1imion, lira on a mmll 

trilwtarypf rhu Tipti. ThHi>l<l liike wils dosCri'ved id ]8J:2 liv > 
fliiod wilicU overtopped and breached the dun. Tbe art's dmiuiitf 
into lh<- lake is six MUMru milos. Th« dow wurlc cxjinpriKuN Un 
ntpikir of ike dam ; tna building of a waste weir to {irovide iat 
tbe escape o£ flood waters, and of ckannelH fur irripkt,ii>n ; tin 
neconatnictiDn of Uie oiitlulM ; nnd tlie conatruution of a cluuini;] 14 
uicn! the drainaofe area to 6*61 eqaare miles. The lake has« 
capacity of 140 millions of ciibir fout and coinitiaDds an area of 351 
acres. Us rCMUirnlion wiw unilertakeu on the |>eople 
rlaiiu no compeiiaatiou for tbe area uf the bed of llie laKe, 

^y an aero mtv of Mtr. (R«. 6) on all laudK fur vrbii.'li vntir 
WM avnilablo. Ki![>atr.4 were begun iu lti70 and rinished in 187t 
at a cost of je43«7 (its. 43,S"0).' During 1873-74, with a rain&ll 
of 34'3t>-incbus, Um-o-ti^utlM f>f the niinfiill on the euttibiuun' na 
into the lake and filled it to a depth of ton feet. Dunsg 
1874-75, with a rninhll of lO'lS inchvs, wator never roso more thu 
five feet, and at the end of October it was oul^ 2--H feet ikbovt? tht 
level of the irrigation outlet. In 1875-76, with a rainbll of 27']3 
inchi-«, tho water in SopU-mbi-r wjis 6'34feet alxivo ihootiilut Ikti-I. 
In ia7*)-77, thu tintt repleuLiUment waa in June when the wiler 
rv>64>2':J0 feet on the (^ui^, fulliuirgradnally to l'G8. It rose again 
in July to two foot and a^iin fell to !'80 fecE. After thii« tho lidct 
waa not again filled and tho supply failed in Det^mbor. Wiih u 
limited a catchment uroa and «o uncertain a minfall, this work li 
not likvly to yield any large revenue. The p&iiple will i^radoallj 
leam to tnm the supply to the beat advantage, and it will nlwiiyi 
l>0 a gain to lht< villagorM. But a» in u)l wi>rkn Ihut dopond oa 
local rainfall, in a dry seaaon the supply U liable to fail. Tito want 
of success of thv scheme, carried out under unusually favourabia 
ciri'uui stances, )tlv:>ws that it i^ not alwayti adviiiable to n.'^toni old 
water works. In very uiay caaes old works hare baon allowed lo 

Jail into disnso b«»;au»P thoy did not answor. 

Tho MliiiMvn Ltko in the petty divtHion uf Parola in A.nuilRer wai 
begun in March 187^^ Very soon iifci*i-, the work waa at'ippcd for 
want of fundi* It wft again t«ikcu iu hand in February 167&, 
and was e«m]iteted by June 1877. Th« work coni^istii of a reservoir 
foar miles in circumference, with a dam 1494 feet long and forty- 
fonr feet high, and two (mnalH ewdi throo miles long. The area of 
^ tlio catehment basin is fourteen square miles, and ilie mnximiiin 
dfiptb of full snpply is thirty-fuiir toot. Tbu total capacity of tba 
lake V* Itil inillion.* of cubic feet. Ilie work wniiuiiniU a total 
arable area of 3912 acres included in nine villages, sis of them oa 
the wo»t chiinni't and thnreon the v-tist. The wiHrc cupitii! outlay 
to tho end of I}*7y.80 was £11,201 14*. (Rs. 1,12,317). Watrr wm 
given free of chnrgo fur the Rnt ycnruud the ares irrigated waa IGt 
acred, chiefly under wheat and gram. 8inoo then water ratoM h&vs 
been introduced. They are tho isameaa those on the Mnkti reaerroir, 
£1 (Ra. 10) the acre for augarcane, 4». (Rs. 2) for late crops aod 

>Tb«rcwMafl«rw>nUa[urther<HiU*yo(<l012i. |Ra. 1911). 


rice. Mid 2s. (Re. 1) for early dry erop«. The Iivke ia 2J riiIc-h from 
Itlie town of P^rola, and at nil aclJirioiinl com) iif nViUt £l£riO 
] (Bs. 1 2,S0O), could supply thv town with g<>'d niid whulcsome water. 

Over most of the dintriot wo^rjn ^und n<> iU' UiB .■turfitoe . Bat 
near tho S&lpudiU, and on account of the draiua<;o of its chanael, 
within iMghl. or ti-n mili-x of lliv TA|>li, wolN huvo Suitiutiinus to )» 
dug ad much as on e hundred feet d eep. The (li> mh of ^ yy i^H v n pi->4 
from for tj- to on o_bund n :'d fvH in !Jitv<la, from thirt y to "'ne n- feet in 
Cho|Klii lind Sliffpur, ftMHi t.wgiilv-five to -lixt y fMit in f^hfiluiiln, and 
Lfroni t'j ght to forty. l ive fe*>t in Taloda; from thirty to tli)rty<threa 
keet in KiindMrborTfrom thirty to ninety fwt in Virdel, from t<>n 
lo ninety feet in AtunlucT, alxiut thirty-fiv^ foot in Hnindol, from* 
forty to eighty feel in Nosirabad, and from twenty-two to xb>ty 
fwt in Bhuwivnl ; from twenty-two to forty feet in Pimpslncr, 
(rora Iwenty-twii to fi-rty-eighi fi«t in t)hulia, from cwmity tn 
I forty feet in I**chora, from twenly-two to thirty-liTe feel in Jdinner, 
and from cightDcn to twi'iily-w>ri;n fot't in ChnliHgnou. The iy7y-W0 
returmi give 28,137 wells, 029 of them with and -27,20!) without 
BtepH. For drawing water tJiQ leathvr ba^, mat, is in almost 
nnivet%nliiw. The cowl of digging n well rancwTnim JilS to £2.i 
(Kf. l.V).lis.!J50), and except for garden crops, it does not pay to 
work a well more than twenly-five feut deep. A good well admits 
the working of four leiithiT bitgM, aio/n. Thft nma watcre*!, on iin 
RVar.ige alwut live acres, de]>eml3 mainly on the nature of the crop 
and the character of t he Koil . Each bag wster;« m qnarter of nn aero 
daily. Thu otu-lhen cliaunelx are most tdcilfidly loiule, chnngiug 
tlwir coOT-ie at every two or three yards, so as to offer a series of 
checks to tho flow of the wntvr. 

Chapter IV. 

— wai 

Tlu! niudu of tillage ia miiolfthe same all over ^le districts The 
field tools are the p lough, niiiiyeir or n<i;7'ir ; thej icftvy h oe, r'lWmi* ; 
the li ght hoe. Itotpti : the ^ eed drill, iKnnhlinr or piiaar : '.W n-aping 
g icklfc, lia nilt or n7« ; the weeding sickle , khurm ; the i fn .-^ 

the wimnowiug atool. fftn'Awr ; the fan, gitp; the Iwiikel, ■•/■■., nnd 
the brxKtm, h'^khri. Aloul of tJione looI» last for thrt-ti or four yenri*. 
Though to tht- untrained eve, nide and waat^^I, the native system of 
husbandry, when well nuderatood, showfl mffiy simple coutg-ivancea 
of much vkill and wii^doni. 

Indian plouglw^ though thev differ in detail, are iirahably all 
developed fi-om a forked branch. One fork, cnt short and pointed, 
bocnniu the sluin', the other the benm, >ind the itlrnight part ibti 
liiiniUe. The KluindvHh plough, niiugar, ia a tliick bdl/kul log, the 
lower en<l sharp nnd curving forward as nn obtuse angle from the 
main hlork. 'I 'lir-sjiarg, u ilaice'EEirtniH bar aI)out thnx? f«<?t long, 
i» let into a Koeknt ;t(iil lised by a movable iron ring to the wooden 
point, beyond which it juia about teu iiiche«. Ita weight is front 
twelve to foDrtvon ponnd^, half of which ix lost uftor two years' 
work. Th e handle is fastened to the block by a thick rope, 
aioii, passed along the beam and tiod to the yoke, bo that the 
strain of drdught bnnx'ii the different pidceH of iho plough. Kxcept 
by Htandiiig on the plough or loading it with stonea, the husband ninn 
bas no means of incrvasing the depth to which the Hhare enters 



[Bombny Giuetlea. 

er IV. 

I Field Took. 



' Drill. 



the »oil. The plough U drawn bf four Inillocks, nnd to 
it ikroperjy two "per^yns aro rcrjuircd, one u* ilrive iho 
bauocKB HiiJ ono t^u ku<^'': '^'^ plouKli- 'TiiO shan* paaa 
S0\-eii inchuB umlur the Hurfaoc, probablt qniU; deep em 
all luDcLi of crops in the clJmiitv uu<] Hot) uf Khiiiidi^Nli. , Iti; ci 
dofi-ct is th« wDiit of a mould board ; the boU is merely rai&od and 
slightly shifted, without being complete); tarae4 ovar. A plou^ 
ooste from -**. to 5*. (R«. 2 - R«. 21). 

Tbo htavj li»i>, vakhar, uaed for looBening the surfooe of 
ffrouud Ijefiira sowinp, for covering Uio seed, £« breftking eloda, t 
for uprooliiig shrubs uiid wi-v<lj>, is a Tcn^df ^MBexc 
*in>pU>meiit, consistiiig of a two to four feet iCTg beam witb a 
running homontalljr along Hi" entire length, »nd supported 
distance of abotil ton inchc a by two wtwulf » Hl^^^Vll ■ It ia »o i. 
thiit by Itf UiftheHing or abortening th e rope, aiuli, the blade WiU | 
several incfae« into the ground or merely Bcrapo the aurfoce. 
Bmall hi'u, kolpa, is tbu samu in Hh»|H! ami iiiako a« the lar^fe 
only much smaller. It ia used for cleariug the land bcl.wucn I 
rows of a growing MPpt for loo«wning the HTir&u-e, and for kilf 
weeds. Usually one pair of bulIoclcH dmgs two »nu(ll hoes, 
guided by o»o man. ft^ when fKtIe are acarce, a leugtl 
yoke ia aometimes need an^Uvto or own four boos aro wor 
togotlii^r. ^ r 

Tliosoed-drill, /nimt/Mir, eimpie, ingenious, and effective, i»a bk 
of wood with throewpmre prongs let into it at right anglea, liit-oi 
prong is fixed a hnllow biunboo, Tliesc mwrt at the top in a 
cup. Into this cup, wit hhii* loft band, the driver keepa steadily poi 
seed, which, ihrough the tubes, passes safely into a neat fumjw ' 
in fn>iit of «Bch tubo by the Khnm-liW iron tip of the proog. ._ 
ibwiugcotWi aud whuat, the middle prong or snare iit takvii out and 
the tube^draggedMeveral yards bcliind, each guided by a Mrpont* 
sowcr^ Cot^D is also sown with the help <ii llio heavy bo<;, xiakhar, 
which ia driven across tho field, and two or three sowers fuDow it 

t>tl4*>rgobanibtKi tiibos ill tht^ir hands through which, aa lb«iy gq, 
loy droi) the seed. Excepting these and indigo, which is eomeliuee 
ecatter^i with the band, all grains are sown witb^hia drill, 
bundling of which reipiires a littlw {iractico. 

Besides IA field tools, the husbandman's chief ajipUancoB 
( tbo isiigamtnu mill, tho watcr^lift, and tho cart. The vat 

cane mil), ghdni, consists of two solid hahhul cgrliitdora 

buebaud and wife, nm-ra nrtm, about nine inches in diainott^r, pis 
Tcrtti-jdly and set vt^ry close tjigi.!thcr. Tho iipjM'r pnrls of tho rol 
are formed into double spiral scn^ws which work in one anut 
Thus, when tnotinin is given to ono roller by the lerer at it« hi^iud 1 
polled b? bullocks in a circular coursi;, its Hcn^w cnrrios round I 
other roller in an opposite direction. The rolleroi are fed with 
by th« hand, and Uio juice, passing along an undergronud pipe tf, 
at some distance, gathered in an earthen veiiflcl. ndnd. Froin thi« 
Vessel it is strained into a largo round iron kettle, kudhat, in which 
\t is boiled down to molaases, gut, or hdkei, ns desired. The once- 
preased stalks an|%iven to potters, kumbkdre, who by waterim 


Dtr. HP 



Yorioue proce«»c« maoa^ to extract « »ecoad ^ 

{ letter's nKklassea. ThiB is dark and sticlty, ain 
owor classes. * 

of gul, called 
ased by .tip 

The tratcr-lift, mat. ! » a lar^ lontlior hag ablu to hold about 
forty galloQa. TtSaTtwo months, the upper one wide and laced to 
an iron or wooden rin^, thu lower ono tnpering into a pipo- To the 
riog, »i th<! uppef end, a strong ropo im fa-itcned, whicb, pnstting 
over a palley snont aix feet above the well, is brought forward and 
tied to the bollock yoko. A small line in tied to (he lower month, 
of mob B length thnt, while the bag ia being drawn up, the two 
liaoatha 4Mmigt%iaa|iV 1'be fiinall une, being led over a revolving 
wooden cinder on ino edge of the well, do* sooner is the woll-edgw* 
reaohed tbun the lower moutJi opens and the bag empties into a 
cwteru in front of the well. 

Carts are of t hrco kintl s, the dhainni, fbe lari or ahiri, and the 
vanki. FoniH'rly the only a^ricnltuml cart was the g^da, a 
_ e lumsy vehicle with soiall wheels about tliree feet bigb or even 
less. The axle was made of dhanum, Grewia dlimfolia, a tougb 
Btraiglit-grainutd wood. A spare axle was alkays carried in case 
of accident. Since good roads have been made the style of carl 
has much improvi^d. The dhittniii, thynr* now in ordinary use, 
costing from £3 t^ £3 ft. [It*. itO-RfcS^ weighs ul>out four, and 
nrries from twelve to fourietiu lHiii|dredweightaj«Tbe ti-amework is 
nsnally of teak or Hv<is, i>albergia ujainensis, with a neat split- 
bamboo bollom, and sides of roovablo slripaftf strong bamboo 
malting. 1'be axle is of iron and tlio wheels are four feet in 
diameter with a snbittantial tire. It is, on the whole, very 
Mrviounble and wvll suited to its work. The lari^ a lowbodiod 
cart, is chiefly used by metVlants for timber and bambooe, and 
occasionally by cultivators for carrying chaff. *_ . # 

As in other jartw of tlie Prosiilency, tbero are,% the en* of diy, 
jiriyat, cropd two chief field seasons, an early or min li4pvi>M, than/, _ 
and a lat« or cold weather harvest, rab*. The time of HOwinff 
depi.-nds, to Komo extent, on the rainfall. Bnt generally the^arqV 
erop lost-1 frcim (lie Iwginuing of July to the beginning of November, 
and tJiB lato from September (o February. The chief eai^ crops 
are, of grain, hijrl, jviri, ra-la, bhAdU, and taea ; of pulse, lur, mug, 
udid, kulitk, nuilk, and chavU ; of oilsiMH]«, wbJto seviUttvtn, tU, and 
the castor plant; of fibres, cotton, brown hemp, and Bombay hemp; . 
d dyes, a/ and indigo; and of miscellaneous crops, tobacco. Qf 
ibese, tnijri, mug, udid, and chavli ripon by the end of Aogmft, and 
the rest by the end of November. The chief late crops are wheat, 
gram, pens, ixiriaudvrseod, J<:nriJaiof both kinds, rajgira, ajvanftatiae 
seed, inuAtard seed, black seMtDimn, linsevd, and tobacco. 

At present the early harvest is much the more important^ Kvon 
in the Tiiptivallcy, where cold weather crops osed to be much grown, 
wheat and gram hare, since the American war, to a great extent 
been displaced by cotton. 

Land i:<i generally ploughed in December, soon after the early, 
kKari/i crops are harvesuid, when it is still motet uid easily worked. 
B 411-10 * 

Chapter 1J. 


Field TooU. 



IBnnlMy Binttw 










As the»nil(lriw^thoc1od»b(*coiiii;vorjrhanl snddiffioiilt' 
notiiing turlhftrl^ <loii«, till iifter netfirly four mouths' exjiosurp u 
Uie weathtr, Uie lumps nf fmrih Iwcxjuip bnl|lr, frial>l ■ i ■ ■ 
smootbod by the lioo, ttolTmr. In April tlwwpl'! U w . 
mill flwtrci! 'if sliriilm iwni woeiJs. The field ia now lit 
tUf Hi'C'ij. But tli(- lime fur ^owin^ doM not. coiiip till thi- < 
of July in the case of the ewrly, hharif, niw! of S?<»ii(Miili«r iu i . 
of th(i InUi, rahi, erupts. Miwuwhili*, tlie huotiaiidniao is car 
lci'v{)th<> llidd clear of weeda,' aild looaen the earfac-e bj pRS»-i 
hoe, rtfiAtir. over it once or twice n inontli '■'' " '■'■ lut--" '-w.- 
Bud tlio svi'd iH miwii, tliv citrly crtipH m^lduin i: vaUir luo^ 

^tt^uMe. TUe lute cnipn are far less certain, tii .Si ['iuinb*r, wlwt 
they should be eowii, uulesa (hit wnl ia so WKiki-ii thiit it rnu ••■ 
wiirki-d by t\w liiind into it mud liiill, the iteed is sown at fp\\ 
li the ground is too drr in September, aud if up to th« liev ' 
of NoTpmbttr moro rain has not folleu, sowing Ia geoentllv 
up. To wittuh tbo croiM n woutlcn platEorni is raised in t)i< 
of the 6eld or on the branches of some suitable tn-o. Tlie w 
gcnoralty a boy, suuxis the birdii by itbontuig and Klingiug ix-titUTi 
at thoin. 

After tho crop hikt )>een cut luid the grain dried, it is car 
the village in carts and laid iu the village rick-yard, kalavtidi, .; ...,.., 
cloKC outside th« village wulls, varii-:* from a amall eniTloRunt tn ■ 
smce of two or thr»e acres. Wlteu tlie cr'ipB have boon brought is, 
the evoiiest spot iKthe rick-ynrd is chosen for tho thnisbiag tl<n<r, 
kfi'ih. It in spriukli-d with wnlitr, hcalou witli wooden oialliits 'T 
trodden by bultoekH' feet till all cracks dtiiapixrar, cowdiin(;(>d, and 
luft to dry. In tho niiddle of this floor a strong six fivl hiffh pal 
in u-t. Thi" floor ia thick strewn wiIJiKIh) cnjp to be thi-asbed, and 
ftpairof ftuzxlvitbullockit, driven round the post, trt*ad out ihp 
grain. Some crops, such as hemp, castor seed, and pulse, parting 
fosily with their seed, are ouly beaten with »tii-k«, aud in th« COM 
* of HirHaTiiiiiu, to shake the dry ptaut with the band is enough to set 
^■c the m-od. 

To winnow the grain one man ket^ps filling Hhallow ljasket«, «nji, 
with uil^unowed grain, and pat^es Lbeui to a HTond^vho, stauding 
on a high xtool, ehahur, takes the foil haNket in his hand and gently 
taltiug audjAokiug il, tho grain falls and the husks aro blon-n anaf 
by tho wind. 

a The p»>ple understand and a])pr(tciatc the value o£ manure. Bak 
M minpnU and other imported lerliliner^ are too dear for ordinate 
crops, the hnsbandumn's ouly resource is the scanty and poor prudnn 
of nig fanu-yard. The biL-iis of good farm-jiirtl itinnnre is stniw, 
onrii'tu^d by tho droippings and urine of hornet) cattle aud other live 
stock. In India, iih xtniw is valuable fodder, and as OMtlle do 
not roiiuiru bedding for warmth, no litter iit need and the nriuo w 

' WoHt of vnriomi kindi giVD th* rnltivatov niiii!h traulite. Bonilca wrcnl otfaw 
gniMce maeh am llic harti, drnjii, Ukitt-yr, hatri, »nd fowbr, tlMf Jtvnrfu dtmrva, (fiwcU 
luMiM. It* loqg to«u|li rpota •anii^Uiiiiw IhiiiI tb» toU •« IliilUr tluU it at«9« tb 
pkmgti M»d hM to iM^oacnecl witti ik iikknxc. 


IcMt. Pun-; i« gntltvrud for manaro only duntiff th* seven mnntlM 
belwcou April imrl l>t!cci»i>or. During thv roni itf the yixirVt is otnde 
into flat cucea about a jftpt in diaiuet«r, dried, utui Miu'kod fur fn«l, 
Tli<>n};imMitishc)i nrc n«<^ iw tnanurv, much, tmmt as fuel, or &u4>ar»d 
on ho44l Boon and waILt, ih IuhI to the. j^)uqiI. Ti u <-4tiii)iit«d that 
kfter Betting,' aaido what is wanted forothor purposeti, an oniiniiryivn 
Bcnt holding, wilh u piiir of {)t>>titrh t>MllwKs, a niilch buffalo, and 
jper)ui{ig a siecr, would yearly yield miuiiirx! <'iiiiii;^h fur h ijuttrtcr o£ 
ui acre, that is the cultivator would be able to manure hU land only 
»nee in forty yenrn. In Iiirgu towns, besides his hom« supply, tho 
taHbandaian can buy from Vanjiiris, GavlU, and other Mitl]o-k(vp«n9, 
or 21. (Re. I), from 2 tons 8c«'t8, to3 tons f2 cwts. of the letter, unt^ 
jrwm 4i to 7 tons of ths pfXH^-r manuiv.' Fields aro also, to some 
JXtent, euriehfd by huraiufr weeds and stubble, ntid by hiring 
ihcpherds to keep their flocks in them for a certain unmber of day*. 
So longas thw coiitntcl lasfs, llm ctittivntor fwds Ihc nhvpfaerd and 
niters hts flock, Indiifo refuse and guauo are uftod an fi-rtiltnem 
or tobacco and ca«tor-Beod rofime for plantain trees. Xight-soil wa» 
OTRterly nt^vor UMtd, iHitnuw, well niixtKl with rnbbish nnd other 
nanures, it is freely taken in aome places, and is so highly valued 
MiR-ciitlty for »uf/<ircane, tobat'oo, and other rich crops, as to be 
reueralty known n.i toukhat, thiit in, manure worth its weight in jiTuId. 
tti neu entHiIs much waterinj^, and it ia nut jGt Bysteuatically 
>ri'pftred iti any part of the district. 

Dry-crop land should be manured eveiT third year. Alillt^ and 
lottoD require twenty, and wheat, liusoed, and gram twenty-foar 
rarl'loads thu aero. In gnnlon laudn Nutfun-ane an<l rico yearly 
eijnire from 125 to WO, and tobttcco, earlbnut, and i;hilUes from 

to 100 cnrt-loailn th^^ fw^m. Wat^nnl |/;trdi>u laud ttoon bxtrai 
trenjrth if not manured every second yirar. LSnd thA has tonjf 
nui fallow is said not to waul miinurt! until afu;r four, years iif 
roppiujg. Thft wealthier classes are alone able to manure theii* 
olds properly, the rest use only as much aa they cuti coUot't from ' 
hvir own cattto. 

The *-aIur of ii chaiip* of civipa is well known. But the order of 
han^ df]>i^ud» a^ much on the market as on any rule of Mii^^ssion. 
'h(i iisuul pnw^lice is in fresh black soil lo grow Heititiuuui, tU, firnt, 
ind then Indian mitlot, and in fresh lijfliht tioil to KTOwHuiilet, bajri, 
ind then cotton. From drv-crop land in rvgtilar work oidy oite 
rop a ynar is gonorally taWn. The order is, Indian uullot thff ' 
ret, cotton ihu socond, and fur or some cold weather crop the 
hir«I yr-ar. In t^rdon land ric« conws firnt, then Bugnrcanc, and 

1 the third y«ir two cmps, Ke*amiim and pram, or wheat and peas, 
'hf order of cban^ in the chief cold went her, rnW, cro])* is gram 
:>r the lirst yvvx, whimt fur the second, and )in»oed for the third. 

A veiy common practice, except in Niuidiirb&r, is to now a mixture 
f ae«()tt at the ttamo time and in the aamo furrow. The following 
iblo shows the favourito mixture per acre of land; 

.*rl-kd^*<>f alioii) l^owt*. omIi. Tlie priao 
M in 1639, when tbo noi^y wa« gevtra, it 

onlil BOem of Utc fouv ^ — ' .-n..!!. 
■a oaly £ swti. (8 mmw) (or S*. (ho. IJ. 











[Boubar 0«i 


Mil Ian. 

















n» .. 








M*a - 








n'heat and litiMHtd wlut tbe belt laad, while millet ^iro^s in 
poorer HuiU. Iti dr3r,/tr<tyaf, land a second crop can be liiul oi 
aft«r millet and seBamum, when ll>e yield is little leso than ti i 
field had bc«D fallow. But ihia is n hoary droin on Uic soil 
oaaDot aalely be often repeated. Id the nek TApti anil Gil 
plains, aa it leavea the land idle for nparly eli>voQ monthv, i 
practice is to take an early crop one year and a Latn cmp the 
Id garden, ba^d^at, land, except sugarcane, plantain, g^ugw, 
bet^ leaf plantations which require one full year tu grutv and 
firmt, a sooond crop u generally grown e«pecially after rice, i 
pidse, and other two and a half mooth oops. 

Except where land is plentiful and the oultirator can throw 
one field and take np another, fallows are little known. 

The following is an estimate of a iaix outturn of the staple 
from two acred of land, one paying a rent of 3«. (Re. 1 as. 8) 
the other of 6>. (Ra. 3) : 

a«. 1 








IndiKB millM 









« >. A 

a la 
» 1« • 


« 14 a 
a u 
a II ■ 



» t d 

IIS » 

1 a * 

1 a a 

a M a 
1 i a 

A rode huobandry, knownas^M'ior ^mri, was formerly practil 
on a large scale in the outlying and western parts of tW diatr 
A. patch of bmshwood was cleared by burning, and jast aft«r 
first monsoon ahowera, rdg\ and other ooarse grains, and sometii 
hdjri were sown cither in regular lines op broadcast. The sti, 
£orcst rules introduced within the last few years hare greatly redac 
tbe area under this style of tillage. It continues to some oxtent] 
Pimpalncr and Taloda. 

The following list shows the cereals aad other cnltiTated 
in <»^er of importance : 







aeUud lUIlM ... . IWeOlitM >i>iuu 
WliMl ... ~ TtUkm niUruin 

Kl« J Orn>«llTB ... 

Ibia « Xuau» Cam ~.' &• ruya . 

hnUuiu wlonua 
ttallu HUM " ' 


PAA*o»ni nilll4<«qin 


SU or lUt. 

, rtri. 




. Indinn Millet, jvdri. Sorghum vulgare, with, iti 1878-79, 
ilkge area of 587,995 uorps, i« nn early, Ickarif, cmp stown 
ffeentheolliotJuDe {ntWjf MdAvArtifrt) amlthcoth of July (lii^iru 
thaira). Tli«re are three varieties of ^'riii-t, nilvt, nirnwli, and 
71". The ni/ea is a superior variety thriving only in rich ilampAoilN. 
I rrain ia largo and the flnur whili; luid swoot. The stalka, kadln, 
mng alwiU twelve feet hijL^h, are soft and vanily clitiwed and 
a iTiavourite food for cattle. Thu Hirmali, nKjuii-ing hiil liule 
I, growB oasily iu niont »oi]» and u f^uorully cultivated. The 
in i« Mmoller than the titca, and though of a very good eolonr, 
lot BO sweet. The kiuUn tx very liara, annonriahinj^, and not 
dily ontvn by <'imle. The thiiil variety ffunti is much iuforior. 
) grain in venr small and neither ^o palatable nor so nourishing iM 

others. It is gnL>wn only on infonor soils together with tHijri. 
i kadhi is liked by cattle, an the ^talki* an> small and thin. 
H in the Grat crop of the eeason, mncb rare is tak^n to ohootte a 
Icy time, Muhtirt, for xowitig Indian millet. This; is tised from 

oimimtui, panckiing, by the village JoBlii, wko^iu tvturn, i» at 
Teat time paid a few hitiidfuls of grain by each cultivator. To 
Tent it« running Ki straw, ^r^rt muat be sown nri u firm bed. 
» field i.H not ploughed, only hoed and broken a fnw incbot) dcon. > 
mediately after DivuU (OctolKtr-N'uvomber) the crop is ready 

horvcirt. \ahI by ihe head of tho vilhige, the men cut over the 
oa about two feet from the ground, letting the cut vtalks lio 
9ning for a day or two. Then womon come and cut off the heads 
m the stalks, and after the women, the binders Uv the stalks, 
|/i», into nmall abeavea, pendis. The daily rates paiJ to harvest 
ourera are, for tlte reaix-rs, two liaHkelx, nnvri, of ©are and five 
th« largeift oarii they can choose, hAth hin*i ; for the I)end-lop]>ciw * 
! basket of ears ; and for the binders, who may glean what they 
L find, fi^ (i nnna) for a hundred sheavw. Tlw niwi of the basket, 
jrt, tjt fixed by the headman and varies with the price of grain. 
B average acre outturn of Indian millet is about 500 pound*. 
lian millet is thft people's staple food, not ao much bocnuso of its 
tt{HKs>, as because it is piilatable without the butter and olhor 
tly ingrodivntw roriuiniil by millet or whi^at. At the same tima 
a considered very cold, ihand, and especially during the nuuy 
iSOD, is believed to cauM) bowel complaints. 

i. spiked Millet, hdjri, PctiidlUria sjpicata, of only one kind, 
h, in 1878.79, a tiUagu area of 700,635 acres, ia a iioer gain 

Indian MUkl. 

Spilmt itUbt.] 



tBomlwr > 



than j'tiifi, and rMjiiiros more cantfnl tillage. At iho same limo H ! 
oom suflicioiitly Taluabtc rro]! In ho gron^ii in irrijinU'd land. It 
Kown ftlxiut tbi' luttor linlf of Aufj^UMl Ipuiutn-atv n'lhukalrn), 
reaped ab««t tlie Ixtgiuuin^ ot October (Itatta to eliUru naUnhalT 
Tbo aversfre acre ootlum is from 3)>0 to 'lOO poviiils. Taken 
butter and other condintcnta it forma tlie favoiirito (wod of 

3. Wlieat, gahu, Trilinim (c■i^ti^^lm, of many kinds, wHtli, 
1878-79, a tt]ltt|i^ area uf irj.>,08J( acres, is (fixiwa ail ovw t) 
district as a cold weather cnip. The cliief Tarieties ane jn 
hantl'i or fMluhi, yellowish, Iiu'kv, full, Hott, nod block bear' 

■gmvTD Duly nu tlic- ^>K^t irrigated soil ; vicla potta or rotiiV, ysDd 
short, and thick ; idt poUa or faife, inferior, red, ban!, ana poii: ' 
htrad, inferior, redtUich, and ipouit^timuft i:1iriiiikcn ; tind </a 
yvlliiwiab and ratlier full. These vary from the (lujiuiiti vari<'(to»l 
name and apparently aUo in quality. BansAt, requiring tnucb 
uud labour, i.-' not n fiivonrito crop. Pivln pi-tM <ir viinjr-, on acccic 
of its inferiority, and l>ocanso it can be rsiwd only on irrijfaKfl lai; 
ia very little grown. At tbe same time it has the valuable pn'{>fi 
ol taking very little out of 1h« noil, and is gonerwily sown n» a secoi 
dvtota, crop in garden land. It is Bonietiniea grown on s 
depoeitH in toe beoa of running Ktre-ams, where, to entire a good i 
mannre i» K-witvd. Katu, it hardier variety, grown iu |>lHln^^ soil an 
requiring less care than bauthi, ia more fj^nerally cnttirated. Fi 
the heat tht-y irivo out, whoat' wbloni gniws within two niU 
of trap hilts. What suits it be§t is the deep blai-k alluTiiU 
of the T^pti valley, with a snIiHoil of yellow earth, ntii», or 
(•ighty or ninely feet mithont rock or grave!. IVfon; sowing wil 
wlie<al, the gntund is never ploughed, only three or four timtut In 
open with the bAe to the sun, rain, and wind. If tho ground ia : 
diunp that tlut c^ny nticks in trails. Rowing beffina in (Jctobor i 
NoToinbor, and in some of the Tfipt.i valley districts aa early i 
Septeinlwr. Tho allowance of sw<l i» from fnrty-firo to seventy-fii 
pounds iiu acre. A shower or two when tho cmp if shooting is usefd 
though by no meaiw noovswury. With cool seasonable weather and 
lieavy dew», wheal flouriehea witbont min. It somtUitnus sulfe 
from frost and sonn-tiiDcs from a blight known as nuk and 
The crop ripi^ns in fivo months, .tonie time luitweon the middle < 
February and tbe middle of Maivb. The acre outturn is usi 
said to be about itUO pounds. But fields near the Oovertime 
farm luivo Ih'i-'U found to yield ov«r 900 pounds, nad in wutensl 
well inamired land the harvest is still greater. Ksoept on feast dayi 
cspcciidly HoU (February -March) ana Divalt (October- No veml 
when even the nuori'st Hindus eat it, wheat is not largely iik 
In 187lj the yearly consumption was eBtimated to vary from ei| 
pounds a lii^ad in JAinnor to oighty-vight pound:* in Dhnlio, nnc 
amount for tbe whole dintrict to aboot 1 7,259 tons (4{J3,2C2 tnar 
Mnoh whilst iti sent to Bombay. At the same time considerat 
qoantities are brought from the Centra! Proi-inocH, and Holb 
and the Kiz&n's domintoaa. 

4. Bice, hhdt, Orj-ni sativa, with, in 1878.79, a lilluge area of 
34^39 acres, is grown only to a limited extent and always unde 


igation. It is sown io Jane aud reaped in Septombor nnd 
ttibor. Tliu sirivw it) uf much riilnii as n fcxWor fur iin.kintl»of 

working cattle. The acre outturn of ^raiu vurw^ fnmi 1000 to 1200 


f>. Indinti Corn, mahkn, Zc-n mays, sown in Juno and July nad 
re<ap«d iu September and C^ctobor, in little grrtvn and not at all tor 
tbn Hnkc of the grain. The hcada, but'i», are cut aa hood im tlie 
gRiiuK «re fuJI^- dcvolopod, nnd bcfort' thoy have begun to harden. 
Iliey may be eaten raw, biil are umiitlly rmuited iu hot wood-ai(h<!«. 

6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. These graioa are io all cases aown sparingly, 
only eiumgh for home oonsnmption. Sown,nb"iul the 6lh of Juno, 
tliey are harventvd nlfttut the cad uf July, and tire prepared for omo 
in much the same way as rice. 

Cliaptw W. 

loJioM I 




TEaa iim^t. 






('■.'koaa InllaD.,. 




I'iflUm VlliTIIB 




ibufofm onfo 




I^«an>)in raOUMi 



Bun« Oiwo 

DalhtuH kHoriu 


RMioy Bas ... 

riiUSDla* KDUlUKdldi. 



taMniiali«dD»1tiii(H . 

VlfDft caCtsng 



t-tyUa .. 

Nmin )•*• 


11. Gram, harbhara, Ciour nrietinnm, of sereral kinds and 
colours, with, in 1878-79, a tillage an^ii of 39,155 acres, is much 
m^wn. It. lit a cold wealhcr crop, freiieraily aowu iu October and 
Kovomber, in gronuil on wbiHi milhtl or wmo other early crop htm 
been raided, and reapiil fivtui ftibruary to ilarch. aAa it takes rery 
little out of the noil aud chei^ks weeds, gram is grown more to clwir 
tite grwiind thau for nnifit, the return Keldom mom than covering 
the o»stof tillage. W hen the ground is properly p«?|, it grows 
very frwly, with an average acre yield of abont 500 poundH. Tho 
cru^KC would be much iniprnved if, us in other parts of the Deecaii, 
the practice of flipping Huperiluous learoa wasVlupk'd. It is a 
rancn-Taltietl food for horsea, and is eaten br men either |nirch«d. or 
aplit, and xoaked. Undur Uio name of fi<irlkari ddl it is boiled aud 
highly seasoned. 

12. Tifj-, Cajnniia iudicus, with, in 1 878- 79,8 tillage area of 29,fi27 
ncTci, ix f'>vvii in alternate lines with (Mtlon and other enrl/ 
criijiCT, iindvitldg a pood yollow '/a/, only a little inferior tognunifd/. 
The avei-nge aero onttuni ia about 340 pounds. Prom the stem a 
very ttsefid clutrcoal is made. 

13. Peas, vdtdna, Pisum eatirnm, with, in 1878-79, a tillage 
area of 2^79 acres, are grown Va some extent m • lato orop, 
chiefly by flock- breeders for their valuable straw, haium. They 
ant Howu iu October and XoTomber, and reaped in February and 

14. U^id, PbawioluB mnngo, with, in 1878-70, a tillage area of 
2379 auruf, a losa valuable wplit peu tluin fur or gnkm, is oonBidtfred 


« Tvf 


- -■ 

-' ' I" ' ■-■ 




tfioDib*y Oi 

Chapter IV. 







tlie moat btteoing grain for bomod cnttlc, and bears a 
etmfi iiiai:kt.'t ralue as finim. It is nevor grovm alone, bnt al 
nnder Homo toll plant sacb as fur or cotton. It is also mixed 
a small proportion of jMri and as mocli nmWtft as will yis. 
cultivator one year's supj)ly of ropes and strings. 

15. Mug, PhawoluB radiatus, U aparinglj grown. 

16, 17, 18, and 19, are jfrowm only to a small extent. 16, &«. 
Dolichoa l>i(lora», i» hy many prvforrad to gram for feeding ho: 







llM«nain tadlemB 



L1llM«<1 ._> 

T.lniim naltAtlfeatihiiffA 

4f>k or JiiHw. 



Ar«4ii> lij-iuiE** 

iW ><■■*. 


SKfflovnr. . .„ ... 

C iTilum im dnrborln* 



tmrvn llfinp ■.« ... 

HIMvnt nu>i»lilnu .. 



OMiir Flwit 

BJoUiBi eoainaaia ... 



HiiiUrI . 



nt^ix xut I!! !! 



so. S««aTnuni, It', Spsamum indicum, whose seeds 
gingelly nil of commorcv, hnil, in IB78-7fl, a tillagv area of 
tunva. It is tfown in June and harreeted in SepC«m1>rT, and ) 
an areragv ncro Ti«M of from 300 to 380 pounds. It hoH ondl 
vnri'-tifslcnown by tlinir folmir, llio Mliwloit puling ftom dull hlj 
Ihrouph lirown to tbi' puresi wiiit«. Iii KMndesh nil rbo»<> varie( 
Bomotimea grow togfthor j-inldinp seed known in trade as niixod j 
Wliite 1)7, also t;alli>d tili in Khnmiosh, commnud)- tbe hif;be8t pi 
in the Bombay nmrlcol. it is mucb used ia confections and 
fiometiinos eaten raw. Pressed in the ordinary woctden millJ 
«eod yields al>oift forty per cent of oil, and abont ten per oentu 
nnder hydraulic prtwsuro. Tit oil i«> in general use in Kli&ndesbl 
oookiog and otV^r house purposes. 

21. Linxoed, a/sAi, Liuum usitatissimum, a widely grown cr 
with, in 1878-79, n tillage urea of 31,357 acnn, is sown in OokJ 
and ri]>ens towards the end of January. 'ITio avemgo acre jri 
is from SI60 to 280 pounds. The cultivation is steadily spread] 
owing to the Bombay demiiii<l. It forinii one of the principal 4 
most valuable exports. Deep loamy noil:* seem parlKulnrly « 
fniited to the growth of the plant. The seed is bouglii wboles 
Jjy wealthy merchants from the cultivators. Sometime* j 
husbandman receives fn)m the merchant advances of monev for aa 
on condition that he makes over to liim the prddnce of his Qel^ 
a certain rate. The plant is too short and branchy to yield fi' 
of any value. It is never prepared, and many hnsbandmein 
ignorant of the fact that the plant yields fibre Ah nearly Iho wi 
of the seed is exported, little oil is pressed in the district. 

22. Earthnut, hhuimiig, Arachis h^'poga^, is to some e: 
grown a» an early crop in lighl Mtndy soils. As a rulu the roi 
seeds are eaten, especially on fast, days, but in yean of plenty 
suiplus is sent to the oil pres^. The yield of oil Ls about forty per c^ 
and the cake ii» valuable as cattle food. The oil is used for cO' 



23. Safflower, kardai or ktummba, Ciirtbamiu tinclorias, is a cold 
reatWr crop sown in Uctotieraiid N'ovember. The pure oil is seldom 
ffen'd (or shIw. Though i( Iow^tn llio quulily of tho oti, tb« outturn 

generally iuci-eased by uiixiug ita aideiia vriib jpng^Ily seed. 

24. Brown Uump, amhadi, Hibisctis cannabiniw, an early crop, 
sown ia J»n« un<l n^a(MHl in Octolfor. The oil tliougli voanw is 

•ooA for burning and machinery. But the yield is so small, fifteen 
I tw(-»ry pvr UL-nt, that iu spito of tlio chuupRo«» of tli« ttaed ib in 
eldom crnalted. 

25. Caator Plants eraHtii, Ricinan ■conirauDis, an early crop sown 
Juno luid rwtjMxi botwcvn thw iniddlci of Soptembor and Octolwr, 

in most paHd of KhiiadoHh two viu-ii>ti4>/, oiw annual lUid amall 
vedcd, tht' other poronnial and tree-like with largo si>ods. Of the 
aator trt^ thtrru are many surli", which, wiiuling niuob walor, lire 
ominouly planted ou tbn bounduriuH uud aloug the leading water 
hauui'l-s of Mujmrcano plantationa. The castor plant is grown as 
ordinary cold wcatktrr tii.'lil errfp. To rxlract tliu oil, ibo iieada 
' roaatvil, f^oand in a handntill, and boiled over a alow fire, the 
il bein^ carefully skimmixl as it risea to tho Burfavu. The rcfnao 
orma an excellent manure for plautaiu trees, and the stems are 
iteful in thiitchiug roofs. 

26. MuKlard. ino^ri, SinapisraceimoBs, except when wanted aa 
medicine, ia couinionly grown nuxod with liuseod and wheat. 

27. Molia, Baasia latifoUa, is a foreat tree whose borrioH yinld 
D oil used for bumin;^ by Bhils and other wild tribes es{XK;ialty 
long the Sjitpuda Uillw. It >» also nwxl in making countrr aoap. 
>uriiig till' bo! weather, the Bhila gather the thick Rciiby flnwera, 

some eitc-ni. ntoring iJiem for food, bub mainly diatilbng &om 
ihcu u coarse alcohol. * 

38- Pbjritic Nut, chandrajol, Jathropba cnrcas, ts Connd in almost 
very stream bed and plot of waslit ground. As mttings readily 
aku root, the plant is often used as a frame work for feuces. Thd 
lit ts Dseful in I'^im-n of rhectmatiam and bums well : 

KMuda* Itbrt PianU. 








Siwira Hasr ■. 
taalt»f Bttap ~. 

On^fftm bala«aiii.. 


Chapt«r IV. 


29. Cotton,' kapm. Gossypinm berbacemn, with, in 1878-79, a 

IlBgearoa of odO,70S acres, has long boon one of the chief KlutDduitb 

Tops. The local cotton, known as Varh^i or Berar, is said to 

.re come throogh &[iUwa. It is shori-stapled, harsh and brittle, 

id baa lately been targely snpplanted by two foreign varietaes, 

> Cimtrilmt«l 1>y Ur. B. U. OfbK CoUoe [npKtot EbtedMh. 
B 411-30 

/■Ays'c .V«(. 


[Bombar Chui 



Qupur IT. 



Hinfranghili of two kincU, banni and j^,* from the C 
ProTiDeea, •nd Dhinrvilr (ir«ccliin»list-<i New OHiiuik from DU 
Thr DluirwAr foand cbieflj in lUe Jamoer, I'At-hora, ChdtH 
and Amaln^r Euh-divisiuni(, is Mlif^litly lon^r in »Ui|>l(> bm 
wtnkor tliiin tW Hini^iiii^liAi, wkicb, if wt:l) nic^&d nnd ck 
Fotclies a higher prii-w. DhirwAr cotton, with lar^^r and 
pods, is the moro nwily jiii-lci'd. Ik-iiig (^hnw-jxiddui] it can ti 
picked ck«ner thaa UiDgaBj^hfit, but from its lax^>r 
clingiog aeeda, it is moru itpt to be stained in ginning-. 

Cotton gTOvm both in lilack. and li^hl miilit. It im kcW 
in tbe same tield oftener than once in llu-oe jrears, ike inti 
crops Wing wheat aW millot. With n mudt^mto 
black Koil crop, and with a beayv rainfall tbe li^lit 
is tlie better. There is no special ploughing of tbe 
cotton. After ibv tirMt or wrand rainfall the heavj' boo. vaH 
pnsiwd over the field to loosen and clean it. Manore utm 
laid down imiiicdialvly bvfore sovring, n» the ciilivos bold tl 
abdiild be in the gn>uiid a year before tbe seed in s<)wn. 

The Boeds of the Dhilrwnr find ihc two kindit of Hingang-bat 
coosidembiy front eat-h other. Tbe Uhilrw&r is larfj^i-, ai)<^lai 
has an under-coating of down, and of the Hinf^angiutiH, 
both are small and round, ibe iiantii in Mnootb and thr Jeri wbil 
downy. Bffure iiowiug, to separate tbe seeds and fret' tbcm 
wool, ihey are nibW-d by the iiaad or on a fniuie with dfj 
earth or cowdung, plungud into mtiddy wilier, and n^fain n 
with wood ashes. Tbe sowing drill, duan, is an cight-cor 
wooden i^ljndor about throe wet long. To it arc fixed a p 
which the bullocks are joked, and at a ocinvenienl anglo two ooi 
about six inches from each end of tbe block, the Lallod 
driven by a mab, and nbotit 1 } jranU behind eaich coulter wa 
woman pouring tho Mvdd through bamboo tabes fast en^-i] with 
behind tho coulters. The depth at wbioh the need in xown is rrgi 
hy n mOTablo uolcfaed piece of wood attached to the loware 
the tubes. Fromtento twelve pounds ('5-6 aAcn) of scodarH 
to tbe acre. The time for mowing iit according to tbv raiufal 
end of June or the beginning of JtJy. When tbe plant ia fonrc 
inches high the nnuill hoe, ituf/ici, and agiiinwheu it ta ^Dot 
to ten inches high tbe large hoe, eakkar, is passed between the 
The narrow stnp of ground on each sido of the pbmt is wend 

Cotton-picking goes on from tbe middle of October to the m 
of January, Iho crop ripening noon in dry and late in wet SM 
There are t wo or three pickings before all tbe cottoa is set 
Tbe avcmgo proportion of clean to seed cotton nt as one to I 
Seed cotton, fallen on the ground, coulaiua a certain amount ol 
which ia partially removod by beating it on tlie jhnnji or Ihi 
bamboo or ootton-slulk wicker-work frame. The followin( 
Hr. Stormont's estimates of the profit of cotton cultivation : 

' BoMii u carliM' vnriety bu good >ta]it«, bnt u vwy U*Sy : yri, uotniag Ut I 
alraut ■ mootli or bU wmu U/Ua, u wliitcr sad Uoot mat leaf, but of po^ncj 


■ tS( » » 4 \a I 

r « » V *(I^) 
«u s • e f,\i't 

• I 
" 7 


t 1.4. e : 4.t 
« tpnuill « T 
t 0, 14 i«ll R 
B » n II I* It I 
t 1 « • U !• I 
" ' 

Thu cotton crop is usually morlgnLtHl t(»tha luonejlcudor v.-ho 
receit'es it iu tlio mw ur tiugiminU ntato, and ffivei back to th» 
iDltirntor sQcb swd aa tic rosy want for Fuvdiiig liis cabUo and for 
iOwinif. As oiifh p<illii {'Zfii pouiidti) of Mutd amrtgngcif u vuta 
(80 pcuiids) of thii UKXt yt-ar'M oitton, Uie cultivator p»ya &oin two 
tu tlireo huudred pc-r cout on tlio ralu(^ of tl)0 iiOpd. 

Diiriai^ tUo ln«t HftT yourx Govcrnroeot hare attempted, bjr 
rorinfT the staple aad by stopping adultcratiou, to enhance the 
ue of tChandesli I'otton. 

In Ausrusi 1831, Mr. Boyd the Culloctor bought from JtloOO to 

E2000 worth of coit'On, paving something over the market rata 

for midi ui 1TIIS ciircfiilly picked. Ttiv Iwst cotton citmv from the 

tiorth-eaat sub-di via ions. Nest year (18112), (Jovemment ordvrod 

ifr. Hoyd to ^ve ercn* attention to the cnkiralion and cleaning oE 

■cotton. L80(f(R!t. 8)100)' worth of cotton wax lH>ught bo 4)o sent to 

fChina. On an-ival at i'anrel, where it waa taken ou prti'k bullocks, 

II nioHt of it WHS fonnd iu bad ooudittoii. A little was cleaned and 

Bent to China, and the rest was sold by auction itt u li>!iii of £62 

( Hn. 020). Iu I Sii'd, a iiuinll qminlity, thirty tons (8<>5 m-inn), sent to 

I llonibay, wa.< by a iwntuiillee uf native mi-n^hantM di^-litroil iufvrior 

to Anklearar and other varieties. In China it fetched a price 

equal to that of &)ir Dbolera. Id thu same yimr (April 1933), 

Mr. Boyd uhtainod aquaulily of American, Kgyplinit, BourboD, mad 

Pomamhuco aeeds from the esperimental farm at Broach. A. sample 

of thf cotton produced from thin wwd w»s, in Fobmary 1835, 

{)ron<:Htuc4-il by iicummiltee of native iiien^haiitH to boidgoodouiility, 
)U| old andyell.>w.-ish. In November IH-J^t. Mr. Taylor, a warfhonse- 
keeper, forivitnlod (wo iKtriroln ol Perunmbuco luiil Bulnii Hocd to 
the Collector of KJidudeHh for experiment, atalinp; that the tnios 
would not' boar for thriie yoars, iind nliotild Ix' kwpt trimmed at rf 
height of about five fin-t. Iu lS'd!>, the tin^ardt citstnmti collector 
reported that Kh&ndesh cotton was being itnportud uilo Surat iu 
lurgu (juiuiiit.i<'s, and that it wnn much UHod foradulteratiugfJujurnt 
c»otton. Ill iM't'J, fourteen tons f-KiO man*) of the host Broach ^lecd 
■wirro sent lo Khiludcsh for trial. The proiluco was, according to 
the Buuilmy ChamlKT of Comuiorce (Itjth April 18iI7), better than 


' Hie dMuls w« Rv avj <rorUi from Anaiver, wd B*. 3SO0 (torn mwh ot Ui* 
towBi nl KtmmIoI, Vkval, uid Huinlmd. 


Chapter lY. 


1831 -UK. 




Blupter IT. 
iLgri culture. 



any Broacli rwcivod in Bombay, and realist a sJiVlTly hifl'her i 
Ii)'<18:}7 ^Uh May), Mr. H<>yd »-iit n iMm]>lr »f tht- Uiiiilin-Bf>n 
cotton U> (he Bombay CIiaml)er of Ctimmf-rce, who prumiuuri'i 
T«ry miporior, and ninch bvllvr Ihnu any uffvrod fur wuo in Boti 
during tlw ivo ]in!vi<fit!i suattoiis. l*itu colour was goixl him] 
Btaple atroQ^, fine, and louff. It fetched about £4 4x. (Re. 42) a i 
morv than tbo bi'st Brnach. On Miiy 22iiil, i1h> 0«11<*(<h- for 
lo the CbamlitT uf Oommerco two more specimens of cotiou 
in KU^dpah from thu Broach seed. Both ytvrv rvportud to be 
equal iv niiy BroiU'h txitUm, and their ralue ealimati-it nt ae 
121 lfi«. (its. 218) A tou. Tbt! area tinder cotton culliv»lj 
• amounlod Ihts year to 9U,750 acrra. In 1808 theru wiui a dec 
of 2'A,7b7 ocrw in the. area undvr (wtton. Printed copies of i 
{or sowing cotton were distributed among tiut cultirutorB. 

In May 1 840, Oovenunent namitionod lUf loan to Mr. J. O. Gr 
of JE6000 {Ra.fiO,000)' without interest, to get jfinn iin'l acre«r8 
Bn^andforc1oaiiini7iind^K'lcingix>llun. Mr. (■ rant wiwalso nllin 
to ose the Look UoflpitAl and Artillery BaiTaclcs at M&h 
during the rainy montlis. This season Mr. Grant bought 
worth £20,000 (lU. 2,00,000), and adi-anovd £I200 (Uh. 12.0 
ior the next year's crop. The resnlt of Mr. Grant's experinie 
in gins and licrvws is not in«utioncd. Tbo 1840 cotton crop 
mtiuiatod nt 1 785 lona (&O,0OO uions), or nearly 20 jmt cent ah 
tl>B average produce of tlio previous twelve ycJiw. In ly43 
Beeves lliio Collector advi-iL>il the abolition of the tax on cotl^iu 
The crop was nit Ikt above the avorape, although it yielded Go* 
ment about £2000 (Its. 20,000) k-ss tlutn in the pn^coding year. 

In 1S44,' two American plantent, Mr. Blonut of Gorakbpur 
Mr. Simpson of Madr^, wcro iinvnnted itnjHirinlf-ndent.t wf cot^ 
experinu^nltt iu Khi&ude.Hlt. A.* the miwing season was over, 
began by setting up saw f^ns at Dburangaon and -lutgiton. '11 
buiighl i.')0,OOI) piitiiidH of KtH-d ciilton. 1V> ahow the worlcingi 
tho machines they sent abottt 811( pounds of ginned cotton totblT 
BombayChHmberofComuioroe,wbore{Kirt«d favourably >iuir.!( quality. 
In England it reidi:<ed from t^d. to b^it, the pound, af^inttt (3}d. 
the prtoe of Uh^rwflr cotton. New Orleans seed wivn bronght 
from DhSrwfir and Bonrbon from Madrit^, and in the next RooMon 
37J acres wcro sown with exotic cotton as an experimeut, and 
lOOO more were eulti\'»ted by natives under thi> plantwi:ei' dir<!etiot 
^ screw presa was aUo built. This pnatu failed from the cort 
Working it. But the saw gjns were popular, some of the 
mercbantfl being anxious lo bny Ihein. 

In ]8'M>, on the resignation of the Iwo planters, Mr.'Simpson 
again appointed suixtriotendeut for Gujarat and Khiindesb, 
Mr. Price as his Khnnde^h usiufitaul. Giving up the idt-n of an exi 
mental &irui, Mr. !:>iui]>son arranged that in Ivrandol and Na»ir»l: 

' la ISM, Mr.<lnu3t miii>jriini<l, Iiiil lUdianl, Ummoio 1i«non tfaeMnwoonilit 
(or axtMiding ooUixi i-iilUviOioa iii Nl«ih. 

* Th« lUUiIa rrorn 1844 to liil wv Ulitm Irom Umm1'« Cottoti in the Beni 
Ptwidcnqr, 80- IW. 



\va condition of t)io rcintKsion of tlio laad ixn* ftat] the [nytnciiit of 

13j«. -W. iiu acre ( Its. 5 iifii'i/'i(i),Neiv()fleaiuicutlou hUhuIi] IwgrovPn in 

Dinety-uine acres (1i{:2f'(j;'ifl«). Hoal»o eowittl somuNow Orleans eeed 

\ia m MiiuLiI plut of land tu Utu factory gnrdeu. Tlie \^»nU cnmo np 

fwell, and by tlie befrinninj; of Au^sl, raogiud in h«iplit frum four 

to eight >nch<]!t. It vni* n N(i»»i>ti of hwvy ntiufull. Kvur the TftptJ 

about uine aere-i vrore Hooded and the crop vras lost, and in other 

places, thoiijjh the local cotton tloariithod, Iho New Orleans eti0ered, 

Thu Dhiirnngnon pUnlJi liiHt tlu^ir podH urn) IiIofc^oiub, and yiddod 

only a scanty second i-rup. The rest looked well, but towards ilie 

i close of the season wora attnckcd by blight- Thu total pold was 

[only 220 poun<l9 of clean cotton, luid tits the phiut«« rwjwrtoi 

^iferior to the local variety both in looffth atid strength of itlaple, 

[r. Simpson thonf^ht that the failtiru was duv to the tiiihiToarablo 

llKUitoii.aiiil il did not prove thai New Orleaux wna uuetuited toKltuudoMb. 

■ But the encourApemont was so small, that Government oi-dered tlint 

no further nUcuipts should he tna<)u to introduce Xcw Orlrans. 

A iiniikll cxixiriuii-ut )u I HIM wits a liille wore snocessfiil, It] acres 

(o tiigh>i») yielding about 'JI9 pounds of clean cotton. 

In 1848, alujut I'W) tonit (11)6 khaMiia) of local cotton woru bought 
aad ginned by Mr. I'rice. A number of gins niade at the fa<'tory 
were set up in the ^-illiiges of Yaval, Adiivml, Cbopda, and Easoda. 
Tlie demitnd wiw more than thu factory i»uld supply. In I8-18-'I!), 
ou Mr. Simpson's reeummendatiou, a cait-load of New Oi'Ieans seed 
was brought from Dliiirwnr and given to different euIti\'ator8, who 
Bowod about H6 ocreti (221 bLiUa*). By iTuty tht- plniils 9vtv looking 
well and were two or three inches high. For some time the prosjke>ctB 
wore favoumhle, but Inter ou the crop wiw partly di.'strovi«l by 
drought. In Yival cho acre yield varied from twelve to seventy-two 
pouuik. In the Dhsiniiigiiou fiiclory g'^nlen, iindi-r the careful 
BUiiervifiou "f Mr. I'rice, the acre jiold was VA'A^ pounds. Tbo 
whole New Orleans crop amoanted to WtMi pounds of setn] cotton. 
or 29&G poHudx of clean cotton. A sample wantieut to the Chamber 
of (Commerce, but they did not report favourably on it. It was clean 
and free from seed, bnt dull in vototir, nnd somewhat weak nnd 
im-gular in »t«ple. Though poor for New Orleaiw it was nincb bolter 
than the local variety, and se<;nred n re-ndy sale at from £1 Me. to 
£1 I ii*. (B». 14 - B». 1 7) the ti>» nbove the ordiiiiiry Kliiliubwh oollon. 
In 1849-50, the cultivation of Dhdrw^r acclimatii^d New Orleans 
increased from 185 tu li'2(> acres. Of ibewe almul Olf were ear^y • 
dmtroyud by too much rain, and the land was re-ptonghed aud 
aown with other prodnee. Tho heavy rains, though beneficial to the 
locnl cotton, ])rored iujnnoua to the exotic plant. The Collector 
Ur. KIphiunlon reported that the exotic pinni was less hardy than 
the local, and eHnore<i more tluiM it Ctuki too much or t^jo lilllc 
wai(tr. Tlic total yield of New Orleans, as given in Sir. Simpson's 
tabular return, was 171,169 puunds or 88 pounds the aero, 
agninAit 2.*>8 |ki!iui1.-< tbc outturn of the local \-iu-iety. In ibo yeut- 
18G0, Mr. Pnco manured about IJ acre of the factorj- garden at 
Dhamngnou with 1 20 cnrt.lwuls of decayed vegetation and cowdung, 
and after the first ^1 of rain, sowed (lUth June) aboutan acre with 

Chapter IV. 

Cottim i 

IBombaj Oautl 



Chapter IT. 


• Cotton 

New Orleans and the rest with Georgian seed. The seed Tegett 
in f Jut days, and by the end of June the plants were foar im 
high. The field was harrowed, and at the interval of three d 
waa thricG woll wended. The rows were thinned ho as to li 
eight inches botwi^eii the plants. By the end of July they weri 
feet high and had formed blossoms and pods. The first crop withi 
and fell off. But a second followed with an acre yield of 240 poi 
of clean New Orleans and 21ti of Georgian. 

In J 8oII, Mussi's. Kitchio Stewart and Company of Bom 
pstablislK-d an a^'i'ucy ' for luijn'ng and ginning cotton at Dharuig 
To help this agency CSovemmont allowed the Collector to encoai 
fcotton culiivation by tifikking advances up to £1800 (Ks. 16,0 
The lirm hired all the Oovei-ninent gins, nineteen of them in worl 
order and twciity-one newly made. Under this new arrangen 
both the ginning and buying of cotton by Government almost enti 
censed. In lS-!i(l, h'h'l acres were under AiLencan cotton, 3 
of the seed was sown in May before the rains began. What 
watered grew most freely, and even the unwatered plants did ft 
well. At first jirospects sccnicd oxcelleut. In June, the ph 
from eighteen inches to two feet and some of them three feet h 
wore beginning to throw out flowers and jxtung fruit. Most vigo 
and healthy, tliey liud splendid leaves, some of them nearly six in 
across, in July, llic irrigated plants were from waist to breast h 
well tilled with bulls and blossoms. Later on they were eqoi 
Louisiiuia cotton, aud in Cliopda and Tftval, some of the plants ' 
superb. I'ros'pei'ts continued good till the plants came into bios 
Then they auflered from two causes : the lirst-formed pods ro 
from the too deep shade, and the later flowers wore eaten by a 
pillars. After a time cauie a second crop, but the plants i 
exhausted and th*r outturn waa small. For local crops the set 
was very favourable.- The total produce from the New Orleans CO 
waslilUl.y^^ pounds of seed cotton, or an average acre yield of 

f" ounds, com]la^^d with lOt ]»ounds, the yield of the local v»n 
n spite of this disappointment, by the exertions of the Collector 
superintendent, and by di.stributing prizes among the cultivi 
who had helped most in the experiments, in the next year (1851 
area under New Orleans cotton rose 'to 10,214 acrea (13,619 6ij/ 

' The comiictition 1>ctvceti this Hgcncy and tlic local dealers created a lltrge d« 
fiir cotton, mill \ii'wv» within two or tlirte yuurs were nearly doubled. C<iUeclor, 
May IH^-* : B..1U. Hev. Kec. XX. <>f 1S.)7, I'urt II. 3:33-4. 

■ Of tliese exiH^riuicuts, Mr. Siiiip!»iti ]ia« left the following iletoils ; Chopda, 9 
»ecd sown ; cmji grew freely ; yitld 8S0 Ilis of scerl cottiin. Rrandol, 30 lb*. 
sown in tliive pHroeTH of 10 lbs. each. One patch came up and two were apoi 
cioessive rain directly after Bowing : yield 3'J Ibe. seed cotttin. Yival, 60 Ibe. 
Bowii ! enip failed ; yield .W Ilia, seed oottou. .Trttnner, 4U Ilia, seed aown ; yield 
little. Naairaliad, .W 11>k, Bced Bonn ; yield 160 Um. of seed cotton. Tha area i 
cultivation was 120 aerea of brown and red soil. The crop wa« a good deal in, 
by insectB The yicl<l wbb 3.S,3S5 liis, of need cotton or almut 7785 lb*, of clean eo 
being at the rote of 04 lbs. per acre. Some native aecd waa mixed with the ei 
which being picked separately amounted to 4958 Ilia, of aecd cotton. The TBBala i 
coBt of cuWvatiou Uu. 1380-11-8, value of the crop Its. 8607-9, Iobi Ra. Bil-*-: 
about 37 per cent. 

* According to the Boperintendent's report, the area waa 0093 acrei aod the prod 
probably of clean cotton, 519,008 pounda or 57 poumla the acre. 




Th« raittB were Teiy early over, and tbour;h tlio Innil crop was not 
mjiiniJ.lhrt NewfWunnBKiilIorwi.iiHil thpoiitturn wjiaonl.v i,tHJ*,940 
pounds or ulnnt 104 pounds tliti acre, iu Miircli Mill llir C'uIWtur 
Mr. KIphiuHton vrrotc> : ' Hitherto the New Orleaua crop kaa tieeu 
precariouK, aud even if, in euxv of failure, tiu\Trnmont <!Xcum-« thu 
renul, the cultivator has still lost liine, labour, aud profit.' Except 
in Cbopdn whcrt' thi- s.iil n-a* good and tb« air niuist^r than in other 
parts, the m^mlaldHrx all ri'porUMl wlrontr'v ajpiiimt fiirllier iittviupts 
togrinvXcwt)rIoi*U9. In iionfie« nonce of liiis, tlioupii sued was given 
gr^iin. the rullivalion of Now Urloana fell in tho next year {IS'tZ) 
to 4*} ii &cves {MtYA^ hi g/ui*). 'Tlie [H'upio are convinced,* wrote 
Sir. MansSHd tlio Oolleclor, 'that (he soil &ad climate are not niitod 
to the growth uf exotic cotton.' Tho total produce wiw 346,735 
pounds of seed cotton, or an tu-w yield of eighty-sij(|xiundsof seedor 
tweDty.eightpoimda of clean cetton. In the same year llr, Binniv, 
of llessrs, Uiichif SU'wurl and Co., wrote from DhiiraRgitnii : * I'Vom 
what [ have teen the New Orlr^anii crop U very nncertain and 
deffeuerateN lu two or three years.' 

In ISjJi, only 1272 acres (Itiyfl hlyhi") were under New Orleanii. 
The Iwtter rains were ftcanty, and the erort Buffered from drought. The 
total proditcw itmounted to &i,b>i'-i |K>iindB of seed and 24,ft9& pounds 
of clean ooUon ornn tKru yield of twenty ]K>und.t i^f clean cfjiton. In 
Scjttfimlier 1854, the office of the Hiii>erint«ndent of e.TiX'rimcnt-8 
Wit* tibolinWd, and only a small essabliHhmenl !te|it. lo look after 
the tiovernmeu) giuii. Of the-»o, niniit^en had Ix-en sold, a few hired 
out, and there were 6ftT-nine in stock i^itliout any demand. In the 
same year, (he eultivaliun of Now Orleans dwindled tn twelve acres 
yielding iSQG poundit of seed or 41(! poiinda of clean cotton, or 
rnthdrlcw) than thirty-four pi)nndfi the acre. Sine* lSo.*i, uotJoveni- 
ment attempt iuw been made to grow New Orleans cotton in 
Khandesh.' The Government, machinery reinaintil uniMod, till, 
in l^!-'>7, .Mef«rs. RitcLiu Stewart and Cu. broke up their agency at 

From 1S60, when Mr. AshburuDr veius App:>iRted Collector, dates 
the rfinuwal of Government elTorU to impmve Kluindenh ciXton. The 
provisi'jnH a^^ninst cotton adulteration (Act X. of 1827), which for 
mnuy years hnil been little more than a dwwl letter, were j»ui in force. 
Bui tlio great dt-tuaud for eottongavemuchoppmiunity for fraud by 
mixing dirt .'tnd other trash, and Khaudoiih eotlon continned lo feleli 
inuchle«^t (hiin it,* proper value. In lfl«i;l,aiiouuiJof Pem\ian seed wja • 
received by the Collector. I'art planted at Idling failed entirely; 
the rest, nown in Dhulia and watwred, yielded 8fii |K>und!i of clean 
cotton. In 18154, under the new Cotton Frauda Act (IX. of 1863), 
adnlteration greatly decreased, and Kliatiilesh coHon w»)« «i well 
cleaneil Ihal iln pritx- niiM- to within thirteen (wrcent of NowOrleana.* 
Preaaes were op«ued at .lalgAon and Bhus&val, and a cotton cleaning 





' la tSOd. Ur. Sblinntv Itiawhuidni pUnted aatoe Kew OrlewiB iMd tout bf lb* 
Ctmnbiir uCmnnicna. tn tvo out of throe 6*kU in Chopda imd Kanrmtotl tho Mad 
dU Ml ouiic up. In DbiiUa > field o( Utcea mn* fieUUiil 380 poamia ot r>» coltoB. 

< TIm pnce o) Khlndcah oottoo «m then tU, tb« pound ind at }l«w Orlowu SM 





. OpOm 

tmprof Bm iM, 

rompnnr «iu visricd ntid luud IwQjKVit at Jolfpioa. 
Wbia^iaid to tlie iuti'Kluction ot now Uin^ii^irlutt uot'd ft 
In iHiJo, cami? ibo fEtll in pric*; iifu^r llio tlun* of ih 
ttnd miK'kciittoiin-iimiuricruuiitildiu the coltirature' _ 

efforTH to improve iho district twtton wcro ocmtiuiivd. 1717 
aocid were brongUt fmtn Ilvriir wuJ lixik tliK place of miin- ll 
per wut of tlut local crop. The oiitturu was rery ft<>od, fiilcl 
nigh pric«a as Umrivati. Nojtt yc^ir ( 1 80ii), by ihu still f urtl 
in pncu,lhDRn-n uudt-r cotton watt reduced from 4(30,^24 to2 
acre*. Almost the whole of thin was nmgnngh&t. 

In Man-li 1807, fiSpOO (B». 20,01)0), and in April. 
TRk. 30,000) were »iuioti«ned for the purchase of UiDgikti^'h£ 
The oxccutire committeo of the Cotton Supply A«NooiHtiiiD d»f 
the new cotton as worth at Iciwt donblu tJie fonnwr mixed 
Several varieties of nu^rd* were sown esperimentally, ha 
Hingangh^ camo np w^ell enonf^h to pay. In DhurnnKaon 
landnoldi^r niiMHl, with two n-iitcnngx, a cri^p of New Ortoan 
jiolUed an acre outturn of 800 pounds of swd (x>tton. In 
some Mew Orleans sood yieldvdacnvpof good colour and ajme;^ 
bnt 90 WMtk in ftlnple ns to be (Uinjmratively nselesa. ' No« 
8a^ Mr. Wilkinain the cotton inspector, ' have I soon New 
fibre at all equal to Dhdrwir, or cvva ftuffideutly good lo odc* 
it« growtli.' During ItlCJ) there was a marked increiMo 
number of half presMod bales, as many as 10,169 beiu)^ desp4 
compared willi only 'IDO in 18C8. 

In 18t>0-70, the crop was good, and getting to Bombay clea 
nnmixed, the Fainpnr Hinganghat fetched as high prices ai 
Umravati. In some porta of tho dititrict the iild local i 
rn-apiHwrotl. Bu* by distributing now Qingangh^ seed, siepi 
taken lo prevent its spreading. Mr. CiutwII, i1i« aujK'rioteDd 
czporimonts, grow aoine Uinganghitt cotton, wliicb, from tij 
*Kiveu to its growth, picking, and dcantng, fctchud very lugh 
K Bomo nativ«it made very snccontiful experiments with New Or 
One field of a single acre }'tctdud as ninch as 250 pounds of 
cotton, and anollier uf thirty iicn:i< yielded an acre avenigu of i 
pound!*. But the staple was brittle and tather stoned v 

In 1S70, (rc«h Ringnngh^t Mwd wn« snpptioil where it was wi 
'apd oxperinicuta were made, but from an ovei-fall of rain, witll 
BUOCees, In 1871, tho expenmcnC^ failed from want of rain. 
anni)>er of ttaw gitiH increased in Jalgaou by twenty and foil > 
Yival by five. The 1672 crop was good, and false packin;?, - 
bad giwn riae to much complnint in Bomlm-, was traced and 
atop to. lo 1873, the crop was again fair. Ijhirw&r or accUmi 
Now Orlooos waa coining into favour tm it wim found to yi 
greater percentage of fibre than Hinganghdl. The local v« 
was again creeping into mm and inlmi packing was coiunlatiia 
Exiwrimenla at the Bhadgaon Government t arm showed thaii 
unmanured fieldfi of nbout t>7i acre" yielded a net pr ' 
per cent. Hr. Fretwell the euperiutendeut prepared 



the inner fibrs of the cotton plant, bopingf thst thny might provg a 
leftil snbatitote for jute. In 1874, tb^ area under uoftoo «nw 
ntuood by 30,8-1-1 a<;r««. The liiirvest was early and the crop very 
Muo and high priced. DhArwir(Xiatiiiu<xi toriac in f»voHr, tlioaph, 
Kiong the poorer class of culiivaturs, Lbe want of good itt-^d was 
>nipuiin<xl of- The pre^^^in^ Jirrangemcnta continued to improve. 
be nninber of aiipreȤed bundlea, dokdiir, fell to 770 and half 
ressin^ gavo pla«( W full pressing. Id 187f> the crop was fair, 
toogh not «o good A8 in tbo yuar bufono. The area onder Dhirrr&r 
atly increased. Bnt coinplainta wore inado thiU, when opened 
I Knglaod, it was found stained by oil pressed out of bits of aoed. 
I 1870, tbu ycttr of scarcity, tho ootloo crop suffered sererely. 

Since 1876, the nsa of American-seed Dh^wAr haa further 
.oreaaed, and the area under pnro Hiuf^nghat been further 
tdncod. Coinplnintalinvft also been madethat uioroof tho Varfajidi, 
la Kibort'Stapled local cotton, comes to market than wan the case 
>ine years ago. It KeL-ms doubtful whether this complaint is well 
landed. lu the outhniig parts the growth of Vurli/idi, whoso 
alture calls neither for care nor skill, was never quite oupjn-eiiHed ; 
[id it is doubtful how fur it woidd Ihi advisable entirely to put a 
lOp to it« growth. A oertaia quantity of Varh^i t8 nKfuinyl for 
6 low counts oi yarn used in the coarse cloth worn hy tho local 
oar. Odo of tbo chief difHcultivs in tho working of Mr. Vallabhdfe' 
ict«ry at Jalc'aon iH the scarcity of this sfaort-Ntiiplcd local cotton, 
nd much of wliat is wanted has to be brought from iudor and other 
ative states, l^ough »onio of the Vurbidi, grown in or brought 
□to Kh^ndeah, serves the legitimate uho of Ix-ing wnrkeil into 
iheap yarn, other portions of the crop are bought with the hurtful 
ibjeci of mixing with Americon-Hced Dh&rwltr. Tbts mixing is said 
o guon chielly in the yards oE the larger dealers, when the c»urso 
if the cotton mark^ makes it< t,o their advantt^^ to trj' to pass off 
nferior cotton against sales. It is no doubt an evil, and luui uf latu 
!ii>u!i(.-d mtich complaint. At the same time the practice is by no means 
euoi-aliand would ecoso if up-country buyers refused to take cotton 
vith any mixture ni the short atapio variety. 11ib prt^fttreuuo 
ibown by the Khiindesh cnliivators for American-seed Dhirwir over 
Hiugangh&t, seems chiefly due to the fact that it yields a larger 
outturn and i» more wutily picked. Tlio want of field lalxiur in 
Khandosh makes tho proper picking of liingangh^t very diilicult, in 
eonie places impossibto. I'ho cotton sIjiym or the tree till it is overripe 
Kod, in picking, gets mixed with its ^viiliered and lirittlt! Kmall 
clinging IcHven. On the other hand, the large leaves of the American 
vnrivty, nmiaiuiug soft and pliable, drop from tho tree and make it 
easy to pick the cotton cli-an. Itx freedom from leaf haH of Iittv led 
(he cnltivaiors to mix American'secd Dh&rwilr with Uiugangh&t, so 
u to raise ihv valoe of the Uingangh&t by making it seem freer 
fmin luaf. With two varieties of cuttou »o nearly emial in price, 
mixture ta mn<.-h>lei>» hurtful llian the mixture of Vnrhtidi with 
Americnn Herd. At the same lime, in the opinion of the Bombay 
Cotton Trade A<u)ociation, the mixture is injurious and lowers the 
Tftlue of tho tChtutdesb cotton crop. The two vBriaties an lu somo 

Chapt«T l\ 





kptar IT. 





n-<-Ti(icU Tcr^'diKHiniiliir nn<l do nut mix well. UingaUf.'' ' 
il Tuny ffiiiii iu ))ri^')it[ii>A)(, Itmes in tiiiencea bv mixture v. 
HU<] roitKli AraericaD-secMl Hh^'irwriir. Anu thooffb thv 
may lii* Biiiluhlu for luuU i>[iiiiniiiK, itn mint of drvnnt^i' 
fnr export. In llw opinion of the Coltoa Trade / 
Minvanfrlidt is the best cotton for ICh&iKlfMb to grow. lis ©rea 
Htniile inakpH Jt a t!pL>c-iHl fi>vourit« witli .ijiinaoni. And fmm 
llicf bavp H'cn in Itombay, tlie L-mnmitteo tbialc thnt AtuM-ii 
Dh^nriLr fvcthei a leas price than cotton grown from Uin 

A now [piklari! in th« Khindoiili cotton trade is the expurt, paKh 
by road down the Tiipti valley, but chit'fly by t»il, of uu^inM 
Hin^neh&t toBroacbnudSion inGiijar£t. Tktx export in tbr pi 
«oa«tn (li)79} w»n cuuu^h to iiinki- al>out IdOl) Ititmliay Wlca 
I'liian comiD. It iiH)k plate early in tbe yi-nr, the cotton r*j 
UroHch before any of Ibo new local cnip was iu iho market. 
C^tloD VI9H ffinni'd in thv Itniucb uiid Kion factorioK, and nl 
outturn about 1200 balea were boHRlii and Mscd by the Broack 
Snrat spinning mills, and thv rc^Ht, about IJOO bnlos, was aent )( 
liombay uiul Kold im gintted KhAudbmh. The special cirt-timf^naM 
timt iDitko it )N»y to send cotton from Khiindcsh to Ifujnril fX 
tluit a.t Ilint^ngtiAt is trnrlior thnn Brotii^h, ihu cotl<^>n reaches dn 
(tiijnnit intirkotM wV-n itiipjilicH art! Inw ; thnt the tonna^t cbargt-f^j 
mhhI cott'iu i* uuioh lesa than for ck-an cotton ; that ^nning in UA 
Huiier and cbvaper iu tiujar^t Ihau in Kh&ndcf<h -, that iu (iu 
Ibo seed fetchos a much higher pnco than in Khdudeabi 
Rppwreutly the ho|H> that it may lie paMed oS as macbino-^ 
Uroaoh, to which it is iuferior by aboot eight or ten nor c 
Stoam ffinning^ises the value of Hingnnghilt. Bat this gain il 
newly, if not quit<«, met by th« greater loss in weight. 

30. Brown Hemp, amh\idi, tlibiscuB [-nnnabiuus, ^jrown ntwi 
or less on every holding. i» tlH> ino«t <.-uono(tii("tl libre for gnwiM 
ngncultnral uses. It is xown after thelftftt raio^aU in June lOl 
is cut in October. To develope a sufficiently long xtem, b<<inp ww* 
shade and is tbcroforo always grown niixiMl with other cro)i» i»iialhl 
with millot, Hesamum, or fur. After the nurse crop ii; rei'< 
hemp is allowed to remain for a few weeks to let tho moi 
thoroughly. It is then cut, tiod iu i^mnll bundles, and laid in ■ 
pool to ' rot.' After a fow days', whi-n tho l;nrk is mjft«tucd, taiH, 
"generally of the lowe-it caste, Minjfs and Bhils, standiug iothe wiW 

take a few stems in their left hnndn, and with thv right bj 

. "" ip " . 

then washed and laid out U> dry. Ine smell from the rotten uwC^u 

pull Blrip the biirlc from the root up to th« points; tho 


is Tery unpleasant. An expert stripe about twelve pttunda offihH 
a day, and is paid at the rate of 2i. (tie. 1) for sixty pounds. 
stripjH'd iiti'niK are inwd in tbntching, the («Mider tojw an a vogei 
and the seeds yield an oil. The supply of tibre is barvly et 
for the people's wanta. The bark of the anjan ^fio )a.much used 

■ Tlie Sttcntar; Bombaj CuttuD Tnul« AnucuiUwi tw Oovtnuncnl, 6th Sept. 


.2)eccui. . 



cin^ ropos, which otQ choaper, moro etmlf got, and more iMting 
lau IiOin|) rojn!«. (5** 2-lj. • " 

ai. Bombay Uemp, *nit, Crotalaria juncoa, sown in June ssd 

rewtMtd in Octobor, is less widely gniwn Ihiui lirown hemp. lis 

, or<ltii»ry kniUM naaa itro making woll ropon and twine. The twine 

iii naitally epuo by VaDJ&ris and otker rattle -koepors who spin on 

.n tli<tiifT (M thoy grnw ihoir flocks »n<! honlit. To Uirco it to grov 

euoiij^li, xnn liati l<> bi) sown very thickly. The crop ia cm aa 

atf the plaut has done l^oworin^. The fibre ie (akvn out in 

rniuh Ihn same wniy ns the brown ht'tup fibro, but ihi- alonis being 

itni:iliar, (hit work U bunh'r, un<l thv workman earns 2«. (Be. IJ for 

forty insc^ad of for sixty pouuds. When akitfulty prepared, aan la* 

little, if at all, inferior to Ilusaian hemp. 

The cliranto and aoil of KliflndoHh aro well suited to the growth of 
fibre.yioldiiig plants of the Hihiacus apeciea. Any (|aiuittty ooald 
be produced if the dumand was urgent, 

XAdiulMi I/fu tnul Pigmnttt. 








Indlu iiaib«rt]r .. 
tadltn ... _. 
aaAiniw „, ... 

Hertnd* cTlriMia 
iBlikafmUaelnrU _ 

Conuna lonjti . 


^82. Indian Mwlburry, 'U, Morinda citrifolia, grf)vru exclusively 

_by the I*odhii* or Alkaris of FaiMjur, Yivnl, Kauklo, und Ernndol, 

oiiltivaiAd aolely for the aafeo of its roots which yield a bright, 

bough not a very la-ttiug nnX <tyit. Khi'mdiinh ill hiv for long had a 
lligh piinir, the result probably of yeara of carefiil tillagt). nio 

sport used to be enornKius t'^pi-cliiily to Gnjar^t. But of late, 

boiigb the locnl demand remiunfl unolmnged, the exU'rnni demand 
bait, from thooompetiligiiof aniline dyes, been greatly reduoxl. Tho 
sowing of ciJ wants mMl skill and cnro. It takes pla<?e in July or 
AngiiKt, that is tfjward.t llio uiiddlo of tho rains. Tb<i sood is sown 
very thickly, either broadcast or cpoeawise in cloise lines. It has to 
be eovored about an ineli deep with mould. If lower down or nearer 
thc^ Kurfitco the wMrd UNUally fiuiK to sprout. ACtor this, perioditral 
weediiifi^ is all it wants up lo ihe end of the third year, when tlw crop 
u ready for digging. Tnis CM^ts about £.*> (Rs. 60) nn acre, sa the 
whole field has to ln» dujf about two foet d«-p. The doepor tha 
roots ^o, the more \-aluabte they are, as the fiupr and smaller portion 
of ibcm nonlainit moro dyeing ninttor than ihotw on the surface. If 
there ta no demand, the roots are sometimea left as long ait four 
y*rATi in tho ground, and if the demand is great the cultivator 
occasionally digt the roots after the tteoond ycur*!! growth. After 
the fifth year the roots become useless aa a dye, and the buHh, if not 
cot down, grows into a trtw n-ith a Ntem sometimes several feet in 
git-tb. The ronlfy ebopped into half-inch piecw, are worth about 
1 \d. a pound (Ba. 15 for 12tj ti/ter^]. The host toots are chose about 
HH thick M n ipiill, the laret'r ones being wanting in colouring matter 
which is mainly biecreted between the burk and the wood. An 


(Boater OuMHl 





acni of •ifwltra reAclvfornuu'kut is worth stiout £20 (IL 
(Ij'it in prtipAred by UaU)^riH aod awd in colouring tarb»i», n>J 
aod olotii. Tho LodbtM hold lands in tbcir own namr^ uui *i«1 
«ah>roni fleldx uid employ htnMl Ikbonr. Tlw deep d^r)fui^ «l| 
OTen*inuiig thi) soil to extract th« roots doee much good to Uw Iwil 

33. Indipi, yiiK, IndigofnTU linclorift, liinl, in 187^-7'' 
knw of il^-lti a<iv>t- A two-vear and soioetiun.'H a throe-, 
{Dd%0 iti grown to a vor>- Dtanl) oxt«nt, owiof? to ihn ^reat exB 
preparing it for market, llio wed i« i<owu in July in 
tillod ground. It can be thrice cut durint; llie raioa, and 1 
and flomelimes throo )KMu>oaa gonL-ralljr without bein^ wat«r 
•aocoant of its mixture Vitfa wood afbtis, Kh^deah iiidign 
rnthvr low. The first cnttinff takos pla«> wiu<n the plant t.i tiro i 
three months old ; tho wjroiid year another cropuf Ii-nvL-a ih cat! 
the shmb which i* then <ronNidopt>d ustoUHuand^mei-anydeBt 
pluujfhiiift up the land and pn-paring it for suirai! other iTvp." _ 
Dultivators let the plant remain in tho ground a j-eur longor fn m 
to got H third crop, but the yield u too poor to be remunereUFi 
Id thu ueighbourhood of Faiispnr, iodifro ia raim-d in con.iic 
qnantitiw by Gnjant, and thu ntunbor of onnaed piti near 
Tillagflftnd among the buried cities of lh» SAtpada niugt;, 
that the plant was formttrly more widely grown than it » 
present, In spito of the aian«e and wuttteftil mode of pn'p 
It aiMT (ho dirlineea of the dye producud, Khiindc»h iudt^i 
for long inaiutainiHl its gruond ngitinst Tlougal indijro. tV 
l«rg(^ <|ii»utities were imported frvm (iitjarat. Bat of 

mauufactuni of Giijnriit indigo has almoat enitndy ceaa , _ 

Kbindenbiudigo now goes to Hurat and other Gujnr&t mnrketa. 

;jt. Sattower, kartUii, Carthamnii tincUinuM, m of two kta 
gddhi and kuJitmhydchi, SatUii, a strong plant n^ith 
learofl, ia gntwn chiefly for its soetl oil (i«e 23). Ktuumbi/atlii^ 
slenderer plant, isi grown for ita Howers, from wiieh, when dry, i 
rod kugumbtt dye ih made. Thu market price of husumba is ^loat 
\». (8 anna") the poand. 

35. 'rahuuri*:, hahid, Curcuma longa, Ia of seTeTal kinda, U* 
tuber in all cascii Iwinp the uiiefulpart. The kind used in dyemg 
is thu luHiiniti fialii'J with veiy hard roots. U yields a yellow dyd 
and i» usually mixed with ^u«tMnf>a. 

About the three colour crops, mulbrrry, indigo, and tummrtf^ 
%be common beliof is that if luiy but a Itangai-i grows them in a nsv 
vdlage, tlMi grower's family is duomiKl to [K-riwh. So when ono of 
tho CHjps has to be grown in a new rillnge, a n«tdy lillt-d field il 
handed nviir to a lljingari family who sow and barreat the crop, 
thus admitting the dyers' rery judt claim to a royalty on a brandi 
of hnabandry that owo» it« existence to tbeir labour. 

• SlutinMk Jfarfotiti. 





I Kinitlanii Ub M— .. ThaMHa. 


Sti. Though Tolmoco vrwi-nry c«rly (16G0) growuin Kh^ndpsh' 
Dd 8prt^ from Kh&uilesb to 6uiarltt, its area is uow Hiiiall, uWiiiL 
600 ucrus, iiiid ils uxport insigniticant. 80' iimi;]! has tlie local 
abooco bilea oS by carolesH tillage, that it ia now iilinoHt sut aaide 
jr tbe exotic VirginiaD and Shir&x hybrid. This was introdacod 
B KD t'siK'rimeiit in 1869-70 by Afr. FrutwoU, HupcrioWndeDt of 
he model Carni. The two soeds were accidi^ntally mixed toj^tliur 
nd thu prciMtiit crop is a cross between thi-m. The UaTanna Heed 
rwi also tru^i, but «■»« fonnd too dfliciito for thv cliuiitto und wag 
■iven np. The local tobacco U conaidered very inferior lo tho 
ux«d varU.'ty both in etrooffth and flavour. Next to the alluvial 
dUhi which are very limited, thu^rwy t>oiWD tho xitoH of du§eriod« 
iUagro ia the beat for tobacco. FaiUBg thia, black soil i» cho^un, 
bongfa M-fl\t n*d is in some roepects more tniitable. In the grey 
oilKof viilii^i sitott Vt^ry littlu inunuii! in waDtftd. Afl«r mora than 
me cTfjp has bet?ij prowu, an occasional dressing of old binn-yard 
Bouiire ieiised. Indigo rofuiw is u fnvounlo fertiliser, but seeraa 
O hsTo no Kpoebd mvrit. Ouano baa Lately boeu found greatly to 
HoressB the yield. 

Irrigation, though ohject«>d to by Aome, in, in Mr. E^twell'a 

r' uou, PKpocially in tlie dry eaat., aeoeaaary, not for tWl^rowth 
the plant, but to bring the curinf; setisoa before the middlo 
rf NovciiiIht ivliitD tho air i* (ttill moitt. Tobacco i» generally 
rown in ftinall plota of not more than one-eighth of an aero. 
lie sowing season lasts from June to August, but is sometimea 
lolayvd tUI Octobor. The at-vd 'm lutwn in lwdj» noarly four 
eet Hqiiare, well manured with cattle dimg and haud*watert.>d ; 
tnd from tbrco weeks to two months aftvr sowing, yifuii they are 
tetweeu fire and seven inches high, the seedlings are plaututl in 
ipecially prepared plots, at u foot di>itanix> fr<ini oiAh other, in rows 
lalf a yard apart. During the whole time of growili, the plaulu are 
urefnlly weeded, and as soon as they are well itvt, a small bullock 
100, kiHpti, is pamx] biitwecn tho rows. Twice during (jrowth, the ' 
inckem are removed, but this ia naoally very carelessly done. lu a 
native field, nearly all fnl] grown plautit have itnckerH rindling the 
nrent Hlem in luxuriance, and flowers on both sterna and suckent. 
rbey seldom show any signs of an attempt to limit the number of 
mvos. For Ihis rwMOti the Iwito* are not properly deveKipe<I and 
their strength and flavour never come to perfection. The cutting 
time lasts h\>m November to February, or atM>ut five and a half , 
Riiiulh!! from lim time of sowing. At the time of cntting, the low«h 
leaves are nsuatly faded and yellow, tho ctmtral oiiw in prime 
Bonditton, and the upper onoti anripe. Generally, the vhole pwnt i» 

■ At tb« Ij^taaiag «f tbe Mvoatccfitb OMitiuy MliaoM wm • novel^. AMd 
B<c (died Ittmi. 00 • miMWD Inm Akbar «o Bljftfw Uamt 1603, anw tobKoo ler tb« 
Int tiiofc Be brondrt mne haok aa a runty lo \gr^ Tli* Siiipofw tool a few 
mifi. Imt VM 'limtadid hy hit pliT«icnna fmeti mMluiix mora. Thi^ not>lH« tonk t» it 
wl tfao pnicti«>^ apnmd lawdtjr lEHkit'i UMotf.Vl. lU, ilH). Ia lOIT, utltubla 
very Vmd vBcvt <ui tb« health ol nmiy Mopiiv tko EmMm JahUtipT lorbad it* lua 
IBIjo*. VI. Sfil). Ill l«aO, Tavwalar up-iu oi Ua B^Mag i« anili ^MntMm 
BartiAnimr Uiat tlia pwpU luvhig ao vant lot it left it to rot on tlw gnoad. 

• Catl«tur'* Z-£i:i, Z2»a Jnly 1873. 

Chapter TV. 







I ex} 


nit^d the Sowrr ImuIa iiippod, \i»<- 

mombs; Ga 

"- iurlifH 'if *U'iii 

th»oira out fn^nh leavos. H on? mvorih vi-rj 

onil arv ecldura pitht-itMl. Tlie Kuiiiiiit, tri>in a feetiuff 
dust n.iyi (111 Togt'i»1>lt! lifet do uot cut the plautN theinB^lnM, 
employ liluls and others to do it for thom. A few at thu I 
hiLfll»Qdinc<n, ospcciuUy iimonff t)ie Mnwilmins imd those De»l 
Guvi'niitK-nt fitnn, pluck the leaves sioglj. 

Ac'Oi'nimu bo the common way of curiiip thom, tho [iliuit« M ' 
are cut, aru Uid in rows on tlie eronnd iinril tUo leaveM iowil 
brittK-nciM and Uvume limp aud flacdd. They ar« iiiimIi! intu liaail 
mXvU, of f(Mir or five pl^Ls each, and bronght to aoino t'onre 
^>laco for drj-inff, rery oftcu Iw tho roof of tho owTier's huuM, i 
laid in cloNf ovorliippiug ripwa. When thu colour of tho leavra 
be^n to change, the rowa arc tumod over, and tliia is dime se 
times with many eprinliliugit of wnt«r till all are of nearly th<> 
pbado. At thi^ aingv, about twenty-five anudl bundles arei 
into lari^ bnndle§, jWi*, tied together with a few Bbrvm of tbei 
of tho palas, Bnt<ra frondosa, tro<v Mpnnkloil with water, »l«icktKl i 
oorered with ^(iny cloth or roaha, Andnijk>gon achiRnanthuii, grw* i 
and loadad with heavy stones. To equalise the fermentation, eVMj 
third diq^the bundles are lornod, watered, and rebtiitt. This tnitf 

Srinkling, mwdi' ncccjinary by thu dryims.* tif the climate, di^^-iMj' 
u &ut>i (jualilies of the tol>ac«). The process of curing ie cr.Mr- ;. 
performed in th(i open air and takes from fire wtx-kn to thn^o nuiiili'- 
The paK near the slem in alwiiyit mouldy aud the rott varies tr^:^ 
the proper fawn ooloor to deep bbck. Much is afasolutoiy- rotten. 

Itliick<.-n«<I lobnvco, thoui^h UHeless for any other piir|xi»>, i) 
gciientlly prttft'rrod by the nalivcM. The prt-sent uidbod of curing 
lauxt cuntinue, i;idi.-»it, by (he help of imgation, lobacco is sown ia 
June and cut iu November, and a drying hous*' is made iiudcrffroand 
and ooven-d with thick thatch. Kwn witli Hil* cmro, tho wind will 
.pn)bal>Iy be too strong tu allow leaves to grow perfect enntieh In lit 
miide into cigam. The only improvement in coring, intro(luc(>d M 
the model farm, is the cutting out of thi> stew. Cultirat^tra di.ipoM 
of tbcir tobacco to doalent ni from £4t to £4 (Its. ;IiJ . lEx. -U)) th« 
hundred bundles, JiuftV. 'The price of the local ".iirirly variuK Fmni 
16«. to £1 6«. {Re. 8'Ka. \S) the man of eighty-two puunds. *l*he 
now tobacco, when grown by natives, realises from £1 to CI UU. 
(itti. IO-Hm. 15), and oil the model farm from £1 1^. to £ii Itk. 
* (3a. 16 - Its. 2S) the man of eighty-twd pouuda. The sverAgo acre 
cost of tillage varies from £3 to £3 ]0«. (Ua. 30- Ra. 35), and tha 
onttumfrumabont£M8«.to£25(Rs. 14i-IU.250).' Considoring the 
climate, Mr. Fretwell is of opinion that tobtu't^^ should be grown only 
for local UM. lie suggests, for tlie inijimvement of the crop, that 
the local varioly idi'iulirbv given np; that the Boud idiould be clioseo 
only from the cro^vn tiowern in the boat planta; that manure ohunld 
be more frvi^ly u«ed and the se<^ ttown early in June ; that topti and 
snckorB abonlu be coutiaually remorod, nilowiug only soveu or eighi 




fcT«<* ou «ao1t plant- an<I iu (iMlRAttAr of curing, ilinl aiuglo toftved 
Id hv pliickod aD(l cunxl wit^iniit tho steiua. * * 

S7. Hump, ijanja, Cuntiabis satira, is npurinply RTown in 
'S**''^^'^'' to make bhdtuf. Most of tliu hhSnif ua4id tu Uio dUtricc ii 

88. Pfippy.tArtctAuji.PapavorsoinnifprniDidfiipitciallGorommeaS 

elTorta abort nf actual pivliiliitiou, whm formerly widrly ffruwn. In 

_ 1S;J1', its ciiltif-attou was mQ§i nrofitablo. Knough of tbt- Klu'iiidoab 

dmg wiks in Htorv ut Ahmcdabad to meet the Gnjarat demand for 

two yijars. Although both tho soil <ind clitnatv wi>ro tiiuiiited to it« 

growth, its ciiItivatinD biid be<?ii carried owfor generatioDS and the, 

pcoplu wpru particularly partial to it. The cidtirator had n ccrtaiQ 

'I't for liii< pnitbicw ut h tixud though nrndcnilo prioc. The 

Ltor was allowt^ to buy all tho opiuui in its raw atalo at about 

tie. (He. 4) tht- poHud, and prepare if in the Dhutia factory for sale. 

In l85(i, by order <if the (iovernnieut of Indiu, the DhiiUii factory 

wa« closed and poppy cultivariou Rtopjied. During the tw«nfy yeata 

ending 1 856, tho greatest area cultiTatod in any one year wns 2380 

fccres, which yielded 28,208 pounds or llM poundit tiic twre.' 

XhdiulaK OarAn Crop: * 








aMehirnm oOHiHiuin .. 
I|i4iii*it bmtafht 




39. Sngarcane, m», had, in 1878-79, a tillage acta of 1420 acres. 
_ liougb called Swcchanim oRIcinnmni, it lias no iKilnnical existcncw, 
~aa it has drifted ho far from its natural condition that it cannot be 
rpprk'ibiied by seed. Siigiircwnt' Iiiut, ftx'm very early limes, been 
grown in ladin, iind it i« belit^veti that from India the wlmlo cnnv- 
prowing diatricut of America and the "West ludtcs were wipplicd 
with Liittingtt. In 1750 cunes wpro introduced into the Mauritius 
Bill! there brought to very liigb ix-rfection, and from fttauritiuD many 
Bujwrior kiniU huvft l>eeu bntugnt back to India and grown for yearti 
without liuy marked filing off. 

Th* five chief kinds of Kh^nde^h cnuoure: a sntall cane, khadffa; 
a bhick cane, luHn ; a white cauo, pundtja Qvvt'nulhra ; a striped can^, 
hangiiya; and MuuHtius, a yellow cane. The small khatlyt vane is 
l.h« most widely grown, as though it yields inferior uiohisMin, ita 
banluohis makes it stand Mtoring ouJ carrying from one market 
to auolhcr. Tim bhwk, Avi/<i, eaiie, the bent (or eating, is usually 
grown for tlu»l purpo^w only. The whito, pvitilt/n or fMindhra, and 
(■trijK-d, Mttgili/ti, canes are both ginjd croppers, but require to be W(41 
watered and freely luanurod. They are twunlly cut tor the market, 
but also yivid vety fair molasses. One rariety of ihu whit« cone, a 


' Cotlcolor'B BTO, 10th M»f 183C. 




Chipter tT. 


little atoat«r than theSnvPr, bard otuiwixidy, contains omwrmi 
titth* jnicfl. Wliat there » inuNi be rei^ BWcet ut tbpyicid nf mi 
u TerjT great. The MBoritiiui canu, introdaced oa tbo Uorei 
[arm at Bbsdgaon, is uon ntbvr widoly grown. As Ui bniig 
porfcotion it iriuitA rich maunring and frai«rinfr> it ia asoaU; ' 
onJj' in the fields of (be Wfll-to-do, The moIaAMM ia eaawj 
fine, bat w it carrioK badly, il« ptiot rules little above Ih 
khadi/a cano molassea. 

Rich black loom ib the host Boil ftr angaroatie ; bnt 
manured light aoils are kIhu vrry productiTC. Is ^ro-r-'. 
cano, care is taken not (o plant it oo the same grtmnd ' 
^nce in throe years, and that the iDt«rveniug son-it r 

dry crops, tir-iurti. The pnjund U first plf>ugb«l lti- ..iii 

to break the i-lodfl ; mamire, from thirty to J(M) cart-luode the 
ia spread, and the field pUwij^hed odco or twice «j as thoroa 
to work in tbe manure. The nurbioo ia ihflu titnaoihed, m 
large clods are powder«d with a wooden mallet. Then, after 
plou|^hing into panUltO ridguR ouu and half fuvt apart, and 
water into the channela between the ridges, the Held in niad 
planting. The seed cnni'sarv cut into short leni^thii, kiiruttji, 
planter, filling u itiniill biuikct and placing it under his left nmi, 
end to imd and alH>ut six inches apart, ilie pieces of caue ali> 
chanueU, treading on i>ach to settle it well into the mud. fi 
three or four plniiter« havi) nu itltvndaut who keepa filling 
liuMkiatH with cuttings. On the third day after nlaniin^, oomoa 
first watering, ambuni, and on the seventh day the second, him 
After theao follow regular eiglit-day wittrriugx. A forttiij.'ht iJUr 
planting, young shoots bepn to sprout, and at the end of the fiol 
mouth, they aro fnr i>iioiigb un to allow the hoe, ktiij>a, bo 
between the Undt. 1'hin in done three time» at iut«rvnb of a 
After this it iH weeded by band. 

Daring the sixth month, or jiutt boforo the vtlara nali*. 
the latter half of September, the ground ia, to h«lp tlie aftor-^ 
hiilJidkn'r, that comcif ihlckty during the early rains, carefiiUy Joi 
to a cousidurable depth by a tnnull raattodc, kudAl. While 
falling water ia withhold. But oa soon ns rain ooaaes, u 
watermp, wrarn», is givi'n merely to wash in the rain wat«r 
is doemod cold and hurtful to aiirfaco roote. 

The cane suffers from several enemios. Tho wbit« ant, udhdi, 
Ve kept' in chock by placing bags of pouuded cowdung mixed 
salt and bine vitriol, morcAitf, iu the main water cliannels. Flo 
over these bags, the water becomes aalt enough lokill the ants wi 
hurting the cauo. Atu, a small gmb which d<.-sln>yH th<^ 
boring numcrouH hnlus iu it, is the larva of a large fiy which 
its eggs in the axils of (he leaves. No remedy for tfaia 
known. Bamni, a grub about fotir inches long, cau the 
roota, and if not chocked, works great havoc. It is got rid 
soaking dried til {So. 20) st4-m» in thu well until the wat«r 
becomfie light bn>wn. Two or three doaes of thia water are naually 
eoongh. Nothing but fencing and watching can cl>eck the robbe 
of pigs and jackals. 



"» — =■ 



T1h> cane is readj for cuttinir about tbe end of the flJerenth 
I : li, if noL it iit Ivft iiutil (bo tWu-viitU munlh, as tlie i-n]tivat«r« 
ve that if cut in tbu twelflb tooutb, the juice id uiucb loeft 
\N1iL'n tho canvt) befipn to thixitv up flowering spikos, they 
!t>tiHti1(!nM) nudy fur cruiibitig. A.-i tUo nM)l purl ■<• i^hiirgtfd with 
rliciiliii'ly rich jiii«), the canes are cut over aever&l iiichea below 
grDunil. 'i'licy iir<i then strip(ioi] of lUI dry and looso Iohtos aud 
ed Xo the mill. Uero the tupa, btindyds, ar& cut off, and oaed 
feud Ifau mill nUtlo. T^ crop Ja not at preaeiit ho prxititable aa 
mtglit he made by improvfld niitchinery. A ^^'itl dcJil of tho 
■ sweet matter is wasted by the rude mode of extractiag; the juice. 
" ili.Ts, not aotjuitinted vrith any method*of rofiniii)? bu^tu*, tho, 

!iU)r'a only produce ih raw iiiolaasea, ^nl. A Inr^ iiuaulity 
-Bl caoes are also eaten by the peojJe la their natural stale. 

Tho crop is disposed of in throe ways, by sale in the village markets 
be eaten raw; by mHking oattingA, fnrne, for ptaiiiiu^; and by 
m milk for molasses, When sold to be eaten raw a good, 
■^ u]>r<>Eil of from£IOto£I2 tO«. (Rn. 10(1 ■ lt.-t.l2.'>) anitcro; 
3U Bold Bs cuttings for planting, it fetebea from £20 to EHO 
Cb. 200 - Rjs. 300) nn aero ; and when made into molajwM, the imtpo 
'yiifld ia £/> (Ita. 50). Only the beat and the largecit caneo are fit 
fur cuttings. Smaller canes, if jaicy and sweet, are set aside to he 
«)kl<'!i raw; and lliose attJU-ked fey jackulx, Jiifp*, and while anl« are 
teken to tlie mill. The mill, ghiini, made of InihKul, Aeacia arabic% 
aiid kept under wafer in some well or rosoTToir, is goncmlly tho 

{Property of the culiicator. It oo«ik aUmt £2 10«. [Hx. 26) and 
adts for two or three seasons. The boiling pan, kadhat, is hirod 
from a (rujar or a MArviidi for 2ii. (o in. (Htv 1 • tt.t. 2] a day. 
The mill-workers are about twelve in nnm)>er, seren of tht'lff 
gha-llfg, imixtly of the .Mhitr isnU;, for n^moviu^ th^ caue«i from the 
lit-M and Btripoiug them of their leaves-, one tm-ttW^d to cut tJio 
cane-s into small Iwo-foet pieccJi ; two millvr*, ghindars, one to feed 
the mUl and one to take the canes from the other side; one 
lireiiian, ifaffkuli ; and one boiler, tjaha. The boiler gets from 3a. to 
4s. (IIh. 1 i - li-'i. 2) a day, In-^idi-s an (•ighly-two pound lump, Mi, of 
molasses when the work is finished. 1'he others got fr\>m 2^11. to 
^•1. (1^-2 nnntif') a day, and .-iimdl (pi ant it ion of iiiolaxHeM, uaue, and 
juice. Besides iLetie, the village rarpeuler, potter, leather worker, 
mutlicniiiin, and MhAr havo their rrsiK-ctivo ullowances. When 
cane in being croalied beggars inlent the pla<;e night and day, and 
the Ktinbi tries to please them expectinff in thiK way to reap El 
good harvest. In the i-vening tlte mill i.t the resort of all the p<Uih 
and elders, and the owner distiibutes juice, i»ne, and bits of tho 
new niola«(MuH, iful. 

'to. Chillies, mircJit, Capsicum frntwscons, with a tillage Area, m 
1878-70, of 13,5ti9 acres, tone jiurt of the people's daily toiKl. lb 
is tho chief I'leim'nt in their curries and enters nM>n> or Ie)*a 
larjjely into all thuir other dishes. Honi;o every caltivator 
trioii to kwp a suitAble corner uear a well, or other watep- 
vnpply, iu which to gn)W st least enough for his household wants, 
ttown tn the third week of May, the aooda ani eyculy scattered 
■. a 4ll~--i3 


Chapter 17. 





Cki>pt«t nr. 





Abm( AfiriOM. 


orrr n riclily nuinurMl "hed. Water i» ffirtm 
divtDg .the (!m wix'k, aud ii(t«>riwsrd« onoo a wectk. 
June, after the first sliuwor, wlion about nix incbcM hiph, tlw^ 
plnnLi lint r«i><i? for ninvitig. Tlii'v nre jiut out iti fxttrs. " 
feeit amrt. l)iiriu«; ibe early sta- -r f^rowt)! ibi-y " 

often hoed wilb tho h.iSpa, and "L-.l . iv fTiiit in at-tfi: 
lUtrtpjlhpr writbhold. Aftflr tbi- Hiiivprx am ahnd u small t 
of manure Uapplied^and thonHual wat«rm)iresuniiMl. iVi 
two crops > ywir, Th« fin<t or grevn, crop in ;^cbE>rt>ij 
middk'of Aiiguat andeoldst tbcmt^^ofnboiil thrui> 
(SO or 40 lbs. tho mpe«). The late or dry crop c<imc« 
^l»ter. Wlifn fully ci)lfMrcd, tlm jwds are ptckiil iiud s 
ann nntil tborxMiRhij- dry, wbeu thoy are ixtllnl red, 
mro worih »bout i<t, u pound (12 ponnda the mpco). 

41. Brinjal, i«inoi, Solannm uolongcna, is gmwh .^ „., 
w»r M obiTlivfl. Bnt ok it it subject to the attaclcin of M 
aader-groatid eutMniet, it U u^mi!, iit tbo time of traiupkq 
to smear the roots with a mixture of a Imsket nf bufTnlo dmiJ 
« tola of KHMtfu-tiilu in two \niU of water. If grabs niipmr 
tbe plant ia (frowinjr, they are UHiuilly ifot rid of by placiae 
maiD vrater chaaDol II 1ai-gvba({withas3'afa>tida, gnrlio, ciuup&a 
nulpbur. Sundwjr in tbouglit thu Im-liiost day for transpL 
btinjals, and alao for aprinklinff the pituiiii with cow's nrine to 
•gainst l«if inwola. When the fmit is email and pour, the 
onre in to lay a dead dog ia tbc waIit chiinnvl. 1'he ordiuarj 
is less than a liitir-[K.-nny • pound (i lbs. for oao iinna). 

42. Sweet PoIaloeB, rat^lu, Ipomu.'n batntas, evid<mtlj' a t 
of thd ooiniuoD potato, are planted in Jiiuu and B<tioi'tini 
Warch. The ground wintis mncb manure, cowdnng aahcai 
thought the brat. As in the case of tho bclvl iToepor, the cliij 
Ktems are nit into leii^lha of about fifteen iuchen sind planted) 
soon a^ the cuitiutjs have utriu-k miit, they are hoed witb th<; J 
The cropwiinta freipnmt but not over-heavy waierin^. Thegrl 
regularity and cw-u are n-<(iiired to save it from the nttan* ' 
minute grnb, Wbeu the tubern aro full ^>wn, to help 
ripen, tbo watering i* stopped. It is a splendid vegetable, 
eat«o v«pecially on hat day». 

Field and garden tillage are not dearly separated. 
and methods are the same, and gardening i« tittle 
Ipecial branch of the tillage of watered land. 






astannm whiwaa 

BMta. 1 


V»n. ... _ 


Otrtt^ 1 


(inMn ^. .m 

tMiumm* ... 

f«>Ab 1 





Ctrrct ... 

DmiMi cvbU 




Rapluiiui lallviii 




CaKuih« lf«M 



Giufvr .» 


43. PotatooH, batdia, Bolanom tuborotttim, kto tittle grows. 
'tbe soil is too i^icky, anil (iv«n whan the difficulty of soil }ib£ heoD 
»»orw>mo, (Ito ditiuitd doea uot adinil oi wt.V gn^Jit Niii;<r^-NK. 

-44. YatnE, goradu, Vn)»ci)tt!n alaia, are iuBiiage<l in much the name 
ray k^* nim^t jxitatOL-s. Inhere are tvro or thri<u tniltivatvd kinds, and 
evei-iil wholesomo wild y»m» an- {{ftUiorvd both for food and tncdicioe. 

4''i. Oiiiun.'', hdn^'i, Allium ocpa, arv a most important crop. 

reat caro ia bostowed on thorn, tHu leyHhtiu differing Uttle from tbo 
WBt praciico of Kui-ojiuaii gitnluuti. Ke&red Ui aced-beds, tito young 
JiknU are put out in lines on pn>parcd j^und. I'lto ouion crop 

kes three months to ripoo and should be watered once a Eortuight. 

40- Onrlfc, tagun, Alliam nativwrn, is treated in much th« 
e way aa ouiou. A poivnnia) plant, it Ik propagated by diriding 
he ro«)ts which imv inadu up of a number of small bulbs. The crop 
«ota couataut and i;aref ul watering, and is ready tit nbout 4( montha. 

47. Carrots, yiijar, Daticus carot*, are widely grown and witJi 
rt<at Mucu;itit. Tiin ohiiif KhAndealr carrot is long and reddinh, in 

kvour not much inferior to tho boat Etiro)H.<9m kinde. The &e«d is 
klways f^>wn on iht- third or fourth day befor*- tho nni.Jr<(,*yo, tlir hist 
■^ of iba Hindu munih, as it is boltcvgd that the woody heart ol 
he carrot will thus bv rodnccd to the sntallosl posMible stiio. 

48. Radiabes, mufa, Kapbanun HalivuK, are of two Iciuda or 
olonrs, wbit« and red. They are much grown, and are eaien boib 

>w and b'lilud. The loart's are osod as grwns. 

49. l\imifnc, Imlad, Curcuma longa, ia of two kind:). Onv, 
Lighlv aromatiCf is nsed aa a medicine AaA a seasoaiog for curries 

d ddK 'lie other is n dye stuff. (Sm 3fi). ^ 

60. Ginger, <ile, Ziugiber ofDoinale, wants free, manuring with 
qaBl p«rlsofhon*e, cow, and i*heop dung, The wed in sowu any lirae 
rora April to Kiiptoinbi^r, and tIll^ r(M>t« are lit for digging afl«r about 
lightoen montha. The aft«r-manaf;ementof thcrools dcfwudson their 
uality and tho claw* of artielw for which they aro host suitud. In 

raring ordinary ginger, the roots, on being dug up, are partly boilvd 

a widd.mniitbud vussel. Then, after dryinp for a fow days in the 

ihade, they are ^l■:-e^»d in wi-ak liuie.watur, Huu-diii^d, nt<»>pod in 

Btrongor limc-wntiT, and buried for fernieutation. When tho 
^ro)6ul<iii£LSovi;r,lheging^-r,nowcalk-d8HNf/i,isrL'4idy(orthu mnrkot'. 

Chapter < 7. 



iHUd or Tfg film. 
X*au«a at i/m mnM 

CnosK-n lUloa 
Wawr Utlon , 
Whit* Ooutd _ 

aMte _ „. 

SIST;: ::: 


Cummaii OlBDnbiT 

Ob*imk4 _ 




l ^ tf tn towatuloi 

Oucunto oit*! 
Oarsrlau tltnUlM ... 

LacfOArU mliatlt .. 
ConnbiU tndoptppi 
Do. Um» ... 
frtclKMallna •■ttnliu 
Utoml* iiUvD I 
IM, uitllHlmui I 

Muinanllm otUfwIU; 



JiiUa. M«lZ at 

r,t^ " 

rant. J 





1 Agricnltnre. 


V^tr Mtlmt. 



172 ' D1SXBICT8. 

51. S«e4\. 

62. Tonatoes, mI tinv^ L jc oper ai cnm oecnientam, aro foandi 
almost ererf aatire gmnlcs. ~ 

59. Comifion or UsbIc Melons, tAarbuj, Cacnmis melo, 
gnnni id nutinil*, in ti»o bwlw of streainK; nnil half dry Htits. 
Dsbermeu and Bhoia ahow wooderful itkilliu tlie growth of tbbipl 
UafortnnateljrnDt'Oonnony <)iiiiutit}' (if mnnaro u nscil, and sa 
muuad* uv wa«lied away ereiy raioa, ibe aniided miuinre ia 

M. Water Melons, tarbuj or kaiin-jad, Cncurbita citt 
Boaipttmc* gmwD during the raintt, eitWr m gnnlva frround | 
millet fields, are ^therftd green, and cooked as a vegetable. It) I 
'hot montiu, tho witrir nn-tun t» much morp widdy growm than i 
common melon, and forma a delicious cooling food for h)1 rls 
They aru sold vvrir chvup, thrvo funhtnes (J nnuMi) buiug 
orduiary price for a fruit of four to aix ponnaa weight. 

5d to &8. Qoords, of which besides thoce named there are sere 
ancertuiu itpeciei^ are inustly grnwu in gardeu.i in the rains 
eaten cooked. An uneataole wild botlle gourd (No. 5G), cnlla 
iadva hhoj'la, is umcih sunglit uftiT fur miiliiitg flouts. 'IVo 
them, Grmly netted together with string, make a very Hobs 
buoy for a single swinuner, and a raft wull provided with them i 
carry a heavy load across the roughest river. 

69. The Snake Goord, padcat, Trieosnnthes angnina, i» nii 
planted by the Hide of a cottage or foooc over wbi^ it is allowu 
cliiub. It is inncb esteemed as a vegetable. 

UO. The Common Liu-ge Cucumber, kaU^i, Cuounua salitiM 
trouled in the wame way aa the molon, and like the melon 
Ae hot weather. 

61. Tho Sniitll Field Cucumber, kdkili, Cncamis ntiiisaii 
perhap« tbo mosE valuable of t}w gmird Irihc, ik alike eaay of cnl^ 
in the field or garden duriug ibe raiue, aiid under irrigation i' 
tlie dry season. It is vatun both nt.w and cooked, and is ouns 
partictilarly wholcttome. 

62. Tho Comerod Cacnmber, fitni*, Loffia acutanguln, is of S 
kindi?, kiHiwuaji dodkeand i/ilke. Th&'ihdkiiit' loiigdefp-tlut^-dnnj 
eliLV-d off and cooked, aro an excellent subfetilutw for Fnjtich be 

63. Tho Hairy Cuirumlter, kdrl«, Iklomordicn chiimntia, is si^Idum 
grown. It is a hard-skinned fruit, and baa to be thoroughly at 
•in salt water befuru tt i» iinud. 


M tailna* 



s -■ - 






Ouatall* Ktullii)! ... Sanir c« >*«il 

Po> Tliwa ... JtatUon^. 

IMItfiM ttUiU ._. niS^ 

nuaxtaa fatnrU 







W4 to 66, All UiMO twftns are need green, sliced into eCHpa, and 
ted. 60 i» probably the wild uriguial of 65 wliioh luut byvii 
pirated to ^rcat [tvrfix'tion. 

69. FroHch Ueaita are pretty geoemlly grown near toinu, bub 
'^elclom in ordinary coiuitrj- gardeua. 

70. Tho Dhufnii, (Iibittcu» ceculoiitiu, is grown cvcrywbcpo, 
9otb in fields and ^rdL>us. Fall of (ilinij juioo wbiclicanbe got 
rid of by boiling with litnc jtiioc, it is highly jiriisod by all cliwaus for 
it» niioliiig Htid rttivugtIiiJtiiug prupertMs. 

Aluny wild planU, eencciully mtimbers of the pea tribe, are catcu 
\y Ihtt poor ill ycfirit of swircity. Scvonil olbcnt an) tuore or leas 
duly grown, but ibey are mere ranetiea ot tJiose already described.* 

71. S«22. 

£U«HlMlt Onoa. 













Unm Hamp 

Onni . 



Anvulh ... 


rablanuaDmMnui A-tMt. 

lUfJhVkOM HllTIrt -. 1 tt^ht. 

OutaiaiuUiKlMlcw. ITar^l 
Tr%M<ll» faeaam-: JVrfAJ. 

l-oriindriim wUtmo.! XitlUtMr, 
CtHiHituluim HiUa.-.l ClUlMt 
•ImUHDlllua piJjg*' UnWi, 

IIHFllB lite, ko. - ira»4L 

AbtljAID «r«* S^*im. 

TYibuba •iinaiFii - »c^n>. 

72 to 76 havo IxKsii already described as ordiunry (nv>p8. (See 
85, 30. 17, II, -18, and 'M]. 'fhcf an; aUo (jrown in garden* for thi 
Mkeof ibeir young tviidnrtopi^ which are used aa grAsuK. Cultivators 
ostuilly allow gnua tops to b<! gallmred in their fii'ldSj aa careful 
uiucUing brings a gn>wth of itide ahoota and an iiicrtiMMcd yitrld, 

77, Biltiir gn-eiis, methi, Trigonclla ftrniimgravuni, in tho 
■ •luottt couiUKjnly growu of all luitire ve^tabli^H. ft is c^own in the 

QB and in thw imM season under irrigation. In rich M>i] it is fit 
cutting abtiiit tho third wi.'>,'W afier wtwing, and sells for a little 
idor a hslf-pi-nny a pound (I <iiiria for four oue-]M>uud iMtndk-n). 
liv ripu Muda are largely uHod in couipouuding native medicines, 
ftud sparingly aa an articlu of food. 

78. (iretiu ci>riandcr, knOiirnlnr, Conandram Bativum, is an 
(izccllt-nt vcKetnblo and ia g<>uerally used for snwoning currica auci 
chntnoyM. The ripened aecds, dhanc, pouiidt-d fine, are used in moat 
kinda of native diet, 

70, 80, and 81, are all commoD Tegulabloa, the green leaf in each 
Ctwo being llie edible part*. 

82. Bill, gh'jtu, Anethum aowa, is grown all the ywir round 
except in tho three hot rai.inth". As the whole plant when young is 
fit for use, the t|Qatitity of food obtained, from even a ttiiinll plot, is 
very great. The ripe seed, $hop, is a popular remedy for flatulence, 
and ia uacd ua a condiincut. 

Chapter (V. 




[BcmlMj' CuokI 



'IV. 83, Ookhm, TribuluH terrmtm, dhuug-b wild, in mi umrr 

ittiir«. gn^vrod ns u food utaS u to dwerve a ptuco amnog lucal wu 
nili^. XUWmI Spirit tmd CWttiMM*. 






OIWW-. .-. 




OtpilBan iMUavB* .. 




ItaoAuB* oOtoiBumL 




Slnt«M ttatuu** 




t^it^mtnm ibUiiuu _. 




VBfnUH l-U«l 



Mil ^rt 

ipcUa* wn 



Irnmria wtJiMrom. 


— *> -1- ..T 


'■-. — trl. 


CinyLMt -• . 

fcfVKB bmlcll 



ItaMl - ~ ... 

fUwI—t^ 1 IlllMI 



Ciiliili«B <]*iliHia 


AbIw BMd .- 




ripa tout ... 


grom ii'j 

84 to 90. 5« 50, ■«*, 30, 26, 78, 49. luid 82. 
01. CitrdaiooiiiB, dchi, Eluttaria cardsnuimnra, are 
BuRicient qouttitiea for locul wiuiw. There is no export, 

92. Om, Oanim ptycbotiA.ablind ncuK' with d<>«lif odorons ImC^ 
is prelt; geapraliy grown iu gurdooa, but Qovrlioru very ext0i»rn^' 
TbV Btiedii sro n»L'<I im u tuediviiiu. 

93. Cnrry Loaf, kadi nimb, Borgcni kunigii, is usod by Hiate 
to aetuou citrrioe. 

94. 65, and 9lJ. Fennel, fraJi «A(»p, Fccnicnlnm vnlgarr, 

jire, Cuminuin c^niinnm, iind anJEe, shoi>, Pftuwdunuiii fj-raveolei-. 
are seldom iwed as pot-l»orb«, and oven their aeetjs cooH^ 
as condinmnta, compete with the much more piinfj^mi nad ammatit 
Cttraway bo cbeajfty imported from Kurope and the Poniisa p6L 
Among native dnitrst they keep a pniiTiittcnt place as tttomadnt 
medicinoti, specially in the ailments of woiuen and t;bitdruiL 

97. Black Poi)per, kdU tniri. Piper nigrum, is grown in most 
gardenii but nowUoro exttmsiroly, 

95. Bi^cil Nuts, aHp\iri, Areai «i(«chu, are not a product of ikl 
diittrict, althougb n few tre«« are grown in mo»t. lar^je gardea«. 

99. Betiil lyMif, ^><!b. Piper betel, ia ia gencrnl uw, \>emg 
cliewe<] with a little lime and a slice of the bot«l nut. It is nmii Iji 
.atimulate the digestion. But rf swallowed iu lai^ <iunntiuratl 
c%usos giddinoSM and »>l.her Hyuiplomtt of Jntoxicatiua. The cultt- 
vatiou of tUi^ betel vine, a common Khiudtath industry, is curried ini 
with astonishing oocnratry and Buce>e«ft. 

The hotel garden, pdtt mala, ia a work of art. The bu»t site la 
the well-drainvd allnviul bank of a river or stream. The vine ia 
rather fond of an iron soil, but lime, Nalt, or soda are fatal to 
it. The well niiiKi biat lliroughout tlio year, be perfwctly i-went, aoil 
not miir« than forty feet deep, otherwise Uio cost of rai.tin^ rha 
water eat« away th« gTX'iitci- iwrt of the pri>fit«. The U'lcl leaf, it is 
said, cannot be grown from ciianntil waior, which ts very cold. Af t«r 
the Bit« baa been chotten, the next point ia to fence it from cattle, 



ioTCS, aoJ HtronfT vriiuU. First, is an oat«r Une, himpan, of 

tial wicker work, npltt bKnilKtov, ztzvplins tn-i^ jtr oiker 

■ie material. Id §i do of ilua ience is a tludi milk-buitlt bvdf^.' 

I'oiiii-M A Mi vt thv iargv viMtur pUnl, und Inst of all, a row 

plantain trees. Tbe garden in laid out iu an unv^Tying nattcm. 

wliiilu, croiwcd by vntcT chanticU ami roads, forms beds of 

differeui nhapea and stees. Kacb bed, iciton-u by a piirticubtr nams 

«it(;b as till) cherittintf, the hertang, and tho foj'a, is stocked witb a 

erlaiu iiumbtir nf vim^, mi tlutt tbr (mt^1lrn nnd otbor |MrticuIara 

if a garden tan be calculated with great nicely. 

AAor the gronad has boea laid out and properly lerelled, tre« 
dft are si:iwti for tbo vitiiui to tmin on. Utiund thv edgv of each* 
is a line oFo/«ft'r/, ^^esbaniaiBt^yptiaca, and in tbe centre, £rom two 
t bn-i? (vft aiuirr, tin; wt^M of hadya, Agoti gisntbllora, ondpnnyara, 
rythrinn indica, and from four to six feet n]>cu-t, lung^le <cv<l» of 
fchci tiimh, A/.adiraobia indies, an? planted. Tn addition to these, the 
^upai, C'arica piipaya, singly, and pbiiitiun tri'iM iu pittm arc dotted 
^bont accordinff to tlie amount of shade required. These seed-t are 
BDWn in rho first wv«\t tn June, fnri'/ nr)jt.«hafm,nnd afu<r thnt, band- 
^weeding and watering every eight days ia all that is vrtuiled up to 
thf cad of Oeoombcr, puthyn nal:t!uilTa, when tlm mirs« trees are 
eighteen inekeci to two fe«t hif^h or large eiit'Ugh for planting ths 

From thv (op« of tho bi'ait ripened shoots, in tbo old plantation, 
inch oitlingH turo takflu. Tbey are first made into Kmall 

ndles, wrapped in plantain leaves, soaked in the water tbey 
have bcon )u:(^U!i(oniisI tu, i-arrifd lo tlii; nvw [ilnntaliun, Koaked hi 
t1' 'i'^w watf r, and all but twoiips bnried in tbeground. For soma 
iiFi.. -.vater tM ffiviin diiily ; lati^r on nnct! iu two dayif ;iuid nfu-rwarda, 
except during tbe bot months when it is given erei:^ other day,once 
in six days. 

From i-ncfa nnburied tip a shoot springs. When they are n few 
incbes long the sbool« an* Kid tip tho F^lcms of tho nnrse 
treo-->, nnd lightly liinl with ^tv\[» of a dried Kcdge, path, so ela^tje 
that, witliout untying it, the pressure of the growing vine keeps 
it looMV Whi-n ibc rinc hiw grnwn to ihe jtropitr hirigUt, it is turned 
back and trained down until it reache.i the groimd, where it ia 
layered in the earth and again turned up. This is r^peatod natil the 
trt^c al«m in fult^v eli>thi.-d with vine.^, when tho wbolo ht firmly tied 
with the dried reeds of the tamli grass. After this the management 
of tin? plantation cloaoly resembk-n the cullivatJun of the gi»iw vino 
in Southern Kun>pe. 

Leaf picking may bo begun oight«on months after planting, but 
in the best gardent it ii« put oR till the end of the second year. The 
liwresi may l>e gathered green and ripened artiJicially, or they may 
be left to ripen on the vino, though this redtic«« thoir viUuu. Tbe 
Ivaf picker ufCn both Iiands, the thumbs sheathed iu sharp-edged 
till mil Ie- like plates which nip the leaves clean oS without wrenching 



Jtor, Eopliorbla ncnr*]!*. 






tha plant. Tfao vine-grower is either faimftolf a 1«Af-<1pal4>r nr lur m'H* 
hi* crop in bulk to a lf)af-daul«r. Tbi-lr inble u( nioiiMurL-it u : -MM 
lt^Mve!l Illlike M jE:a4^/i ; forty-fuur kaflte s itirjiin ,- an<l four ' ' 

7U,4UO leavea an oj/u. Id rrUtil tJiu luiivt-tt aro milil from I • ■. 

(1 -2 antuM) the faaDdnid. 









FlMAA _ ... 


MucttaslBilM ... 


Anw iMUiaa ... 
D>i. prtiniua 


hud ^ 

VHk tlDlhtn 


PnrnSi* nr MiaiMrak. 

UirwavaBUiiB — 





Una _ 

Do. Ilavtu 



MallKTiT _ _ 





nniAai JBlnte 



d.- ^^ .. 




TwimmwHi* iMt^ ,, 

>t'ial>,at OUHi. 


VioA AMAt ... .. 
ltMU>« Kflt 



Dnnaupw iBMW- 

BuriB iMlMia 






1 ,s„|a BuKvts 


100. The Plikntain, Icet, Mnsa paradtsiaca, is n'idcly ftmwt 
whenfvcr wuter ia plentiful and VHsilr rnijwd. ThprvHro two tolurahl; 
dintinot ItindB, the nijr IkI nnd the onminon kri. 'Vb^. tAi 
lul ia like tW Cliioew banana, lliefmit, though thiuncr ek' 
and ^nmcwliat better flavoured than the oomtnou plaDlain, i 
snitable for cooking, niid boiu^ a bgltt cropper and wiintiD^ ini 
wat^r, i» but siaringly cultivated. The common tbi-&UMV)m«: 
plailtaiD, iJie tofsri of Giijanit, the mondr of Mii(lni.-<, and the j/i 
bale of Mysor, is eaitily growa and yields freely. A* the £niit mati 
itii vpry thick rind become* ao toiigb luid Iwthcry, that the ripe; 
has (o be finixhi^l by artiHdal lueana. Newly cut hunches, pi 
into a eonical heap, are ooTorcd with a thick laver of clay. At 
bottom a snuill iipt-ning ix li^ft, tlimujfh which, liy mt>anH of a tul 
th« jciiioke ui buming cowdung is blown until the iuaide i.t full 
Binoke, whvn thd ojn'iiing in cTowed, This i» repcnl^d for oeven) 
days until the plantaina become y el lowiah whit«. Tbey aw* then fulij 
ripened, and when waahed uro fit for sale. Good plantains mtunil/ 
sell ata little less than a farthing apiece (ei^ht for 1 (irim), Tb* 
«iiinll KwnoC banana, or golden plantain, is now grown Vt wue 
ext«nt in KMudesh, especially near the Governinaut form where it 
wiw introdurwd. 

101. The Mango tree, amha, Uangifera indica, is common ia 

fardi-ns and in Belds where it is iionally planted in ciimip« or gmvi!& j 
lieTe are many Taiieties, depending mainly on the condil.ii.m of iIm 
noil in which the ireo is grown. Though wholesome when ripe aad 
taken in moderation, the mango i», in the hoi neaaon, the tauiae of 
much sickness, the poorer classes ufbon eating it onripe and to CXCOM 

102. 10.3, lOl, and Hl.j are all common fruits and are fouud s"iai- 
times iu separate plantations and someUmca mixed. 



[106. Tho r»j»i, popai, CaricH pHpftj*, w Bometimes «ton raw 
t(l rip«', bui iiioK- oft.>n half ripe ami rooked, ll grows raf^dly 
am seed, and as a rule beure in fourteeo months. 

107. Tho Grape Vine, dralah, Vitui vinifpm, in not much grown, 

only in thv giirdi'us of the rich. Thu white 8weotw»tor i» the 

^vourite kind. U suffers a (tuml deal frum mildew, CApeciallj' on 

>ur land, but where the subsoil and other conditions are suitable, 

bi! fruit is sonii-timcB excellent. 

llOS. The ()T«nK«, iiart'n^, Citnui aurantium, is Tery suooeitafnlly 
9wn in some jyrardeDs. There are sereral kinds, oacb with ita local 
IB. The Sne«t flavoured is the »intra. • , 

109 und 110. Tho Pomelo, papna*. Citnut decnmans, is not much 
own, being too unwrtain in iU bwiriiig. This is also tho case with 
tha sweet lime, atikhar Ujnbtt, a varietT of Citms liinetta. The soar 
liiuK a in t^vury garden, and heri> and thuro in large orchards. 

Ill, 11^, and 11-% oflon gn.>wn iu gardens, aru alM fonnd 

_'rown round field.* aud in waste land. The silk factory at the 

ii^.^rnmvnt farm hae given an impetos to thv growth of tlie mulberry. 

114 and ILtiaro both forost tritKt. Tlie pod of the Tamarind, 
i-hU-.rh, Tamarindus indica, and ihc- frait (if tl»e wood-i^plo, kavath, 
l'~. .-MuU fN-nbantum, are much esteemed by nutivv cooks for Uieir 
rich sharp navonr. 

1 16 and 117. llto Murkiii^ Nut, hihva, 8on>ecarpas ana«ardiam, 
and noha, Basaia hitifoiiii, lliough imrdiy gai^an plants, are 
geuerally fotmd near villagee where the bifwa uuta are eagerly 
ffatliereu aud i;at«n by children. "Pfae moha suoceeds boHt on «tii»y 
f[r<fiind. It is asuiilly owned by BbiU aud othur wild tribes, who 
t»U aud distill the tloirera aud boil oil Eroin the rip« seeds. 

11^ Thf Bfl, /Egle mamictos, commonly found near Hindu 
'^ )il»nfvd by tho pooplf, not so much for its fruit, for only 

' - : , aa fyr tts leaves which aro a favourite ufferiug to Shir. * 

KiAadrsk FUmtn, 


SMUH. 1 



a- „ ' 





Niilflm otana ... 






IIiII1>Tm . 

'.^rUn Uwrftli ... 



Con) PUul .. 





Jk^Klttfim ^iiitiaii 



mCblmCnrsrr .. 

Qiitmitllt TdlArti.. 
QulHianKi InOkK ,. 
Arayi*lih ipwlviA ... 
nAuttiu HUina ., 


BufMsOopv ... 


MaSmm , 
PMidiHwnoU -1 



•■" r "..(Bm 



lljxtiilh jUtn 


rWOm , 



I . u 1 u^iB niiMMiiii 


119. Damask and China are the muHl oommoa. 
_ psr|ictaa] rtme, ahrvU, i« alwi grwwu in goud gurdi-nn, 
120 to 123 air flowering sbruba, all commonly caltivated. 

a «ii-n 


tbftjr OHtttt 

Espter IT. 






124 snd 125. Be^ideti the counnon ehambfH, Jfisinit)' 
ftoilini, nnd moyra, Jasaunum Rambac, eereral other jii 
^metimax foimti. TbcHc two are the fjanicncr's stock plnuiK, uij ' 
the most profiiabte of nil iiui^, [nu<;)i ndUj^hi after to snpul^ 
jcsamin flowers woin at festivals, iiiarmge«, and other rejoicm^ 

126, 127, and 128 are beautiful climbers, nsually ptnntodl 
plcaanre gardens. Thpy are little culliratod by mere iiuu 

129, The Sunflower, turya phnl, IleHanthns anninia, i« i 
ttmps pTown for its seed oil, Imt tli<> quautiiy of oil is too faat 
jnnke it n piiyiiig crop Dliougli of excellent qnality. 

130, 131, 132, and 133 are common in erery garden, Tho I 
are sold for the ordinary pnrposim of docomtion, tho leaves 
Zinnia being preferred in the ghrAddha ceremony fur 
oSeringa to the spirits of deceased ancestors. 

134. The Red and the White Lotas, hamai, Nyinph<»«, 
abundant in every pond. 

135. l^e Amaranth, jiijirigundi, Uomphrena globoKR, i 
commonest cottage garden aunnsl, il« plobniar Howor heads 
in great demand as omameDt)> (or women':* hnir. 

Tho KMndcsh OoTemment Farm waa started early in 1861> l^ 
Collector Mr. L. K. Asbburner, CS.I., who obtained a Oovcmi 
grant of £2000 (Rs. 20,000). Mr. Ashbumer meant to have cl 
a sito somewhere near DhiiHa tho bead-qiiurter statioti, 
Dhulia loud was dear and difficult to buy, and the farm w 
fixed about two miles north of BhadguoD where was a consit 
area of waste land. The s^ii^i^itiiMt colU-clor in charge of III 
began bv buying a few fields brin^ring up the whole nrca to" 
acrett Some of the fields were sown with cotton and other orttii 
crops, and in April 1869, the farm waa handed overto Mr, Krvtwefl 
who had been appointed siiperiutendeiit. For the iirMt few yc 
the continuance of the farm was very doubtful, and twice, for w^ 
of funds, it wan all but giveu wpi 

Thu 6»t impnriant experiment wan tlin introduction of 
tobacco. Seed was brought from Cuba, Uavannah, and Vii 
and Shiraz seed wiiic supplied by Dr. Bnlfour of Haidnrabud. 
8hiniE seed. Brat sown iu I86S by Mr. ANlibnmer in his ^^u^en \ 
Dhulia, was afterwards sent to the farm, where aeeidentidly mi 
with the Virginian seed, it was in 1869-70 introduced as an 
experiment. The hybrid variety hart sioee spread over a vorv larg* 
area, proving, if not the finest of the foreign kinds, at leaat the bo* 
soited to the climate and soil of Kh^ndesh. 

Amateur experimenlji have alao been made in curing the leaf for 
the Tarioos forms of prepared tobacco. So far as thoy have goat, 
tbeee experiment*! seem to ehow that cheroot -making in not likelyla 
succeed, but that the manufacture of cake tobacco, such as bladi 
cavendish, or even golden leaf, is fairly practicable. Thongh it 
might not for a lime make much way in European mnrket-s, 
tobacco would readily take the place of tho lower anrt.'* of Amerii 
tobacco ao largely used in India especially by the European 




Tboagb rnrioufl minor pxperimcnu were trit-d, for the first twO' or ChapttK* 
lyeam llio farm wanii coUou fnrm, olborcropit being denltifith A^riciUCs 
necessary iloma iu a roi&tton, Uie object of wUicli was die growth tiovotniM 
coltoD. Hin^aiiglt&t cotton was introduced into KbandcHb in fun. 

P864, HD<] cliiefly l>v ibc free dtstrihulion of sot-d, BOon dispUasI the 
rae BhorUsiapl&d IochI Vitrhiidi. Hingangb£t lina iu turn been 
L'ljr iHipvrMKlod by American Gcclimatified in Dtwrw^. Tbiii la 
3W, as a rule, nown on at! lighl lands ne n'oH »« ou th« i«*s wtieky 
ada of black. The choice from yeitr to y<»ar of ihe tiwfst of the 
lace for seed has, since 1808, been carefully c&ri'ied on. Tliti 
I thiw oblainod in every year sold to tho neighbotiring eultivniorH 
I sow in their fields. Latterly the denutnt? has much exceeded the* 

Thi* «c«nnty itf field InWnr has tbronghitut boon u >;Uudin){ 
kindrauce to the farm. Kuiibi^t have seldom to leave their family 
siding* in search of work, and UhiU, &Ihdrs, and other day 
H>urt» urv uiiually so irregnlar in tbcir hsbils as U> be unlit for 
irk involving care or skill. Iu 1869 arnuigemenls were made 
itb the Bombay Commissioner of Police to supply a number of freed 
tTtM. Hevenil batches ciiinu from time to litne and were gradually 
trainel. A few ran away aud otberwi^o misbehaved, but moat 
tnnii'd ont well, becoming tho most useful and trusted work?ncn on 
|be f&rm. In 1875, the whole of them, aWul sixty in nil, accepted. 
le offer of the Chtireh MiaHionary Society aud went to South Arrtca 
fonn an agricultural colony,' The sudden %^-ithdrawal of such » 
number of workers was a groat toss to the farm. 

In 1874, the farm whs placed u&der the management of Mr. ^H^** 
ii and on the new footing of self-support. A farm that 
i>u,y was, it wn» argned, no fil lutidel for native buabandmeu. 
Under ihia system all experiments were given up, and only crops 
rtain tti my were grown. The rosnlts were not sali.ifactury, and 
1S76 the iiutitution wn.i restored to its former position as an 
bxperimental farm. The farm's chief siiccessos have been tb*- 
itmducti'in of Mnurilius augarcnnc from Ilailal; tlie spread o£ 
SbirAs tobaceii over the district ; the regular use of machinerj* and the 
pmody of mauy defects; the successful n^iiring uf silkworms and 
cling of silk ; the growth of mulberry, lUvidivi, logwood, bamboos, 
larinns, aud other useful trees; the diadbvery of several new 
Ibros; and the introduction of w) improved breed of cattJo from 
'Ijraor, Guntnr, and Qujai^t. ■ 

The erOM betwova tlw foreign and tfav nativo broods of cattle has 

luced a race oi excellent milkerii. Cbeaie. making i.t ut ijritNitnt & 

jlfjrct of cxpt-riineot on the farm. A stnd of Arab pony stallions baa 

aen ailded lo ihe farm »i<>ck. Two Arab iloiikeys have also boon 

ited for mule-breeding, and an improTement is being attempted 

the br^ed of sheep by crvssing tho couot<y sbeop with the heavy 

tt<tailwl Airiooo aoitnu. 

• nnwalhwMtiacnMiCMiwtotliAbrvility llr«4 (d tli« 0«U« MthwtliaB lafcsU. 
i«]i kM no oooksd (ooit, snil vbc iipiorut fl aay lOTt at iIIUm. Wbcii tlwy Mt, 
kfj hmX l«uaad hmas haUU imi ec^kf^. uiil hkit uminwl a uir kiiowlodc* ><( tlw 
' Miiit ti lh« ooKinaiia* eivp*. 




C3t«pt«r IV. 




Ip I87i, B clasA VTM opened for stipendiary apprvntiora. 
appreuticin ttre lada botwoou firto-n anil - 

Cii(tiTBti)r« paying a yearljr GoTeruineur - 
wtu have paued the fourth vomatiilar i^uuxlrard v\hiji 
who promiM) to •«*it# for thrv*- yi-urs noil li-aru all '. 
Earm work. They have free quartern aud n monthly nlli 
£1 {Vm. 10) th« first Totu-. <I 4«. (Its. 12) the ■•(.•ooud, lud 
(IU.I5) tho thinl. Bvvoml yuatlt* \mvv fiaialicK] their ttTniit.j 
Btartod foroiiu^ aad stock- hreodiuK- Sn for tlie^ 
cn>dil to their tmininff, An erening class tor tl . 
reading uid nritiii)^ IiaiiHlM) hven opi-nc-d on tbn Eiiriu lor thel 
'the boys atid young uieo. 

The general opinion of Europeans in leilia, who have util 
native agriculture, mk that it u. vnuttoful and i>f Ht<>niluHH. Mr. Stc 
ia HitiHDod that this opiuioo '\m unbound. Consiilt^riufl' his i 
and tlie monns at his dispoRal, il is, sajs Ur. f^torrnont, ilif.. 
suggest any deddod reform which thu cultivriutr L-nn affoi 
carry oat. EspeciBlIy with Ihe sprrad of irriyntiou, maaim! m 
great want. The supply can Ix' only f^adually incn^aaed. 
Bweopinga and nighi-soil must be bettor stoii'il and more 
spread, lirewood must be chvapeDod and take tho placu oil 
dtmg caktfM, and the practice of stall ■fi-udiag and ebe aae of ' 
mnit boooms more gieneral. 

The first nttvmnl u> grow silk was made in 1820 by Mr. G—, 
tho Collector.' Tne wornta were nut tho local Imar sillcwomuT 
what they were and wlieiicx,' they came is not k&owu. in \ ' 
mnlberry garden with a Buiall vstabli^hmom wax opvnod in 
and a sample of the silk was sent to Bombay. A ctmui 
silk brokers proaonncod the Munpio inferior and not anitad 
Cbiua or English market. For local nianuf»ctiin> it whn valnod of 
14». to I8*. (Rfl. 7 - Ra. 9) a ponnd. Strong hnjics were fu\* nai 

■ that the silk would improve if tho tTvos gave bettur food. In | 
Kbiintlesh silk, clnsiMia with third or fourth clttsa Canton silk ww 
«old in Dhulia at Iftr. (Ha. 9) tho pound. In Xi^^l. Sij^nor Mnttt, 
an Italian, sti{)orint«ndont of ailk nilltiro in the IXiccau, inxpcrtvil 
the Dhuliii silk factory. He reported that, Lhoiigh in clmiTBts of ttww 
peons entirely ignorant of tho proper mode of tnjatiHi^ tbo wwaa 
ftuti winding the silk, tho worms and nialborry trees throve 

. He was Hurprisod to find tho silk so superior in qnnlicy. It w 
%t frotu £1 I*, or t\ 6#. {Ra. 12 or 13) a puimd. He jw 
noticed the luxuriant growth of the mulberry, bnt complained tloJ! 
instead of in n)wK close togothcr, they should have bt^vn pla 
twtinty-fiv© feet apart. To help Mr. Giljeme's oxporimonk 
Bombay Govemmont axkod the (lovemm«nt of Bengal to send 
convicts with their bniiliea, skilled in the management of silkwo 
and in the winding of silk. The convii-tH cntno bringing with t] 
a quantity of eggH, but thoy wore urnl (o IViua instead of to Dm 
In 1 838, Uovom ment having determined to concontrato aQ thoiroi 

' Wlk in Ittdi*. by Mr. /. G*ogh»gwi, 0(».lier.S»w»twj to ibe Oovemnujut of ] 




tho Poonn experimonts under Si^or Mutii, cinde over the Dhjflia 
RCtor? to s Bobora nKiiii'O Niir-ii(Uiltii, who, fi-om titlior rtpi-fltilitlimi)', 
ifter a few )i.«r< lic-came Itankrupt, and tbo mltare of sUk wiw 
a lip. The failure of tbo (.■x)n'riiiifiit wao uning to w(in( of 
%KoiaI kuowkdpt »mi (■xjH-ricin^ft iit the perwjua eu^giHl. Mr. 
'Bibenif'if nifuruialiou waa enlirely tbeorftienl. aod bo seema to 

iTc Ml the diBtrict soon after the cxpcrimcut hcgnii. Hismiwx-fisor 
k no particidnr intcn-Ml in Iho auhject and it was aegli'<!ti>d. 
'he pxpcninviii wuH Hufflcieut to prove that tbo diglricl was in a 
igh di-^ree suitable both to the tnullKtrry tni' mid Ihc iiilkn-t>rra. 
a iHiii, the epccial nitvntiou uf the liH.'sl^iithuntifta wait dirc^t^td 
D tbo sHlijix:t of jiilk, but nothinjf se«ms to hoTi- been done. In* 
l867j Mr. Ashhumer the Collector applied fur » yearly ffrant of 
',1hO {Us. I&UU) U) etiuble him to iiilrodiiee the culture uf silk. 

e obsorrod that, the first taperim^t had not received a f»ir trial, 

,il thiit this second attempt could *e made under more feivourable 
nrcumatances. The «ilk distrielt* uf llciigai were cnnn()ot«4] by rail 

ith Kh(iiid<wli, aud iho [wojile were ready to take up any apeculntion 
ikcly to pr<jve pTv>6table. Mr. Ashbumer't pro(n>»»l wim sanclioned ; 
Mit as he Bix^Q nftur left the coiiiilry on furlough, the rxpcrimunt 
lid lujt make umeh pregn-^ici. Tbe eatnblii^hment was united with 
tliat of the Model tarm nnder Mr. Fretwell, who rijiited Mysor 
tu i^tidy the nuiriuff of Kilkwoniut. In April IHGQ, (he Collector 
Mr. Sheppard ri^jjorted that he was goin^ to push on mulberry 
cultivation during the n4>xl ruins, and hoped t'U he^^ the rearing »t 
Wtvmiit in the t-oU) wenthor. Meanwhile th*; farm wiw reduced lu » 
oottoii farm and tbe silk esperiments fell to tbe Kitiund. In 1870, 
Dr. Hainbritl)^*, Mtiptrrintendiml ol the Oliuliii jiiil, Ik-^iu an 
Crxp<!rimeui. with some 500 egRS of a variety which i-an llimugh all 
ita eta^s in about sixty dwyx. Thir sets! lamie fmiii the DhiirAvnr 
j(ul, aud the first brt-ed was successfully fed, and thuugb stunted, 
was healthy. Of about 8000 worms, lOOO died oarly. The reat 
w«re liirye and utmag, and 300 niothii yieldt.'d &0,O0O cgg», whii»c 
lialchin^ fell due in the beginning of June. Three-liftiiH wera 
bat<'hed, but all died within n fortnight either from excessive heat 
or from tbe smell of a uci^hlMiuniikc lutriue. The co<'uodn .5100 in 
number, after killing the chrysalis in hot water, weigbed on an 
average 2 -t grains. 8U«idy cffortii have i«iii<:e been made to rear 
ailk worms at the Bbadgaon farm. But so f&r tbe results have been 
tlisnp pointing. < 

blights ar« rare, and iiorer so widenpread oit to affect tfatt general 
1utrve:%t. Cotton oceasiouaDy suffers &om a blight, duyii, uniler 
which the flowers aud pods fall oR. Ploughing K^tween the rows in 
said to bare a good effect, and if, at the same tiuit^, a sliower of rain 
falU, the dioeaso ia said to bu sure to stop. Indian millet, j'l'.irii, 
w>uict)iiiu!t HiifferK from a similArdiiiease, brought on by mist or dew, 
irhich, tiuding its way between the grains, csusea them to fall off. 
lb also vufTen every year more nr leitH from diseases known aa kann 
and ^ii<ii brought on by haziness in the weather. Ban nulTering 
from kni\f becomo elongated and of a pale hlac colour, and wImju 
tonched by thu hand cover it with liliu-kish duift. Q<^*ai, or the 
ascetic's luiir, is the name given to the long black plume into which. 







tiniler this difcase, tho Iit'nUhj' btwil of f^rain i« tunnel. 
Hcii&etimM millfj-s fmm n liligbl Iniown lu nuk and utnik. (.'• 
hiijri, aiid j'nirt, nbvtt tlit' pod oreiaris ripeniunr, xnfTer fn>Hi « 
fnil i>f ntin whicli cuusotv lliu thin sUlkn Ui rot aud givi> w«y, 
moe ituffi>n> (mm Mivi^ral eiUMnics. llie whiU't ant, udkai, i 
two kinds of grabs, alu and hamni, sometiintaii nuke great 
Cold weAlhvr crops, inrludin^ wht-nl uiid ^rain, itulTor muc^ 
cloiiiliiii:«Jt niid fnixis. Ah n prcvriilivc, ikslu** nnd cciw'h 
Bprtukled rouud the cro|M, and ilte 6«1<1 U (Kimoliiueii 

UK-tistK havw iioni«Liii;i>« viaited the diJttr^cl, Imt uevi-nn 
•numlxTs. to do mufli b»nu. In 1869, a lai-;^ cloud 
diBtrirt from iiorlh to south, and in 1673 md 1878 
injitry to thr hit^- en>p». Thi^ Khandi-sh cnltivHior li 
visitation from (}«d not to l>e_t>ppo»wi. Kscopt pntVfm lu 
gilt of a nim>o pla«>d on tbc fn\>und iu the diri*ctiuu u{ their 
nothing in dont- to stop lb(^m or driv« Ihcnn off. Parnitv and 
do much harm to the grain crope, and niaiEP and sugan-nne 
suffer al nii,'ht from tno attacks of ju-knls and pign. Itats, 
13-t7-'^ and 1878-79, also »ora«tiinv« onu.-«<! mnuh liavi>c. ffm 
soared aw»y hy watchmen, and s good closo fiftiixt ia th« 
procoction againnt j:u.-kals and pigs, bat no practical remc'd/ fn 
nan yoi bwn discoviT\-d. 

BoHideA the arottt Uurgidovi fomine (1396- I4U7), which is 
have rc'dnced tfao popuhition of Khindpsh to a fv>w BhiU and 1 
the only scarcity iiieuliiincd bcfom th» Iiegiuuing of th" n 
MDtarr ia that of Iti^y. lu thai yt^r. followinp the mv;i 
camp a total failnre of rain. Lands famod (or Ihuir nt m 

utterly barrou ; Ijfc was ulFurftd for a loaf, bat none woulu bur; 
ntnk for n calco, lait not»e cared for it. The ovvr-bountiMtnit huid 
Was strett-'lieil oat to beg ; and tho rich wundvrcd in tioarcL of Enol 
., Dog's Ucith n-iM lold, nnd llie pounded bones of the dead WMV 
mixed with 6our. The flush of a son was preferred to his Iovm. ITU 
dying blocked the roadsi, and tboHO whoxiirrivi*d fl^-d. Kood housei 
were opened at Burbinpur. Kvery day souj) and bread vrerr 
distribntod, and owh Monday JEoOO {Rs. oOOIl) wi-ro givi_-i; 
deserving poor. Tho Kmpvror and thu nobles iiiiulegrcaii roii: 
of revenno.' 

^ Td the troubles which followed Biijirttr's ostablinfamcntaa Penb^ 
KhiinileHh HulTcrvd more tlian any part of the IJecrao. The 
18D2.3 was not, aa regards rainfall, n nfa von r able, nor had 
scarcity in the neighbouring district* caiiiMTd immigration, 
country waa proaperoiw, wull wiilcn-d, and thickly peopled, w^ 
two seasons ol lawlessness spread desolation nnd famine from 
end to the other. The disorders were too great to allow of 
being imported, and the price ro»o to more than a shilling the 
(1 »Acr the rupee)- Vi«t numbers died from famine or 

* tt i> denUhil whHhn- ll>K wm ili* ipokt DarsU'W fiuniaeor om »bii«t I 
VMr* cwlior. 8ee brloir uniliT " Ilwtory". 
> BldahlL* Ktnu in KUut. VIL 10, II, -ad IT. 


,1 -.--ny left their liom^s never to retom. To lessen tho pressure 
ss the P<'shw»*K giivuniintMit nTtoliuhi-i] imp'^rt diTtieii and 
. w^venue; Uie export of gnun was alojipcd, pHin-s wore 
1, and lUoasureB tukeu to rcproHs Bliils, Arabs, and Oilier 
Uxjt".-rw, By tlw *-nd nf 1804 Iheoiunlrv wost nirnin qaiet, but 
leOM oi lliis Lime of friglilful inismle aud misery slill reiiuiin. 
From 1^24 to ISiO n-as a timo of prn^t scarcity. Except a fetr 
fat slion'on no min fidl. Thvrx> vait much dt]itT(.>«s ninong the 
', and atioui £91,17(i (Ks. 9,11,760} of the dittrtct revenue wttt 
mitted in three years. Owing to short rainfall, from IbSS b> 
36 wiMi n time of ffn^iil actirclly and d in tress, Indian millet 
" « ran^n^ tx-tween aisty-iwo and seventy-lhree pnuudK. Ip" 
-Sy prices rose from 121 A to S0{ pottndit, and remissions 
ounting t« £6iv>81 18«. (K«. 6,65,819) wore granted. In 
,&i-l-4.'>, and agniu in IKi&.-K), the failure of tho tnlter rain 
,nsed much distress and made large remiBsions necessary. lu 
855—76, on aocouuL of want of rain, u largu »nit< of land remained 
lOWit, and where sown, the crops, especially in Cli<ip<lit and SiiviLi, 
id. A great part of tho labouring population loft the district, 
evon eomt- of thu woll-lo-do <ndtivnt<irM wcro Imnl pressed. In 
lyme eases from 60 to ITt per cent of the assesaruent was rrmiltod. 
tetvrcen 1^62 and IHGQ tho rainfall was scauiy, and ou aceotmt of 
he rt-ry high price of cotton, the (frain-growing area was much 
e«luc«d. Indian millet rotte from fifty<two to lfairiy<6ve pounds llio 
npee. Biit wages were high and work was plentiful, and tlia 
ftoouring <'1a«»vs pausvd through this p«^iod of famine prices without 
Ducli sulToriug. 

In I>^li8<0d, the latter rains failed entirely in several sub-divisions 
md worn tHinutv thrnughoul ihe district. Tin- tnirlv crops wore in 
nany places below the average, and the late ones w8realmo«L evei^- 
rbere inferior. Cotton, csiH-cially in Chiili^giwin, was only half 
to averagu cmp and the scarcity of gra.-ct was great. FvAr* were 
luterlained that tho Bhil population, suffering from want of food and 
if labour, would tako to robbing nnd plundeWug. These fears were 
n<'n-ii.<ii(| by ihr Arrival of Inrgo uundxtrK of dcslttuto {icn'ons from 
M»lriv:i[- and It.'ijput&ua. where the failure of the rain wa» moro 
;omp1ete aud the searcity amounted to famine. Jiiiri prices rose 
ri>m .sevculy to twehly-fi^ior pounds the rupwo. Relief workif were 
tarted, many new roads were made, several irriRation works were 
legun or repaired ; and i833 (Its. bUO) of the land revenue woro 
omitted. * 

In 1871-72, except a few partial showers in September, there wad » 
total failure of, aud moat of the cropn wttlici-ed. In the middle 
of NovemlxT then? wii.-< IicAvy rain, but it came too late to snvo tho 
tarly crops and did little good to the lat© harvest. Owing to large 
importations from the Central Provinces tbvro waa no want of 
grain, pric«:< falling fniin thirty-seven to fif^' pounds tho nipOP. Rvlief 
works were ondertaken and ramisaions to uie extent of £37,520 16v. 
(Rs. S,7S,2(>8) granted. 

The •cAOty minfall of 1876, H'i inches oompftred with an average 
IbF 24'24, lad to failure of crops and distress over abont half of ths 

Chapter \y. 










IBombftf I 



(lixlnct.' The atut tmd north-east iiaffered most aeverelj. In 
HiMition-to th« failure of ihe early crope, only a few ehovrers UA\ in 
Spplejnher and Oftobur, and most of tbc Kuld-wciUhcr t'n>p« that 
were, sown jM'riiOus). Wilb Ivi^h gntin {>rioi>:t, iitilbl iit 2ri| iuslead 
of fifty-fi>ur ponudA ' the rupee, aod v«ry little demand for fioM 
work, the poorer clafiSf>s foil into diHtrc^ss, and ttlwut Ihti midtUi! ol 
Si'ptembcr, tho m'^d for Govemmvut huip lii-gan to be felt. Aa Iha 
fcjn'in dt-nlent were holdiof; liack their etoree, sbont the middle of 
N<jveinl>er several of tlic municipalities upeni^ RTHiil Khom and EM>ld 
frmin to tho poor »t (>(tHt prici-.^ Thi» hml no iippreciabfe ^eet on 
th(- market. Through all the cold and but weather, phoes remaitit'd 
^ hi^h, and distress, though not very severe, n*a« witliutprend. llie 
Doxt nuns (Judo ltS77) liogun wull. But ugaiu tliere came a lonx 
time of dry weather. In Aofrust, prices rose to an average of 16) 
ponnda and affairs spcmcd critical. A good roinfull nt thtt Viid of 
Aiigii9il rt-vired thii fuiliiig crup.H. Fro^jH^tK rapidly brigbteued, anil 
at Che close of November, the demand fur special Government help 
had ceaeod. Thongh prices were* hi^h and then.* wiw mudli dtMn.«H, 
};niiii wn# altvnyM tiviiiialilv and the Keorcity never deepened into 
famine. Though there were many cases of mdividaal sunorin)^, ifaa 
distrosfl was by no means general. One village liHtl gooil crops, 
another bad, and field differed from field a« much aa village from 
viUikgi:'. The diitlreaa waa most felt by the labouring classes, tllf 
Bhils and Mhltrs, the laiter of whom seemed at one time likely to 
• ^ivu troulilo, and by llie |H'tty local manufaci iimnt wliose imluntriiifl 
'aufFored greatly from tlie failure oi the onJiuary demand. Still tbc 
distress was not so keen as to drive people away fur any length o( 
time, and fruni llie inoiv tieriutiMly alTectml dii*tri<:lH, Ahmedtiitgnr, 
Sboi&pur, Foona, and Sitdra, many oulaiders came aud some haTS 
permanently settled. 

'TboHtinikte wu in ana 8S0I} (nuara tniloiaf a total nf 10.162, and iapoanlatfap 
6W,»U out '>n.09SkMa. 

■ Firty-fiiiii |>ouiiil> For miUet. &d/r[, and Bfty^ix pound* fur laduti nullcl.j*^ 
were th« ontinary pnCmL 

* Tliu foUoa-ii^ itateBDUt show* tfac dotatla : 

it* taJ 1 jtemftw gni ■■ Stipt, ItU^V. 






Dbnlto _ ... 


nmu _ 
Xnsdnl _ 
MuwuBon _ 
KuOwMi _ 
Talufti _ ^ 
Wndkhfd* _ _ 
Bk«i»1 ... _ 



Jii1f*«i ... 

TnuJ .. 

tKh l>tr«tnl>r 1^7* 

tHli K^ivonthU un 

UUi Konnnbti IhTiI 

Mta Xo^-•lnbn !«:« 


iwi JaD(ui7 isrr 

i«lh NutTmbn tinfl 
■III iaxat\ Mil 
Mil N^vimnn- u;« 

)t<nvnibv tlT7 

Aii«>i« wrt 
Ittb ^iiuT larr 

tnAMnul inn 

'""'.IS '*'' 

iKh i>»i*Li">« im 

lom XMcubar i»n 
ftih Aprtt Itre 
inih HrptMibM l«n 
IMti ligcanlMr ISTT 











m^Am Umm four »i»fci "Ikv " Sutmiwr, ShIliMa. ?nliMia, Bid H>d& •«» OMOod W fih* 



ffollowitig detaila show, month by month, the ntate of t]i6 _ ChapMr IV. 
ot and the meiunrOB taken to relieve the deatitute. * Agrienlture. 

in September (187tt), a f^ood tall ot rain oror most of the 
consideTsbly lowerwd prieea, hdjri taWiua fi-oni twenty to 
^-8ovon piiiiiiila (lOi nhers) the rup«*, and ^V<iW from twonty- 
bi forly.fivo pounds (13 tkert). In the TApti villaK^s of Sivda, 
' early cni\vt liiut l>eeu completely lost, and employment w« 
i-vided for about J 150 of the poorer ciittivntors luid labourers on 
' S&vdn-Giitnariil jAlgsOD-NasintlAd roada. Encouraged by the 

Kt Hecond crop of bdjri was sown in places where, owing to the 
ns lack of moisture, tho firitt bad fnileiL Later in the month 
a full and pricea again began to rise. The early crops, except * 
Sie wesi and north>weet where they wore atiil fair, were foat 
bierinff or hiul pt>ri«hwl. By the close of the month relief work* 
10 opened in many parts of the district. 

^«!t<>b(?r jsuifled with only erne. t<1i]|;ht sbon'er at NaAirabad. 
arly ci^pa were fair only in the west and north-west, elu-where 
mngvd fnjm middling to very had, and in some parts the 
waa compIet«. Cotton was flufforing, and the young shoots 
t« ooid-wvatiier eropa were withering. In Jalgaon and Pirola 
I was great scarcity of drinking water, and grass was every- 
scanty and pt^ir. Uniin priL-eswere fa«tt rising, and diAtreKii 
idiu.if antoDff the poorer classes. Kelief works, mostly repairs 
Is and [>>mil», wuro ogxintKl iu thu dintre^sed i»rt« and 
ofraent given to over 2000 people. J* 

November there was no rain and no improvement in haixeat 
Apcctfl. I'ho scanty early harvest waa reagied, but most of the 
l-WeatUer crops (jerished. In a fe* towns on the railway there 
1^ Hiight gniin imuort»tiona from UetAr and thn Norlli-Wost 
^'Viaces. In spite ot this, prices rose for hajri td m\ aud for 
^ to 32{ {Kjundd the rui>i>a. The Bhila begiui cliuuouring for 
^\c. During the month the avertige daily nnmber of perstna on 
\^ wiu> :i2d7.' Thoce were all ablo-lKMlicd workers, uxpiKted to 
1% f uU day's work and snperiutended by ordinary publio works 
pors. In the first day.* of the month n i^iim of t300 (Us. 30<)0), 
[Rented by His Uighnoas Kolkar for the relief of the ^uuioe- 
fckon in Kh&iidv^th, was placed at tho Collector's disposal. 
Pecember passed without rain and there wa.i no change in crop 
►sppcU, iJuring the month there were large grain importations, 
i Inljri fell frijm twenty-iwviin |x>uiidM, about tho boginning of the ' 
►nth, to '18 j pitunds at the clofie. During the greater part of the * 
^nth jc^lri remFtined steady at thirty-one pounds, but about the end 
toae to thirty. The aveque daily number n>ceiviiig t\^ilief rose to 
Ji, 3267 of them on puljj^works and 1447 aged or feeble people 
worka HU]x>rintende<l bj ■a^intant collectors or in&mlatd&irs. 


thn ttOm at w*«** nriit>i"'1v i"-\ fortbe workcn www : lot ■ ima SO. {2 a>n<u) 
!>;. fiir • vainui III. {It <: fur a buj or girl o4 IK <1 •"um|. Aliontth* 

l(ll« at Novanbcf wlivu jn ,,.«# IS {>(>iiuila the fnpoE. » •Iklins loalo wm 

rndlKTvi whUh |iMvidiHl tlint iltv m^.acy t>M iImiiIiI Tftry witb tlia ptlDO of grain, 
' that » nun •hould Uwajra rK«ivo tba ptie« at oa* [)«aiid ot (nua bn »d<UtM«i to 


Wi^^ ^' On the 1 9th erf Jannary a very heavy storm of rain and bail po 

Igiienltore. over th£ district. "Yhv ram (I(.>«lroyo«l thi- ririrr Wi] tilla)^, hdJ th 
^^^^^ bail BtODes, weif^uog from two oimcea to 1 { pounds, betijde« {terHnuly' 

^^fjg damaffiog mcb of ibo cutd-wtnithcr crops us h»d survived ibt 

' liTT. drought, caused tbe deatbs of many rattle. Suialt-pox luid fitver 

[ Jaiu Mru. vfVTC proralont in tomo parts. fitijVi prices mnained steady at 28| 

pouudH the rupee, and jedti prices fell from tk^ly/to ^^- About 
tbe middle of the month (19th) tbe pay of non-ab'lebodied workers' 
wan raduwd, and at the aante timu thu tnak t««4fwusvuforood. TIm 
result of tluB ivaa that tbe numbers on relief fell, on public works 
from i}267 to 2125. and on civil works from 1447 to 803. 

In the liRtl lukif of ihu month there wan a fall of about €8 cxmU 
of rain. The prain importations were aliffht, and prioes rose for 
bdjri from 28^ pounds at tho bc^Doiu^ of tho month to 26{ poondi 
at the close, and for jedri from 54) to 81 ponllds. Sniatl-pox 
prevnivnt during the whole month. The numhors on public worH 
rose from 2125 to (3735, against a fall on civil works from 808 

In the fint days of Ktiircb bail Ktorins coniiiderahly damag't^^ tl 
crops in three suD-divisions, In tbe beginning of the mouth Ji 
prioM foil front 31 to 36} poundu thn nip«u, and thon ro«o to 
ponnds ; bajri prices fell from 26} to 28} pounds. Tbe numbtira 
public works f«ll from 3735 to 2982, and on ci^Hl works from 288 
forty-seven. During ibe mouth lOO persons received charitaltlu rdlieli' 

April passed without rain. The grain importations were amall. 
Bdjri remained steady at 2B^ pounds ihc ru{xx!, but jtHtri rose from 
M) to thirty-one pounds. In some anb-divisionsfeverandsmall-jwx 
went provalunt. Tbo numlwrs on public work« ro«e from 2082 to 
8378, Aud ou charitable relief from 106 to 163, against a small bill on 
civil works from forty-seven to twcnty-ono. 

During Miiy thon^ were a few slight showers, e^ipecially in lli« 
east. Cattle were dyiug from want of water and fodder. Pr'uxs 
roHO for hajri from 28} l<> 2t>j pound* llio rupee, and for Jviri frocn 
thirQ--one to 29i pounds. Fever aad smatl-pox continued. Tha 
numbers on public workx f«'ll from 3378 to 2'>96, on civil works trow 
twenty-one to fifteen, and on gratuitous relief from 183 to fifty. 

Id the first da^** of tbv mr^nth ther« were slight showors in 
wOKtorn sub-divisions, and about the vnil good rain fell all over tbo 
district, varying from 20 cents to 55 inches. In parts where tte 
f&\\ was light more rain was wanted. The sowing id iht- early crops 
was l>eguu itud made &ir progretis. Cattle disease and ague wen 
prevalent during the month. Ji-ari prices fell from 27} lo 28J 
pounds the rtipc-e, while luijri nruiaiiu^d pretty mteady at 2r>| ponnds, 
with a alight rise in the middle of the month to twenty-five poonda 
Tho Dumber* on pubtio worka foil from 2394 Co 2295 aud m 

< The D«<r rata* B«re : tort mui, th* piicB ot «ai pound oJgnuo and (rf. (1 

itirtwal ol 1^. |1 oniui) ; Imrnvrommt, tbe price o[ ono MO^ ofgrun and ^f. (I 

iiwtMd of ii. H *uuo) i and tor k boy or gill, the w wJM fcslfs pmud of (ma i 




ihariiable relief from 6hj to four, against a rise on civil works from 
'^t«cn to ninety •one. . • 

In Jnly an average of 3*17 incbea of rain fell, bnt it ttm badly 
iribntod. In tbi- lint four ilay* of tfac month tboro were aome 
ttbowi'rs in a few Buti> divisions, then followed a break for it weok 
sowing DjKTatioos ircrv stopped. When rain again fell the 
pie vatitio iMbrk to tbeir tieltia, bnt mucb seed vras lost, and m the 
mu in«ii(!ii-i«vD( oxcept in tbo west, tha jonng crops began to 
itber. Mure rniftrwas everywhere wanted. There waa no fodder 
except on the bills, and cattle were being driven back to the 
Sntpu(JA». PrifCR roHO fur hiijn from 2.^} poundi^ at the beginning 
of ilie month to 20} pounds at the close, ant^ for jviri from 27^ ^ 
30^ pounds. Cholerft ww ulightly provalont. The nnrnborM on 
{Mtblic works rose from 2295 to 2428 agaioat a fall oq civil works 
from ninety •one to •Dvonly-fonr. During th« month do odo received 
table relief. 

UcMt of August pusod without tftin. Tho withering crops ware 
tadced and much damaged by insects. Prices rose for biijfi from 
I to loi p-Minds the riipix', and fiir jifin' from IflJ to 174 pounds. 
i« in ftuuio parts caused much aistress, especially amoug tbo 
Bhils. Cholera incTvascd and Uirgc numlMrs left the district for a 
time. The numbers on public works rose from 2iJ80 on the 4th 
of ibe month to 9696 on Iho 2&tli, iwd on ravil works from 582 to 
10,729. During the month IQJ persons received charitable relief. 
About the close of tbe month a goneral and plentiful rainfall, tasting ' 
for four daya, groatly revived the cropfi. Proapocts were mueb 
tmpTovod and people be^u leaving the relief works, ao that in tbo 
last week of iho month thcrw were only 6(170 people on public and 
lil.Vt on civil works. 

In the beginning of September there was good raJb over the whole 

diplrict, and tho crops wonderfully revived. Later in the month only 

light aiiowers fell and more rain was generally wanted. There waa 

Bidurablo mortality among cattlo and cholera wan pn'Valont. The 

lin importations were verr small and rupee prices rose for bdjri 

I seventeen to sixteen, and for jra'ri from ninvleon to seventeen 

ands. The numbers un public- works fell from 8010 in the fir*t 

ak of the month to 7191 in the last week, and on civil works ttom 

1013 to 600, against arise on oharitnhle relief from 165 to &19. 

lo October with an average of I~52 inches of rain, the early crops 
I generally &iir, except in T:iloda, EdLabad, and P&chora wben^ 
wvro poor, and in Erandol where they were bad. The sowing 
tba oold'Wcather crops wan over, bat in some places more rain was 
ited. Rupee priam fell for bdjri from 1 71 to twonty-6ve pounds 
i forjviiri from 30t to 8H pounds, llie numbers on public works 
sU from 746 to 3663, ooi civO works from 690 to 293, and on 
f charitable relief from 519 to 38-1. 

In November no rain fell. The early, kharif, harvest was almost 
Tho late, rabi, crop«, stunted by tlie bent and wjint of 

.._, gave but a^or promise. Jvdri prices rose from 32^ to 

thirty pounds, and higft prices (oil from twonty-five to twenty-six 









Iptn IT. 




pannda tfae ropee. l^e onmberB on pnbltc works fcill {rom 1300 
tht^bo^nniog of tli» tnunUi U> tw*nty*fuur »t tlie eud, on civil wol 
Irutn 12^ tu ciightv.Uiree on the lOtb of the mooth wben the cr 
works wero cloMtd, ami on churitablo mliof from 3M to tva- At tlx 
eud of the iiioutb all relief worka were closed. 

In Dvcvmbcr tbcro ir«re Hgbt alinwera tu » few pUcoa, but mora 
nin waa required for the rahi crDp«. ha^ri prigee tu«.< froin twenty* 
six to twonty^fivc pounds, and jvan' pricvn full fmm thirty to Ihirtj^ 
fSre pouuda the mpee. Though GoTemiSbnt continued to uffer i^ 
BO one ro(|uirod clutriulile relief. 

Th« fulhiwiu^ statement of millet prices and of the nuwbets 
receiving n-licf shows tl*l diirin^ihe firxt Gvumontfasof 1877, pnn" 
*km)t pretty steady ai twenty- eiKht pounds tbe rupe« or itliout In i. . 
the ordtn&iT tatus; that its pri<xi ro»e rapidly in Jntw and July ull 
it reavhed 16} in Angust and tiepteniber; and diat ii tluin <[iiicklj 
fell to twenty-Gvo pounds. As oarty as Docember 1876, the nuinlMn 
on relief work* reached 171-1. By lowering wiiffos iu>d enforcing 
the task test, the total was in tfanoary rodoced to 2928. Ktoui 
this it rooe to 4023 in February, and then full till in June it was as 
low as 2386. Then it stvodily adranced till in Augutt it reacheil 
S€22. From thiit it rapidly fell to 8I>7 in Norombpr when the reiti'f 
works wei-e closed. Tne numbers on charitable relief roae from I'tO 
in March to 163 in April, and then fell tufi^urin June. In Jidy then 
was no cue on charitable ndiof. Prom \i'Ai in, tlic namba 
rose to 519 in Scptemhur, and then quickly fell to t«B in NoTembw, 

[■tut Knuow. 


Cttfl. raUI«. 

OMMiiMr H 
Januy im 

Fibrour . 

Joaa „ 

J»Iy ., 

Aurbm „ 
ar|rijeBib*r ,', 
Oreofwr „ 

fodtnbu „ 






_i n 
















TSUI »^V. 

two ti,ftM» 





MU,«>I w» 





B4W- ■'■'X. 


^ t 

KMHB «( Kin aari hil| 
on UM Itih JaiiBiiqr. 




The scarcity onused no clianffu in the ntea o£ (»rt-I>ire.< AdJ 

' ThoMi 6giirot mra taily «pptoiimat«. The tvanoa toM Ul (or tlxi irliole duUkl 
Uptolat Do««ib«i 1677 WM31-ll>iDche«L 

» Ifc^t an »K • wil« (3 <i«ho» a iw) for • cart and pair of baUook* in Ui* dry Muuaa 
wd B>1 (4 amo*^ Iw) in tli» »«t. A paur of UUook* <:an b» yrqd (w I t-t a milK i" 
^idi a toi) in Ibn Uir, and (« Sid a niil« (3 ailiHU a iw) <d tlie wot Mmnti. i i' 
Ur» art i*id hy tbi> tifcr. Th«»« an Uio vUicial rat«t, )iul unvatc bdividnalk «i ' 
tnd«n oiasaga, aa a nit, to hir* carta and bultvcka at loww rato. 


le distma never deepened into {uuine, it wba not necesaaiy to 

rclivf- houses or campe, or to orgaaiau a epocial rclkif staff. , 

the beginning of ibe famine, dealera held liack thvir nlooks of 

in hi:>pcB of a ri^ in pricc-s. Aftcm-ard«, as they found tliaG 

ju iMjuiil bi- bnjugfat in lar^t ijuuiitititie by rail, thoy opened tUcir 

es, and though prices ruled hij^h, thorc was no lacK of graiD. 

in vruA iinpurti-d t<> a .iiiiull ttxtent fK)m Holkar'i! and thv Xixilni'8 

tones, NemAd, and Bei^r. It wsa also exported by rail to 

bay, Poooa, aud Shoffpur, th« cxporta on thv wholo czcovding 


special censQB, taken on tho 10th May 1877, when famine 

le watt general and tterert^, Khiiwiid that of 274o workers, IGSSa 

onged to the Eab-diTiHions where the work was carried on ; 3d8 

iloug^d to difTArent Biib^diriNionK of tlio Ham« diittricl ; 6-18 wero 

m other distHcCBfand twenty.six Erom neighbouring Btates. Aa 

1» their uccugnttion, 1S6 wore man ii fact tire rs or CRtftstinen, 598 

holders or anb-holders of land, and 1&92 were labourers. 

lO tola) cost of tho famino wtw estimatod at £30,613 (Rs. 
1,160), of jrhich £30,280 2k (R». 8,02,801) were spent on public 

d crril worts aad £33o 18*. {R». 3359) on cbnritablo relief. 

Compared with tho former year the criminal returns showed a 
total incr(>a30 of S71 offencm,' mainly duo, in tho (A>minis:<ioiicr'B 
opinion, to the scarcity and high prices which ruled throogfaout the 
fear. Tho cstiniatod special mortality waa about 474 souls. Tbero 
are no trasiworihy Hiatiatica of the numbers of cAtlle who left and * 
returned to the district. Though the loss of stock was great, it did not, 
Intcrfero with tho currying of grain or with field work ; nor in other 
raepects was the rent-paying and working power of the district 
igvcUti. Tho tiiUsl nn:u!> xn 1877.78 and in 1878-79 oxcoc-lcd that 
ia 1S76.77 bv 61,445 and 118,880 acres respectirel/. Of £301,780 
4<. (lis. 30,1 7,802) lh.1 land u-vonue for collection for 1870-77, and 
£2H4 4*. (Rs. ii,142) outstanding balances for former yeara, 
£301.563 la.. (K». 30,15,639} and £:J-V. (H.-.. 3.')50) r*Kpi-<*ively were 
reoovurod by the close of the year, and £658 (Rs, 6580} were written 
off as imicoverable. In 1877-78 the land revenav for collection was 
£3(»3,80U 10>. (Bs. 30,38,005) and tho ouUtanding balanoea 
WBountwi lo JEI290 10*. (Hs. 12,90.^), o£ which Ja03,777 6». 
(Ra. 80,37,773} and £329 4«. (Bs. 3292) were recovered respectively, 
Mod t3S 10*. (IIh. 38S) writtou off, IbuN nusing thu outstooding 
balances for next ye»r to £946 (lie. 9400). Of £310,069 (Ra. 
ai.OO.Oao), the laud rvvpnuo for collection for 1878-79, £309,399 2».' 
(Rs. 30,93.91'!), and of the balances £377 St. (Rs. 3774} were 
raooroml bufore thu doiw of tho year and £5 12i'. {K». 56) wHtt«a 
off, IsBvitig for fntore recovery a balance of £1232 18«. [Re. 12,329). 
On tho lit of January 1880 the torn outstanding waa £595 6*. 

Chapter JC7. 




hm ifatjjb >r> Ml JanraMat aaJwoftaew wahwt pnblk joaliM. iniidcv rktiag 
EflranUwfidaavvniUy, 3i uniWr matdar, licaduiUoaltv, 9; utidar robbanr, ft | iHid«r 
|lnriUii|| koiuv-ltraiMM (ir koiuW'linakh)^ t6 ; nnilvr feurt, 17 i uDdw-inEMtiM, ISi 
W lliatt (■( cattle, at 1 mnidcr onluuj tWt. USB ; nnclar raouving rtoleD pto(*ftj, 
^ud udcr crimioal or hoiuftrMfus, 9. Polic« R«part«, 1877. 

1 ' 


OliterXT. Ukd. (Rs. 59K3-7-8) ; of thu, in Jane 1880, £220 2f. II 

4itflmittiiW- 22Q1-7-2) were written dl u ineoovenble,* 

# fa„i.„ No special works were started for the relief of the 

J#7S-77.' stricken. Only the ordinary badgeted works were taken 

and they helped to give relief to uose who chow to avail tli 

of it. 

I Qov. K«. 9003 {FfuBrdal), Kh Jana 1B80. 

■ X 





ccosiijsa to the 1872 censna returas tbore were in tlutt year, ChnpterV. 

lea well-to-do cn1tiv»tonf nod profossiunnl nicu, 1 0,n6i> personii CapiUtL 

paring [K»»itioiis implyinjr the posseitsioD of capital. Of these 

) were bankers, monvychangcra, and iiliupkcopers ; 74!J5 werx> 

;tutnt« und Lrwlortt; aud lOlS) drew tlieir iuixiiiie» from Tvnta 

,ouBeB and §hop8, from funded property. ehariM, annuilief, iind 

like. Co'Urr the head Capitalists and iVadent, th« 1878 lioenso 

■•Besanintt papers show &9,610 persons. Of 24,101 iut«t!)>ii4<d 

^rly incomoi of more ibau £10, 12,2C9 tmd from £10 to £15 

100-Ra. 150), 4736 from £1B to £:i5(R8. 150. Rs. 250), 2647 
I £25 to £Zi> (R«. 250 - Ka. 350), 1 105 from £35 to £50 (Rs. 350 - 
BOO), 928 from £50 to £75 (Bs. 500 - Kb. 750), 546 from £75 to 
) (Rs. 750- R». 1000), 628 from £100 to £125 (Ra. 1000- 
1250), 225 from £125 to £150 (Us. 1 2.^>0 . HaJ200}, 256 from 
I to £200 (Ra. 1 600 - R«. 2O0O) , 328 from £200 SflteOO (Ha. 2000 - 
SOOO), 239 from £300 to £400 IRa 3000-RvtOOO), 116 from 
> to £500 ( Ra. 40O0 - R«. 5000) , 1 25 from £500 to £750 (Rb. 60OU - 
?500), fifty.lhr«e from £750 to £1000 (R». 7500- Rb. 10,000), 
aighty over £1000 (Rs. 10,000). 
I the wi^t, ciipitailtta are generally GtijarAt Vinis, Gujnr Kflnbia, C«pit»»W«. 

Uuh-ijr^, and in the eenlre and east, Chitod, M&rv^d, and • 
lar V&nis, Tilnln and Pi^jna Kuiiliiit, KruhiTiimit, and a few 

ills. The trading population is not divided inlo distinctly 
ted cta^iww. Thu wiinc man is ofttm a mLTchant, a monpylendttr, 
a bmkcr. At JalKaon alone ia chi'i'e trade enough to allow of 
I confining themsem's to fixod branchm of business. Here 
3 nrr t)irtf« bankerfi and twenty moncyleuilcnt, moHl of theru 
<r&d aud a few Kathar VAnis, and nineteen tirmit, two of thvm 
ipvan tilt! Mofu^wil and th(( New Berir Comiianivs, fourteen* 
.la, and several others of minor importance, who are entirely 
jrs, with H|^>nt)) at Fiiir.pnr, Dhttmngiion, and other Inr^e towu!* 
surrounding a ub. divisions. Of the twenty moneylenders 
BW confine tliemselvM to moDcrlondiDg. Except the two 
and tteven native firms, whoae head^qnarterg ore at 
Fiay, none of the local traders hare a mpitMl of more than £10,000 
* D,0O0). About twenty are known to havo from £1000 to 

I Uuichaploris compiled Crau auMtUlii lupplitd by Mr. J, PaBen, C.S, 









Cotton aud i 
But IJto ti 

£MO0 (Rb. 10,000-R». 50,000), and five fmm .E-iOoO to 
(Rll.M,OoO-Rs.l,OU,000). Thu RgcntA of the ltutnl>»^ fir 
(.-hiafly in iwlton nntl gnun tt> tlie ezlent uf frum £2 
£3,000.000 {Rs. 2,00,00,000-IiB. 3,00,00.0lK)) a year. Be 
and nevcnd mimir trading firms whit-li h&ve apmag up wiiliu 
tew years, lliere are thirUwD ci>ttoti brok<!rB, two Bnlli 
MArvM ami oiglit Oujurfit Vlluitt, wlui, iKnuidoa attting aa 
LmtT)' on Bome trade aud lend money. Petty doaltTH, to tite nnhV 
from seTBDty to ucre nty-fivcinoo'tly MAnnd VAnis with a snrii: 
Brahouuu, BoIu>r&ft, and K^lhar, Liidsakka, and GujarAt V^u,< 
on bnaineai. aome witli tfarir own liut must of thoui with Ixi 
j^apital. Tboy obtain NAppliea Utih from local Uoalem aoil 
Bomluiy m«rt;luints. EiEtn^pt Jntfpun there is no lurtrn 
vxrhan^. Trade is larried on in hules and coroHra. Eurof 
cannot p^t at tho commodities, cxcvpt by Ihu help of nnl rrc i 
for, tut A rulo, the Khflndush cultivator thinks of^^o market 
his inonryleDder's Teraodali or tbe local woakly 
11ii^n:> i« no soMimla clSM of inaiiranoe agents, 
mills are generally baured sgainKt Iom by Sro. 
in unkuown. 

The two most nsnal forms of exchanf^ bills, hmidiM, nrt billi i 
able nt vighl, dar»hani, and biilit payablo aflt-r u «?rl:i 
muitali.* BilU ar** nilber personal, dfiatiijoy, where tliu pr 
pvnwu to wliom or U> whwtu ordvr tht' [Kijino-Ut 1:4 to be 
trust, thdkajo'j, nliero payment i» made to a nominee of the ; 
known to the p^er; or dpocriptiTo, nwAiij'oy, wht-rv a de«irrif 
the payee is embodied in the bill. It is not usnal to (tmw biU 
Beta. A letter of odrice to the ngvnt or banker, stating the ao 
drawn, the number of the Irill, and the name of the p<Tsou to k\ 
or in whose fayour the bill has Invn gnuiUwl, is considcreil !<titi)i:i<.-9l. 
When the amount of Uie bill is reuiitied in caab by auolbtfTi 
biiiHI, bill, or (itlu-i-wise, it is duly sifnicd by tho payiM>an<l rctni 
to the j^nntor luid lilvd aa a voucher, khoka. Unless the 
ia bmajiihli, rciiuiriug no letter of advice, it is naiinl fop 
oorre!<]Kindent of llie grantor (u Mend a letter of udviec, intimating j 
naymeut uf the money to the payee. Ko dajrs of g^e arc allc 
llltv bill must, if demanded, he cashed on the sptx^^^^ay, ukI 
case of delay on the part of the payer, month lyjHHPit. 
acooriling to tbe positiou of the drawer, one-haU per offil for bnc 
» ami lbr<te-mmi'l<Ts [wr cent for other uieii'lutnta, j| ch»rRTiI, 
jlaymcnt is asked before the bill falls due, discount at a similar i 
is<)edu(rt«-4l. If tho bill is dishonoured and sent l>aek uncna) 
the grantor must pay iuter>'jit at double the rate of currwnt into^ 
from liie date when the bill was bought. Ho mnst also pay n 
acceptance penalty, rnifrmi, varying in different plac^e*. Cai" 
aeoordirig to tho distHooe the bill had travelled, was also foi 

If tho bill is lost or stolen, a duplicate, peth, letter «tat 

■ Thiv a gMwrally aot mor* tiiaa nln* Amyt. 



licate I 

6t tli« bill Anil aslnng' for paymtMit » uetinlty fTrantf d. IF llie 

leU«r 19 loet, a triplicxtOr/ttir/^ciA, lueiiliiiniu^ hutli iho hilhdi 

the p»lh, is issiiod, stiil if tbo jmrpfth iilso in not furtUciiiiiiu^, 

o(!vii;*>, jVifc, UiUlt meutiDtiing tho Au»(it, the jiitlft, nni) lh« parpeth 

Bout to the same effect. Tlie ^yer must satisfy lunincif mi to 

? identity of tlH) bearer of tkn bill, «ni] iu doubtful cases, shnulil 

imund m-ciirity Ixiforo [Hiyiiieut is mnde. If be payti a vrrong tnau, 

haa tohear the loss aiidjiay a second time tn tho holder of ihapf.tU 

parpeth. The payee in the case of an advice letter, jah, passes 

wjKirtito n;'f(iif>t, while tbv hun-d, prih, iinti parw-th aru siiiipty 

i)d< AftiT ]m'iui>iit the Uiuker debits the drawer with Iho 

moiiQt paid. If » drawer overdran'i? biu account, and the bill ia los^ 

r di^^honoll^^v^, he alunu is roHpouiibli!. It is iisiiiil nftt-r eudonuug 

m Eo itell bilt^ to bill brokont, dnliU", of whom lliere in a Inrgo 

raber, and who are paid a certain percent^e fwr tboir Bervicea. 

truiviiire i« iml^tgm wot, billH are generally adjutitod by dubt-s 

md crodild, ami' "' '\^tttdi* wbosic ratft.t vary accordiaa to tbo. 

KUidiiions of tlj .tion. The commission, fcoA'afiai, ib paid to 

lie con I,; liisbiirsing the cash Ui the payee, by the drawer, 

kndthr :a,ifal<m,iovl\n^xi\ai>ilMt'Uihttivlix ui paid bittb by 

he draweruud by the purcluuer uf tUo draft. The ietorchaa^ of 

tills lias bwii gn-atly siinptilied by the intrudnctieu of ft uiiifunn 

{>iiia^. Formerly the dilTereut rupeus and the different rates of 

xcbange made the system much more compUciitwd, and ytwt a 

lonrco of nu small profit to local bankers. 

Imports are uitiiitlly paid by bitU iif oxchnnjfe, and exports by 
noaey. A bill from £1000 to £25*^0 (lti..lO,U<)U-R8.:!5,O0U) ran at 
mco be caahod by any Jalgaon firm. 

Where them is an agent munint, the clerk, ijiirj^tUt-t, acts imder 
liin. As a rnle there i» no ajfent, and the cli-rk is Hubordtnate 
o hi« mastt-r alone, and is treated by oHt.iiidiTs with much respoct. 
jenwmlly a RrAhman by twstn, ho keej>s (he accounts, advances , 
noney to the cidtivator, and recovers it from him, superiotoiidH his 
na-itcr'n e^vtablishment, lookM after his lamU and servant*, and frtKn 
.broad to buy and »oll goodt according to his master's orders. 
Dxclusive of aod and other e.tpenses and travellinp: allowance, bis 
from £5 to £10 (lis. 60- R«. 300). Bi-«ide» small 
occa.-4i<in)(, he g<:\* at /)ir(ilX(October-NoTember) 
other article of clothing. 

', merc-hants, Iniders, shopkeepers, broker.-*,ple»derji, 
utdnfew high paid (lovt-mment servants, and of countrv people 
and lords, heads of villages,moneylondur«, and a few rich cultivators, 
twve money. .Saviti)^ arc mosUy invested iQ oruamenta, in houses, 
uid IB moneyl«iitiii)g. 

Ab, except in Jalgaon, there are no large banking establishmentA, 
Diinrly all who have capital engage in money lending. I'njfisiNionnI 
moneylenders are miviully irnrv^d, Gujar&t, and L^sakka Vjinis, 
and a few Br^hmans. Though the distinction is not well marktvl, 
(omo of Ihein, known as bankers or sar-iff, deal with towunneople and 
vell-to-do huslKiadmi'U, and olh.irs with the [worer class of vilhigvrs. 
u villagim, headmen, rich cnltiTatora, and shnpkeeptirs who some- 

'lyirly pay 

1 -on 

i II or 


Of t'lwnjiiK' 



Saving CUmml 



tBombay G* 



ticuKi iNtrmw monfiy (or tlic pnrpnfio from pr ' 

loiri inoiwy to pt>or oMltivnUirw. Bi-si'Ii-s tU- 

tlii-m is It iH^I ul I>'W usurt-rs, who, for aburf [iwriiAb, leiiil ! 

mi lit-avy luleti U> tbe poorusi ljurrowor». 

Lock] tnunuyliMiclcra and tnidi'Ts nni mid fco ^rumblo nlvnill 
fireBOBt iitaW. ' Fifty yean ago,' ibey aay, • wo hsJ a i 
we know about escWti^?, and from the nnrurtain ixntfi' 
cnmiicy, nifulu lur^^ Htmm !>}' uxcban^", and <kv rtnil- 
jti gold, »ilvfr, nniJ pn-iriwiji nWui-.*, Ilirn the- m 

invvKtmoDt. Much olotb was still miroD, and tint dttiJi trude i 
US handHomu gaiiu. TTiirty jrwira latur (186M-ISG5), dnr 
■demand cnuM-d by Uio Ainorimu war, and when gruat enms'i 
spent iu nuilciu^ the railway, wu becajno rich. Oor nld diibta ' 
recoTered; great prolitB were i^ioL-d in all branohos of bn 
and new loauo were i»auod iil lii^fli rulos "f intorcst. Tlim lbs 
camo. Miiuyof our yeututx-s turuedout badly, uud wben w«> aiui^ 
■rcoiivt'r the niiidh lonl at inu'i'e.>4t, we found t bat I.I. ' i^c 

almost all'ir gaiuK, aud iti tlio fall <'l JtricfTi wi ;i:>j 

OH. In taking tbem into court and forcing tlitMn to pay, bulkl 
and our debtors lost b^svily.' 

Compared with th(i Ainirrtinn war tiin«, the ]»ru6tB of tradoni 
moneylenders are now, no doubc, small. And ovi-n con 
with thirty yrnirH vnrlier (1830), it is probable tluit the 
faiiiilioH who had coiiiiiiatid vf thu dtKtrict traffic and 
lendinff, niado mor« and made it earlier than the prraeot 
It ifl alHo tnio tliat ihv Ehttndesh trader has anriuf^ tbfl 
fifty years had to ll^ht against two sc-ts uf vu^dan^ferdaa: 
VAnu^om M&rvAd and &Mii^ from Bombay. The M nrritd Vi 
Btrou^^, more activv, and jx^rhnps oven more frugal and 
scrupulous tbaulbt; locnl Viiui itiiil Briihman, havu drawn lo llie 
selves a v(rry gntut Hbart* of thi- dinlnct ninni-yii'iidiiig ; and 
Bombay Ltluitifis, lar^r-miudoil, Htronffor, and harder wurhing 
tliw local tradeni, aud unlikv Ihum ma^flcrs of thv nrn xyslc 
trade by rail and wire, enjoy the bulk of thf protils uiado from 
Tory lar^ exports aud ini[^>urt;» that unbroken order tod im|) 
commuuR-atiouHhavcdeveloptid during Ihc pastf^ 
oui> niurked featurv uf the present styl<4 of biiKi' 
BS]i>irIfr aa nwirly jw ]Hi)isilite into direct dealing wuti the- gruW| 
and by ihi.H ineauM thu piiict-ii and profits of sevcml sols of midtT 
* men havoboen swallowed up. Under thi-sy t'irciiiii.-<tanco«, the 
goiug inidor and banker, disinclineJ to leave Ida old biisiueaa 
and not forced to do ho by want, may, as his &iRiity grows h 
find it hard to get opeuiugtt for thoni. But taken aa a whole, : 
compimng the hulf'tillcd, balC-cmply, nud alino»t utterly isula^ 
Kh&udash of 1830, with its present well stocked and thiitxtagi 
opened state, thi>ro stt>in.i no reason to doubt that its Ir^e *'^'l>\ 
a much tnrgtir body of mereliuulA, anil bringa into the dtatrti 
inach greater amount of wealth than formerly. 

A rioh moneylundcr, dealing with townspcoplo and wcll-t 
cuItirstoTS, keeps a journal rt^kird, and a ledger kliatfirfni. Thd 
who advance petty loans t«the poop»r das'* of ailriviitont kcop ■ 

)9G * miWBiCTS. 

S'>mo village hpadmwii anH ntlipr n--' ^ ' 
kiiTdly towariTs the villi»jjrcri<, tluil lln>y IP^ 

which nmki-M Umm nearly iutle'}H>D(leDt of the cii-il PtMW. 
advance ^raiu or moiioy uocjrdiD^ l<> thu rilla^^rs' imuteAue 
and in rutuni tho wliulv cm)> in »t luu-vuat tiiuv mode over 
DiimttvlondiT, nod from the outtarn be Htts npart a Tnir <=>- — '" 
umiiiieuaucu of th« debtor's family. Mt^tii'vlunderit c: 
bavD no wish to tako tlivir holding f rom thi; villH^^crs. L 
their intoTMt lliat tho borrowers should be as well off and wr 
a.-< p>HitiliIc. Such monevlender^ hiv titiii.'>uitl. Cc>mj>luiut» iirv 
genorul in Kh)inde»i» i>f llii' f^n-d mid uufairiii^is.s of Marvntl 
^iiijnral V&tiiif itud vt\iof foreira usnrors. U»ny uf tho husbam 
faiknl piwicd for money Bnduble iwitUerto raid mir write, are 
in thti inoDvylunder'tt powiir. lie*» ut pvaa them than llw 
eutui^ in tho bond; no receipts are passed fur tlia insta 
paid ; and fn-tih deeds are drawn up nud fn.>!7h charts tn: 

jRM'hk'ii llie debhT ba-* "" knuwU-df^'. Thnu a suit is tilt*d, nnd, 
nile, ^iveii a^iiuHl the debtor in hia abwuce. If liti H|>{>earit, iiiscv* 
generally brvaka down, as few villagers will risk ifiving cvj I '.li 
against tho mtiueyleudcr. When thw di-crvf i* pBs&eJ, it i^ -■' 
oxccuttid, hut held ovw the debtor's head xo aa to iucn-ase Lho :ii:^< tnii 
of nis parineulK. It tho inslalinentf cease, tim creditor takt • !*« 
debtors laud in mortgiigr. Hv M-ldom sell||^ai np and Ktill r-.n 
randy liiut him m'IiI |a priMin. A debtor has seldom dealing wtH 
more than one ereditor. When he deals willi mors Ihnn one. *h 
object aometim.>!i is, by pvinjf one uf tliein ft pn-ferenpo, x- '■ ' 

Uio claims of the rest. To do thfif'he hns to nmke over )> i -:r 

U) lh« cItosoD creditor, a «tfp #> fnll of ri!>k thnt it is a^tdoni t'ikra. 
llie Hbiiid^'^h creditor uevvr writes ofl hi^^^m us a bad ilib*. 
Decrees are oft«n ke()t alive Cor years. For &(^h> timu, when he 
knows he can Ret nothing, evt-n by arrestinff or rmpriicoiiinff his 
dehlor, lho creditor ceaw" to iuiiH)y hira. But lut soon iw thei*> in tiu 
" chance of rum>verin(f anylhinjr from (ho debtor's heirs, pi .it 

are threatetHs! or a tJoniprnmiw is affrced to, tho crtslitor irt 

paying (he debtors or their heir* a f.rillin}^ nmti, and udiiein^ tiwi* 
to jKisa a now Knid in the name of all the members ofTbo family. 

Formerly much importauoo wne not attached to tho posseasion it 
land, and people seldom tkoug'ht of biiyinir it. Now land suli-.-i an 
ConimoD. Tliey are either (Bausfei-s between private |h<>r^on&, 

■ suction sales becauMe the holder has failed to {"Oj Ihc CfVeninii:at 
/but, or sales by order of thft civil (vjurt. A» n'g»rds the Kile T.ilne 
of limd no trviitworthy iufonuatioD itt available. Inprivntc tr^i 
the nominal valm.^ in, for private rcaaonvvory often widely dju> ., „. 
from tho md value. GoTeninK»nt sales for failure to [Miy rent 
are generally onlv of the poorest laudn, iind through fear of proWou 
mortgageti or other cncumh ranees, court sales gxually fetch oolj 
nominal prices. 

At Jalgaon (he priiNt of land, suited for bnilding purpo«eB, vari«i^ 
from £IU0 fo £180 (Rs. 1000. Its. IKOO) an acre. lu largo crowded 

villages, the tJovennnwnt rale vai-ios frwm -lii. lo 8*. (Bs. 2 - lis. 4) for 
five I'qmin; feet. For public puriiuacs land i» nsmilly taken at tHvutx 




tbe &ase«s[neat, that is from £1 10«. to £7 (Ra. 15 • Rs. 70) the 


H mnd^^'s am of two kimlx. In ono the cifdi'tor takes 

ion, pays reut and tillage charppB, rpajw tbo crop, aiid nfivr 

!arntii> intcTcut and profit«, «llnw» tho debtor to tafco the anrplus. 

jnd iiiid niura ooinitirm form in for thu debtor tu bold and 

lan>I, to pay tlie rent, aad haod over tbe intcroftt to tbo 

roitbET in money or in grain. Often altw debtor aod creditor 

tilling (be litm). 

ifitx'ii yoars ago (1864-65), dnrinjr the yeaiwof high prices, the 
Tatnr wae, for a time, companitively i-igji and linprcceiientedly 
prosperoas. Instoud of paving- off his dt^htii, he nqaniMlvrcd bin oaeiljr * 
csTDvd — ■ ■ ■ ;-t marriaii^w, caste dinners, and other extrava^necs, 
And a^ It was rpry frood and money was easily rai-icd, he 

iiKtirrt-U I:v-Li debts. With tho fnll in pnidiK^n pritv* (i8(tiJ.1%(>8), 
5 rnliivjiiontftgainfoiiudlhomselTos in difficulties, 'fhen foUnwe^ 
.:i3 of scanty rainfall and short cr<)p!', ntiii creditors, uneasy ' 
■ outfitanilinjpt, forct?4l tnniiy of ihi-ir debtors into (ho civil 
Wiiliia ibo last ten years, amonij' the poorer clwM« oC 
irs, indebtedness is said to hftvc cnnxidorably incTeoaed. At 
it is CMtimiaed that nut more than ten per vunl of4b» 
imltanti pinpulatio^jncladiQfp Uhils and others who are mere 
field labourers, cao aSsfA to begin thti year's tillage without the 
monerlendcr's help. * 

,0 condition ipf tho Bhil ciillivnEor in the nortli-wost of Kh&idesh 
iai. Tbei^ the landholderaWe mostly Gtijar capitalists, not 
t proprietors, and tbo Bhils wwro fomierly contented Co servo 
)iieni for clotheit and food, liquor now and then, aiid a finnll sum of 
iv whenever tkefWhildren were married. Of late the demand 
lliil Inboar has inorca«ed, and wagon have gn-atlv risen. On the 
hand, the rw;!tli-iticni i>f their diiiputes with theii- employers has 
transferred from the ma^strates to tho civil courts, and tho 
Gutar, by tbo i^omnoe and csrele«i>neMa of tbo Bhil, luui him again 
' .hi* tuercr. The liujar a;((rees with the BhU that the Bhil is to 
Htb Uoiai's land and that they are to sharo tho produce. Ad 
CO is uia<le to tlie Bhil to buy bullock.'*, aud u bond is drawn 
Op with a premium nt iweuty.fivo per cent. Tho Bhil grows the 
CTopa and is fed by tho Gujar. At tho end of the year the Gujar 
talm the cn^p niulJHil.'s olT the Blilf on the ground that he has to 
pay for the liuDt>tTk9.' Nest }'ear the Bhil agatn gets clothes itud« 
m^ and is t<.-ld ho baa stUI somotbtne to jAy. Ho asks for a 
^■iMiioni of his lCv:(iunt, afid as a preliminary is sent for a new 
^ftirod paper. With a f^ soft words, soma money to buy a robo 
^B Bia wife, and a little li<inor, a new bond is made, tho meaning 
^R-* ':■; Bhil doea not understand, and be goe» luack to his 

^fc_. .^' for better luck next ywr. After stmpRling on for a 
^^^^kt'Wo he det'Tniine!* to leave. Then he finds th»t bis partner, 
^^^Her, has hLi acceptance for £20 (Rs. 200] or more; that Iho 
YSalfchck he had toiled for is not his, and that he and alt he has are 
at his nj«"ter'» tnerey. A dw^ree is pii!i.«ed, and iho Bhil'n grxidw are 
wnod and auld. Tlwu his master offers him a chance of retoni, and 






aervas for some time more. Again he jfrows ti 
id nfuHUH til work. T1m> nuwlur lin» !<till sutDe i i-^i 

4 Ute iJii^at nf Ilie civil Miurt ugoiu brinci> tht* Uiui toi 
Uiini^ fco on Etudi year to yonr. It ia iiwl. nDRmn 
a Bhil,* ODiler prut^ncxr cif ilio transfiT of his debt, Ui Iw 
from OQO c^(^dtto^ L<> ouothur. A tiliil with a decree '■■•^•' 
Worth more tbiui ouo whoso debts &ro emalltT. 

IB entvmd in d|^Mnu], nad iw h Bhil will sulirr xsi 
nther thiui di»j|rraoe UWotbor, thit threat Ui send her Ui 
jxil iit lit auy time eBoagh lo make the Bhil do vrluLtovur his i 

I Very few nrtixniw, not more thnn ton per ctMit., are bw> trvm i 
Xike other Khdndetdi nuineyed daasee. arEisaus nho hmtx 
act as moneylenders. Except in Urge towne, few of the Ipsh tlriijl 
croftoncm can luAil their own willi th« skilled ;; " m|itili«| 

tDOHeylenderH. Mom are at the luercy of tho mn :>axei 

(carefol to k<x-p A strict unnnt of a«Erk«8 reudrred nr pay 
miido. Hatiilloum>weaTorJ^X'ii^/<>, tM, m • nde, in tho ha 
nionev lend era, s4viiir», who adraooe money or >am, aud in retetl 
, vet the goods when ready. Few woaron have more than fs| 
(Qe. 20Oj sunk iu th« trade. Formerly their Dnipli>\-ni('u( 
CCmstAQt, but of late it has beoXne Houiewbat uncertain. Tbff] 
generally own a houfto worth from £5 to X50 (Ra. 50- Rs, SOOt;! 
omamentn ond fitmilure wnrtli fromXl U> £■> (Rw. lO-Rs. ^0); aw! i 
hxHo iiiiii other tools worth fi-om 1.1 to £& (Rs, 10- Rs. oO), Pcm; 
Btho bu)iy i<e»)^on, 3Juy to October, a good workman eanu> 

"to 2«. {annaa 4 -Be. 1) n day. For thu reitt of lUo year 1.. • j, 

eamingH amount on anaverag^to 3i. (2aiiNu«]. Si^inu are we3-t 
do ; bat moat are indobtod to moneylenders, and work under 
orders. The bblk of the Khflndosh women kHTI prufer thi- k 
haiid>w»vttn robes and bodices to any forei^ articles. C' 
are decidedly better off. They are frw from the m- U 

' control, and generally work with their own ciqiital. Biu! 

either work for daily wages or on oontraet. Thoo^h not uii _- 
Klreo from the moneylender, they are seldom withont work and 
"better off than weaven, dyer», and cotlon-rarder*. Cilcfdwi! 
have no need of capital. Working in gold and sUrer tmnpljed 
t]ie etiiitumers, they ohai-ge ^ oommon plain work from I ^d, to Sil 
(1-2 nnncM) tho tola of silver, and fnim .^^ to t><J. (2-4 aNii'i«) Limj 
• iola of gold. They are a thrifty claatt and are uot geirtmlly in del 
'Carj>onler«, paid either from Id. to Is, *Jd. (S- 14 anna») a day or 1 
tho piece, have no ligwlar enlploJ^neut and nrv little Iwtter off tha 

rday labourvriL In small Tillages they ore sometimes paid ia 
Itfibonrera are employed in tho fields botween June and Janui 


when, in niiiek succosaioii, oome the xtiwiug and reaping ^>f t} 
early and latetmtMi, the picking and cleaning of cott^m, and 
ploughing of land for the next xcaHon. Women as well as uion „ 
emiMOTed iu weeding and harvesting crops aud in einuitig cotto 
Id February and March, labourers bring headloads of gra^ and fu. 
from waetu lauds for sale, and from April to June tliey 6nd wor 
in botufO-building; road-makiug, and other village ioba. I-^xoei 





1^ th« few yoars before aai attar the cIosd of lite Amcnooa 
far nuii llio 0|<fiiin^ of iht: riiilwny Ihnin^h KliAinlcsh, umikilled 
I (orkers w<>re pn)l)abty never better off ilian they uow arw. Fifty 
ttthri; afjo tho wngus of nn^killod Inliour wore cxlromely low, imj 
i.t till- AAinu time oinplo\inont waa coiii|>»ml ivHy uiie«M-t4iin. Fifteen 
r!DWs a^, on account of tho fftvat deuianil for labour in innknig; 
ni]w»yM and from ttu; flourifihin)^ i^luto of the cotton trade, the \'^o 
ft labour nxic vwn tuore tluin ihtt viilntxiUBdnco and utJN^ prices, 
ieeiilea thia, aa nio&t of the labourere, fiapetSftlly those emjilovi^ in 
elds, iroro paid in kind, thoy i(hun-d with tho femiors in tho general 
fit from high prydiico jjriwM. Siiico tht'ii, vxt-opt durinjf tho 
iai fiimiiio yearii, ltMJS-((y, 1871-72, and I87(i-77, pric»M luivo 
lUun nImoBt below their funni-r level, but owinjf to tho roDtiniied 
tuuiiil for labpar, wnfrt-« hiiv»* not fulli^ii in an wpiii) dt-jfrw. At 
I Bame tiivLtheir n-nut of thrift, and their fundnesH for KpcdSiiig 
ir money on omaments and opium or Uqnor, combine to ke<tp 
kfanartTA iioor, and iii many ooseH to plqjBgD thoin tep('l«K«ly in debt. 
[ooeylenilerH seldom, at onfl^irae, aavdStee day laboiin-rs more thjia 
2 l(>«. to i.^ (Its. 25- Rm. 30), bnt ttiuirliubilitios often exceed £10 
Kh. 100). Im uakiuif Mm udranoeathe moueylonduroftiiu n>qiiir«a 
labonrer to pteoj^e his labour, hia house, his bullocks, and 
motimi'H wen h'w fuioily pol» iuldornaim*nlK. Whvu the Inbourer 
no pniporty, the moneyleudv vsually demnndci n reapeclablo 
ty, OP forces the whole family to sign tho bond. 
.,&bontlwoortltroo per cunt of Ubo Inbonring'pupalationin the cast, 
" " bout ton j>w cent in the west, raise mum-y liy mortguginif their 
These men are generally pnyill Inndiiolders, who, by Bomo 
lUy or mi(^)inp, have fallen hopelusxly in <ii.'bc. Afon who mortgage 
leir l&ttOtar aro \uiwn lut ycnrlieR, mtddr*, because tlieir term of 
ice lasts for on^Br more yoant. Lnbonr is gi'iivrully mortgaged, 
tiier to clear oS old debtti or to raise a sura of money to moot 
karriage or other ('xpeuHes. Sometimes a man mortgages hiit own 
d sometimes his children's labour. The rm-n who take labour 
mort^f^ are gimernliy rirh land^iwuvrN, ilctl'inukhi, jidiils, and 
iliejTH, who employ the mortgagers in field work and 6ometimo8 
niesseugera or duns, mahaifutis. The labour-mortgage bond, 
&Ued » year deed, filkhat, in on staropt^d jiuper. Sometimes the 
lortgager in advanced the whole, *BBi aomelimes only unc-half 
th© sum aneed on. The common plan is that the labourer, 
orkingsololy lor his benefit, isi!Hpp!ie<l with food at the mortgagee's 
nst, Under thw form of Bcre«>mc-nt, a labourer takes &i>m three 
four years to wurt off a debt of JEIU (R^. lOO).* Occ^isionally tJw 
Uldr lives by himself and is bound lo do only a Certain nmoont 
F work for his iitanter. Undiir this agreement, Uie laboun-r supiMirtH 
imself, and in two years would work oB a debt of £1U (Its. 100). 
tiihiar'a stirrices cannot bo banded from OD« uMmr to another, 
bey are willing workvrji, and generally do their share of tbo 
reemcnt freely and without punishment. Sometimes they mn 
Bfuy, and formerly, though they now refuse to do so, the mngisfmtoa 
km! lo euforcc tho bond. Their services uovcr l>ocome hefediiapy, 
the houses of wealthy headmen and landlords is ft cloeo of 

Chapter ' 


tSombity Gue 


in ftii 


boredltttry^lainiTs. Byforo iV* jiassiog of tli« Act (V. irf IS 

Uieiib people witru lidtnlfiuiou auil boutlmrMmen, the liropert y of i 

ina«UT oud liable to be sold by hitn. Tbcy now bolJ tiif pia 

of hired sonmnls. In prai.liru thftir conilition ia tittle 

boy «ro wt-ll Iruiiti^l by tbeir msjrtera, nnd few of Ibom bare 

', tlieir ojiporEiuiirica of raUing tbeDuclvua from the 

Tliougb the bulk of fiie Kh&ndesh moneytondera are 
and unBcmpalonB ia their dcalini^, nnd, WtDe' fon^i^trr*, i 
much wi'iilth out of tho diiitrint, thdir capiui! titid tb<'ir'lliri(t 
xkill ill iiiifiiey matters are of the highen( ralae. Wii.himt 
gteniDs for hiinrdiiig and tho pitilustt pr?s:^iiro tbey pal on 
dvbliim, thr bulk of tho mouoy how yearly saved would n.-vrr I 
been earuGil, ur if cttrued, would have beeu apout iti fecuiLiugj 

Accordiiif^ In rc'liirim propiired in 1820 nador C 
orders, from 1788 to 171)7, in Amalneiv ^rsnd^, um] 
aventgo daily wage of a carpenter, a blacksiflBh, m weavi-r. aiiil< 
tailor vnw 6<t. (L niiii'i«) ; of a bnckhiyur nud a beartu- i)|i/.] 
a»»i>*) i »ud of a labourer :]<^ (2 ann'u). Bulloi-k hire waa] 
(■iaitittM) a day ; cart hire waa from U. to '2t. (at. 6 -11k. l),aacot 
as there was otxi or two ]»irH 6t ltdloek» ; and puDV bm^ niu 
{aanna"). Botweeu 1798 andl8l7, there was a conititK-rableic 
in tho earnings of skilled nnd unskilled vrorkers. In 181 7 the i 
vi»gv of a cari>i!i»lt^r wiw D}./. ((JJ anna*); of j^^Iack^mttb 
(r> annOM) ; of a bricklayer 8)i. (5 j annmt) ; of a wosver ^J. (4 nnuu 
of a tailor 71<f. (6 aniidx) j o^a basketmaker 5J'(. (itj aiiniM) ; 
bearer 7[d. (& axiKM) ; and of a labourer l^'l. (■^^innajr). RuTTdl 
hire was £>(!. >(G au»<M] a day; carl hirC fro^ I-*. G(/, 
((tv.l2-Re.lS); and pony biro was ll^d. (7^ lumTs]. BoO'.-i-u i-: 
and l8'i!U wajjca changcil but iitl'Ic. Cart hire viaa from 24. taj 
(Bo. 1 •Kit.2), and puny hire wa:* Ic (8 anntm). 

Tn IS28, ten yean after tho introduction of British rale, the '. 
wage of nniikilled Uiliour was for a tiinn Sil. to -l^'l. [i.:i nttnti*), 
a woninu 2irf. to 3<(, (ll^aitnan], and for children utidor fout 
2Jd. (li ai»jwM). At tho same tinw, besides tho daily jiri'sent 
handful of ears of grain at harvest titnc, the wogeit of field Ul 
were 3d. (2 <mit(M) for a man, 2i'i. Ui anno*) for a wotnan, 
l|d. (1 anna) for a child. In field work men nsed nI.-<o to 
i^ugngfM) by the month, without food «t 8*. (It* -I), and with foodj 
from2*. to4*.{He.l-l{fi.2), Tho-se e 11 giigi* men lit generally lusted fji 
two to fotir months and ended with harvest. Of skilled labot 
ordinary In-icklayqv and carpontcrs were paid In. (8 annm,),. 
clever ^-orkci^lsTSt/. (10 anmiM) a day. Of personal sorrtuitH, the 
monthly wag^of a tailor was £1 (Ka. ID), and of a gro<»n 16a. 
(Ua. 8). funy and cart hire was |il. and \{ti. a milo (I and 2 
a ^«). PnymenI used to be ntaide in copper ooiux mllud <(, 
and ghivniit worth Jd. and gi2. (J and 1 aiiiia). 

In 1842, the daily wage of uniktlled labour was 9d. (2 ant 
Far from large towns field workers wore usually paid in grain, wiU'i, 
perhaps at Div&ii, tho pretieBl of u tnrban and a pnir of shoes. 






D of tho |*riun wa« about l\d. (1 ann 

wuf^ IimUm] till uhout IS-'iO, whvn tW making of milwftyn itud 

r public wortcH began to ^ect the lalxmr mitrket. Kr-jto titat 

labour ha«, vxcvpt in 1877-78, steadily riaon iu ralue. In 1863, 

Ij yrngv of uuHkiliod luUmr n'iM for mou from 6(f. U> 10) 
WitiMMj, for womeu from (Jti. toli</. (3-4anaai'), audforch 
■om 21(/. to 3d. (l|-2 anmw). At the same time, amonj; sli ^^ 
ibuGivri) titu (tuily w»go mw. For Htooo mnsotm an<l bricklAyers 
10111 }*. to Is. 6d. (8- 12 antww), for cnr|)ont«nt from l<i. Od. to 2«. tid. 
iHH'ia I2-Ro. H), and for tailors from U. toU.3<{. (iJ-tO a»na«). 
ut biro WHH )«. 6(/. (12 anntut} a ilay, or 2^'^ (I J attfiat) a niilu in 
L» fair miinth.4, and 3(1. (2 aitnaii) iu tliu roitu. Punjr hire was |('. * 
oniiii) a mite. 

Botwcon IS70 aad 1880, thg daily wage of unskilled labonr Ium 
imained prptly mii!(tatit at 6.i. (i ann<u] fitr a man, SJ**. {2i rinn<w) 
T a womao, und frnm IJJ, to M. (1-2 aamui) for h child. Duriofr 
^0 1870-77 fainiue, eo givat wa« the eupply of labour seeking 

iiildynii^nt, llmt iiM^iit^^ »{ tin? nin; in produce pnw*. ibt? nit^H of 
Oidcilled inlionr fell lo 2^ {\^anna) for men and i{d. (I attaia) for 

A iipccial cliuft of uiLtkilled carriers, or hattuHn, work in gang* of 
irty, flod, except tbat (be^'beadiuHn baa an extra quarter, 
]eir daily eorain^pi in cqiuil Hliaree. Tliey are paid I }■/. 
(*) (or iinliiKiliu)^ fntni OUO to 70| pouadu of graiu, and ji/, 
Ru) <for cari^'in^ ii bide of nn|n<^ktHl outton from Ibe wars- 
DBseti to tbe cotton presses. Id tbe busy hoomuu, frorO Kwbruary to 
lay, thvir aveni|ro diiily oumingii nmotint to about 0(i. (4 anttae). 

Town workor4nn(l craflamen aro naid in coin, and liuld wnrkom 
lartly in tn^i'^ audr^rtly in coin. The cuHtom vaAes in different 
Uirts of the district utid with ditfurent ero]M. In Kiivt-r, payment 
t harvpHt. time U nHually a percentage on cImi amount of tliv crop 
at; white in Sirda, except in the case of the millet crop, thu< form 
if payment is almoal tmknown. Day labourers are, as a rule, ]uiid 
,t iuton-ala of fonr or fiv<! diiys when their wages (generally atnouut 
■Ixiiit 2jt. [Ko. I). Town labonrew gi^to work at daybrc^ak, como 
^ume at noon for dinner, and after reatiiijr fur Iwo liourn, wurk 
ill sunaet. Field workvrx, iMiginniug at daybreak, and taking their 
illut tiri.-iiil,Ki]i<inHnndpi<'kliMirclintiiey witli lliem,cHl tbcmal noun, 
id, after i-estiug for about two hours wi.rk on till dark. CoWou- 
licbing is paid for at Id. for nine pounds (about I ptV a ponnd). A* 
WmI workt-rwill eani from IJi/.loSi/. (I -2itnii(i«) aday. Tlio peopio 

Ry((d iu thiH work are chiefly women. Ourinvnoat of Ibo nuns 
\T into tho cold weather (Jumi-Fobmaqr^. field workers End 
ymont in litdpinj,' liiiHbaudm<-u tn weed, wii(i.h,jj(?ap, and harvest 
npir hrnjiM. Kriitii Fcliriuiry to Miiivh iJiey iirtt uNiHklly employed in 
iringinj; lieadli>ad& of grass foi-snle. During the rest of the yvnr I bey 
lelp bricklayers and carpenters, and repair roads, dig pondH, gin 
iotton, and nirty Inads. Uuusu Mcrvnnbf, whether in towns or 
rilii^^s, arupnidfrom Sa. toI2*. (Rs. 4-R8.6)Hmnnth. Wngvit, when 
rork is unbroken, are \K\\t\ every week on market days, otherwiae 
hoy are paid daily. Iu a labourer's houoohold tliv wife gt-uvnilly 
B 411-26 

CfaapUr V. 



Chapter V. 





vofn* cnmi^h to provide tlit> family with salt, oil, cbillies, and spiceil, 
'pcriia|>!t'»lK>ut.4Jii(--Kixth of llic family' fnnds. Childn^a cam coons 
to keep iheiiu<eiv(>a ju clMtheH, nml nuiy lie iukid to cantributui 
oDO'twclflli of the familj^ fimds, 

llio rL-turns of p rada co prioce streloh OTor an unusually long Be: 
efjetarn. TIkv tSq^^ (u two main wota, ouv for tlio tliirty-th 
yeateocdiuK IH2(I, prcpan-d fortbi! Amnlncr, Ei-aiidol, amlNtindiirlji 
eub>divisiuoa in 1 82U ooder Captain Briffg«' orders, sud iho other 
for tliu fnrty-six yoarii ending IS78, couipilod by tho Dhalia 
mdmlntdilr from ntcortU and (p-niti-ditalers' ncoonutii. Between the 
^ two seta of retarna thtfe ia a break uf lliret- yeai-a (1821 to 182S]. 

Tbu find Hot of thirty-tliri>e yeare includes three poriods, ouu of 
ten yeara 1788 lo 1797, ono of twenty yoars 1798 to 1817, Md one 
of thre« years 1818 to 1820. The firttt periodj^m 1788 to 1797, 
was n timo of ver^ cheap grhia, with the rupee price of Indian 
inillet, jvAri, ranjfing from 210 pounds in Erundol to 280 pounds in 
Anialner, and averaging 245 pounds. Th« 8«coiid period, from 
1798 to 1817, was, apart from the greal 1802-3 famiuo wh«n 
millet rose to uboul four poTiuds the rupee, a time of dcan^'r gntin, 
with millet priiN,-s mngiug from 129 pounds in Amaluer to 140 lo 
Kandur)}^, and avcru)^ug litA pounds. In Lbe three years ending 
1820, produce prices rose most* markedly, Indian millet, ^"rdri, 
Tarying from nixly-thrce pounds in Anialnor l« ninnty-four pounds 
in Krandol and Hreni);iug Kovvnty-xix pounda. The JoUowisf 
ntati'incnt gives thi> chief available details : , 

SMiuUJt I'roduct PritAt tPmiiuU Uie ttupa}, tUs-lSiO. 


Tbf years 1821, 1822, and lS2:t,for which no returns aro avaiUM^ 
*ftro spoken of as a period of rapid spread of tillago and lower pri^H 
than liad been known for thirty ycarw.' Then followed one or tw^ 
Beosous (IS2t-1^2t>) of Krairciiy nearly amounting to famine, with 
Indian millet rulina at from seventv-four to seventy-nino pounda, 
or about as high as in I S 1 7. The fifty-tbrc-c years siwoo 1826 may 
bo dividwi into firo periods. Sis yiwirtt of cheap grain (1827-1832) 
with Indian millet ranging fi-om ninety to 144 pounds and avonigii 
aboot 117; four years of scarcity (I833-18315J with Indian mill 
varying from sixty-lwii to !«tv«nty-three pounds and nversg"" 
sixtj-six; eighieea years (I837-18M), excluding the scarcity y* 

> rnrlhtr d<4sUi aro ffivcn Mow. P. W2. 


oE l838-3ftancl 1816-40, af luw pricoH wirli Indijin millet ra'ig^iif; 
from eighty to l(}B nad areTs^Ug about IHi poujide^ aud'tliirtuen 
jrcwv (IS-'ii^' 1867) of hi^^h pnous, partJ; owin^ to several etru^ons of 
short cn>i>!) aad partly ft ttit^ American n-arand (Jil- tiitn)dut-lion of 
milways sud public wdi-Icb, with prices Tarymjj from thirty-two bo 
cighty-four and avcnieiug fifty-four poands. jjl|iu] twelve yi-ars tlut 
huveHinoepa!<8ed(18(}S-l879), ludiait millet ^HRhnvv rariw) {rom 
Beventy to 2-li and averaged about foi-ty-six pounds. ITie toud^ucy 
in thrao yuan; hiut keen to a fall in prices. But thia teudi-ncy bas 
boen aiijtd tliiiH met by four bud lii>rvt^!il« followod liy uliiioiit famine 
prices, in 18G8, 1871, 187tj, and 1877. ITio foHi)wiiig statement 
showd tbe at'aiinble details of the prices of the chief cereftU and* 
pulteSj and of cotton, bolwcuu IS'H and 1879 : 

SMtuMi Prodmct Priat (Pomtdt Uu, RaprtJ. JBSt-J879. 


Fnn Pmon. 


Thus Pmon. 














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iW It} 

Ciiptniu Br^ga' retoms for tho first set of t]iirty-lhr(>e yeant 
(17vS8-1820) iacmde sonio interesting particulars of the prict's of 
fowls, chtok«ni<, mid t^ggn. from tliest; n^ttini!* it would seem that 
pu an averanri? during the Brat of his three jtenoda (1788-1797), 
fowls sold at 3d. (2 artna«} a piuce, chickens at 'i^d. (1 j annn*), nml 
vgf^ at about seven for a puniiy {8 pic*). In tho second period 
(1793-1817) tlio avomge price of fowls rose to about &l'^(3l anntu). 


fBombAj Gaiett 



tVdahU Mid 

of cliiolci^H to iibiMit ^\d. (2Jt annaa), and of efffrs to five for apenaj' 
(8 pirw)' '\'iu- ctirn'-nt (1880) pnccH of Iiipmi' tlinw iirticles in the 
three siil>-di visions, Anialiior, Hramlul, luii) Niuiilurli^, to wliicli th« 
old rctnrne rt-for, arw for a fowl froia Hd. to U. ('i-S aatum), for a 
chioketi from lt<f. to4}4l. (1-3 onnw), and for eggs about Uvee for 
a peon;- (8 pieti). 

MvtAls, cotton, clarified butt«r, oil, fnel, '"^'^ apic«« aro sold bv 
wi'i^'lit. In vm« of gold Ibo follotrinf^ weiiflita are used : 2f 
guixjiix, one nil ; fonr im?*, ono rajun ; and twvlro miiad*, ono /«/«. 
Bartoy grains, jotw, formt-rly in uso 'aa weigiit*, are now seldoin 
oocn. Tbd tola is a little more in weight tlian the British rupoo 
• which weighs only itUiwn magtU and oj punja*. Th« gunj, rod and 
abont the size of a sntall pea, bi tho Mood of ihu Abnix prctmtorioa, 
and Ibtt ml, a )itt)o larger, is the soed nf tbc diUhiiri tiv-e. ToIm 
anil »iif»ij«, icijiiiin- or octngonal in shape, are made of brass and 
sometimes of China pcirvvliiin itnd d<df. For vroiKbing silrer the 
Brirish mpeo is always used. As tho rupee la not always of uniform 
weight, in wholivude ptu-chase« discount at (he rate of oight pqj 
cent is ajlowod. Thy vltvapur metals, copper, brass, iron,, aaf 
lead, and clarilied hutur nnd nil an' mU\ at^ourdiug to the followiaj! 
tul>lu : three paitt'm, UnMiuiua pitvos, onu irAAdiii/; j fourcAAni^fit*, oiio 
jiAcuhor; two juirflfra, oao nr/iJbfr, equal to a pound ; two (irJlA«r< 
or ptMioda, ont' ii/ifr ; five «Aw», i^ne }iiiari ; two jHitHg, one dhadi ; 
fonrr//(.>.?i>, onoiw*»«orMiiiund ; ihrcti wmji*, ono /JiiHn ; twenty man*, 
one fchandi equal to fivi>>sevenths of a ton. The table -obrtcrved 
in tho caflc uf ootton is : eighty fo{a« or 2^ pounds, ono Kher ; forty 
gkifrJt, nuo man ; thrco mang, one palla ; ton tmwM, or SiZi pouuda, 
ono kfutH'fi. The Kombny khandi of 784 p<^unds is aW octeu used. 
Ttit'so weigbta^re made of inui and aUimped. Grain is hTKOHurod 
by bnuiM and copper cylinders according to tho following tiiblo : four 
ehhali'd-Ji, one /wro/iT,- two y)'ir^A<r8, one aehhrr; two nMA/rn, one 
thr ; twd shfv», ono aiHtiiti ; two aiUiolU, ono }>(iy/( ; four loiy/w, oa^ 
tMa ! twclro tlol/iy, one ffl<i/). The map raries from 660 to ~"^ 
pounds, ntzoording to ihv diilorvnt twrts of grain. 

Brass ami copper pota, serrtng na q»arti>r, half, and whole ei^^ 
rupee ahi^a, are used for moaauruifT milk and small qoantities of 

Fuul, when wanted in Inrgo qnantities for spinning and wuaving 

iiiilln and other lami iiinniifw.'t'Oriei*, i.t brought by mil and calcohitpd 

t )niona;whon bonfttfor daily ntto, the Nine of the headlonda op 

'cartloads deternuiiHThe price. Qfftsa is sold by the hnndn'd bundloa 

and somubiiues by the hradloiid. ^M 

In the CWH> of cbilh either the foot or tlie yard meeanre is ua0m| 
Beady made waiscclotha, dhotar», are sold in pairs, and womes'e 
robes, Utgi^dt, and pieces of S&vda coarae cloth, known tM jolt, nro 
eold singly. In imqunring Uiphc clotliH its woll aa in measuring 
mr|ie|ji, j-'ijanm, and (Vinr»e mmr clutha,j'orttf, both tho length and thv 
bii^ndth are taken into consideration, 

Bricks are Hobl by the Ihonmnd ; nvftent nnd hcumj* of leak and 
other furt-at lindier by the Hcoro or huudrod ; and lai-ge posts and 
)>iUur» singly. Their buw and appcaniJiee regtilwto the price. Iq 

,oaa 1 







laifl^ porcliasea timber is Talaed by its cubic conteiitB. The mean 
breadtn and thickuess are found hy meaaDring the breadth and 
ihickmisB of the log at the two ends and in the middle, and dividing 
the whole by three- 
Heaps of gravel, murum, and road metal, khadi, are measured by 
their cubic contents, the nsoal unit of measurement being a bards of 
100 cnbio feet. 

Before the revenue survey, and still in some unsarveyed S4tpnda 
villages, the district land measure was : twenty kdthis, one pdnd ; and 
tm/aty pdnds, one bigha. The survey measurements are a chain of 
thirty feet, one anna ; sixteen annas one guniha, and forty gunthas, 
oae acre. Thirty gunthds are equal to one bigha, or 1} bighde are 
equal to an acre of 4840 square yards.' Partdn meaning four bighas 
according to the old, and two bighas according to the modem 
oalcolation, is a word often used by Kunbis speaking among 
themselves. Twenty partdn$ make one aul. 



Weight* am 

^TheMgAameaaTae, b«Md, it is sold, on the length of the hand of Peshwa Mftdhav- 
Iftrll. {1774-1796), TBriea in different places. The idMi, five hands long by one hand 
brcwd. Mid to have bees carred in stone in the Shonvdr VAda at Poona was at first 
tiM aoonited measure. After a time the length of the Peshwa's hand became 
naggaMMd, and the hand was taken to mean the loDtjlh of a man's arm from the 
■Ibcnr to the tip of the middle finger, with an additional span. Hence arose some of 
ilwrariations m the size of the bigha. In some places it wm equal to U of anaoie, or 
too bigluti were equal to Sfi'l acres. Mr, J. Pollen, O.S. 





Chapt«r TL 


Karlg Bbtdit, 




Tub mrly rock-out rpimuoH at Ajanto , at I '&tna nwir QbAlii „. __ 
■ at C bAudo r, and at Niaik. make JtpTx>b«ble tliai, as far back aa the 
, BCcouTand first vpnturies ttefore Cnruit, tni<!l« iyito» bctw ucn north 
upd yffl t'b India ]iaHwd dowj to those places. " m U»o thu-d century 
after uhriBt, the author o£the P eripl ua (2-17) mentions tbat trade 
crouod Khtodc'sh from Br oach to I^ithan on tht; Gudi^vari.and to 
Tag artfta days furtlior oasl.^ The n-)n»ini>at Bbamw n*-*!' '^ ■ i r 

makeTt f>robable that thia trade panned from llroacli tliroi. :, 

the south bank of tho Tfip ti by ^'"tsarr&di. and through ths 

po«GonMT!^«i?»Mcmii>wn. If 

;ffli'rif«iLPiti:^ v^f 1 



the statement tbat it lay ten dajntotbeeostof Paithan ts ootrect, the 
trade ^wobably poaseu eastvardn tiirougb K)i&iidi»th, tvaTiuf? the 
district either noar Pfttaa or near Ajanta The road though very 
difficiiU, wa.1 i>as8able forvramns. There were alao from very oiirly 
times mcTO diroct ry tc* to tho »cn coiut by Xfleik throngh t he Sir ^ 
TTwI. *fu) Yiti n Bhor p aasea to tliit ancient m« portti of 8up6ra, 


The riei cave^and tcmptc remains at Ajanta, Pfitna, and OhSndor 

seem to sbow that till thu MimnlmAii con({ii«^l< (13(10), the pat-i^-s in 

tho SiitiiiAIa hiHa continned the highwayfl of au iin^Ktrtaiit tmffic, 

jUnder che early Mnsalmins the route by Ihi^ Hat-v^n ^r Sit^Mogj 

ipass from MAIww t" KliJinik'sh nisi; to imporlonev. In )d06 H: 

Kiifnr. at (he Houlh entrance of this paas, established the city 

devi I 

India and GuiariU.' 

dm-tnt; the fifteenth 

and Hixtc'enlu ^nturioH, tbe time of the greatest epk'udour of the 
* ^Muwtlmiln dyuftiity of Ahmedsbad, a line of traffic to north Giijar&t 
and tlie coaat alouK tho nortb tmnk of the TrfptJ, and from M Alwa 
_ ongh KnkarmaDoa over the B uv<lka urCbiii^ : '■ I'' j^gla,' 

Cwo other IJnea mnst have Twen of special im^ ^ l_;,. i. Ik:. Aairj 
was the 4»pitelj>£ Kb&odetib.* Of tnese one runs north and soiii 

' MMt □( thii chapter i> oonipileil frou ni>t«riiJ> wpplicd l>y Mr. J, PolUn, 0.: 
> MoCrindle-. P«ni,lu«, l2S-i«l. 

■ SamQ notioei of uid oM-ly hirtoO^ ol Niiiik an ^von below, p. SSS-iMOl 
* Lee'i thn BatuU (13411. ' Otptain CIudm' Itinenuv, 60. 

■ DcUiU of Aiirgwl an ^vod belownndarJPkcM tit Intcreat.' B»i<fc« >U legMKUiy 

Id sontbj 

imnortwiM, Aaii^cl wm uia cliict plueo m Khindnatt baton Ui* MiiMlnrtii ccoiqi 
■ttd afMrwAtdt unckr Uic FArnki kiagi Mora Biubmpnt wM cataUiahtd <l400f. 

from north and contral Inditt through th« Sitnrol Pftsa by Aeirgat tj Cbapt^W 

Ihiring the iwsventecnth und tho firsl Iialf of che eiphtconth 
wntnriiis, whoa B urhtopor waa at the height of Jte powe r ttiitl 
S nrmt ww the chiw^ POTt of wcatern InSia. the bnlk of tJic great 
traffic between ttie inlan'd ouuntries nnd Iho ooftst passed through 
Kh^odesh. Tbo EnropoM' rokvelleni of the aeveat«entb coutury 
diwrilw tl^ic main i-out6 oa pasatng f rom Sti rat wist ihrour*"' 



S i»T?vi7aiKtffl T 
Piinioliier, Ninipiir' 



TiiUiwr. C ho 


urat Co 

<ur, and then §tra<;k jigath thrpughji 
Snnss. to Golkouda.* ' 

Daring the eariv yenra of thiu century, Munitl ut miarule alm oet 
deatr oywi th e trado ofjf hAndMh. At tlie begiunlog of llritish nJo 
there wiTo no made roads. ^Tho tracks wore tIl-appoint«d Uiid 
deficient in everything but di»<;omfort »nd daugcr. J-ew and far 
between were the miserable hamlets, and the monntain paesee were 
Its riiLa''<'-1 luul impractatsble as their Rcrcv poBtwssora.'* In 18'26 
the 1 : tifs were from DhHJiu -.ui u irtiitr w, 155 miles north T>y i 

jn and TacTiora, 


north-east bv AmalP' _ i-ar- 

■erenty-throo miles ) o DhnLj^ ot ; «uat o ^^trolanES 
108 miles to Hurhtinpor; i^oiith-ciutt 1iy It had 

iran<iol,uiul t>fl 

eighty-four miles t o Ajiuila ; &ou(h by MeTianbara ' and tli e Itayl^ 
pa** to Ani^ng^had : iwiith-wpst by ^t&legaoD. Ch^ndorrwSifc. an d \ 
the Thai n <i.s » 
,t>f lauen'nittle 
jny yoara 

JUT war««| 

' 17& inili<e to BhiwiKJi. a nmli! juissiililv for t-vi-ry sort 
ii and west l.v Pjnip«^gf f..»l Nk^An..j-^tp s..r«t. For 
the onlv one of theao tracka on.woioh money and 


iWPt waa lb> great BombuT nnd Agrr- fv ■'. t ad, by 

^n ^jvad. and the I'aJaBner or tjindva pass. The ivad cntvrH 

kli^udwn noar the Dliulia villa^'n of Jhodgn, and mnniug north 
paaaee through Virdul «;ron.tiiig t.ho Tilpli at SAvalda where there 
n a ferry. It then runs due north through Shirpiir nniil it reaches 
the Kb4ndosh boundary in the centre of the S&tpudfis near tho fort 
of Borglm r. Tfau Ttipti is the only nubridgi-d river, and except 
between tlie Tifiptiand the Ptalaeiner or sindva pass whereit is gravelled, 

li» road is metalled tJiroughout. / In 18-j3-">4, Bomo progreNi, 
I made in improving Ihu cifigLBlfld'* "' the district. About one 

lltiodred milen (if fair wrtilher nads were made at a cost of £988 
S. 988il).* But until 1803 the main Agra highway aiHid most of the 
funda set apart for road-making in Khnndenli. Sinew theU'vyofa 
special ctnut for lucjd works, rotul-buildlng has ma<Ie rapid nrogreiia. 
At Sfingir. on tho Agra road about twclfo miles north of Dhnlia, a 
mnch nged line, made partly from Im[>iL'ria1 nnd partly from local 
&iud«, pauses norlh-wvat through Uangurtin, Chimtnnu, Methi, and 



' 8irT. noan«IS]in Ken'aV< 
> ClraJiua'i Btiil Tn1<w, 1. 

ojaM, IX. WR i Tavemior 1)60(1) in Hania' Vofffm, 
*Tay*Tai»r in Hvriit' V..¥»(t»«, II. 369. 
• Bon. R<T. Bee. XXVI. of 1»GS, put X. 3012-13. 

"caupter VI. 
Bod tea. 


ttmnk . 


VikriiD, twODly-foiir inilwi to Doudaicha. East from Dholia, 
fol-ty-aix iiiilen through I'Jlrola and Knindot, runs n gravwHwl and 
unbrid^rcd local faud road to MhasilTad railway otatiou. Kiviin Uiiti 
linw It fUTHvollod and unbridged bmncb mns twenty-two miles Boath 
to Kaj^wii niilwny Klatioii, and a wcond braQcli passes iJx miloM 
oortli>weat from Krandol to Dhamagiion. Souta from Dliiilia & 
roud, gravelled, drBined, and bridged except over thu (lirnn, runa 
Uiiriy-four niilos to Cluilis^on atatton, and from Cbfilisgaou La 
contmned seven milea Aouth, through llic Oiitram or RftomtigaoD 
pKES, to the border of Hie NiBim's lerritoi-y. From Dfanlia, west 
towards PiinpAlfcr, a nKui has been finished thirty-two miles to 8&krt. 
» From S^kri a tine Li cI^a^(■d, and \\w pari ovor thr Kinidnilniri pas^ 
bridged and metalled, cbirty-eigiit miles north-west to Naviijmr on 
tho way to Sural. In tho cast tn'o lines centre at Jalgaon, one 
fourteen miles fi^m Nori in the Kouth, giwvcUod and bridg«d, ll 
otlier from Dharan^on twenty milea to the weAt, of which the Gr 
three mile« to the Girna have alone been liuished. In the sou 
from Pilfhora stat>iou a gnivt'llod and <]niiiiud roa<i rans eight mil 
west to Bliadgaon. 8iiuK^ tho ofHining of the railway (l^('&),tlii 
old Asirgad road, rnnning eaat from Jinidga on the Uombay-AgTi 
road to Burhilupur, has been deserted and left to fall into decay, 
lieitidfic these and the short gravelluil roads that run between the 
towns and stations of Miiheii, H^vda, and Riiver uu tbo JalMilpur, 
and Varangaou and Bodi-ad on the Xltgpur line, are many mu 

ased fair wimthur c^rl tracks.' 


Of ninety-four passes throngh the hilly country to the west, 
uorlh aud sonth o( Khlindt-jili, tiftevu are in iht' ?^nlivrti|ri«, iifty- 
four i» tji^f ^^ty^dAfr and twenty-five in the S Of the 

fifteen g^y^^j^iamfi, seven are in the ran^L ... ^.n-ating the 
Pimpalner sub-division from the IMngs aud the Kiailt district, and 
nintr are in the sputa that intersect the IMnipalner sub-divieion. Thotte 
IwMling into the DAng a are RoiutiAKiiAiti, near RAyjiar, pasxable for 
* half- 1 ad en ca^Ue, aud Ohanmalk^bi, nvw VJmharpita, Uurely 
posfablo for carts. Those leadin g into the Nfisik diwtr ict are, (ho 
HtLeARIdHAT, on thu mnin line bctwuvn IJonU and Mdmk, bridged 
and in good order; FlBOLiniKiOHlT, {Mueoible for carta bnl with 
little tratfic ; llKt>Ai.VAi>iOHAT, a track for foot paiwengen ; Mo«daka, 
on the old road from Snrat to JUnlegnon, a fair pwss ; and lUBCbvAni, 
passahlo for carls but in' v<try bw! order. Those in I'impalncr 
• are GRonBaR.i.T near ChaOJpaHa and one between Scri mul Audi, 
* payable for foot passengers and nlAideu atiimnls ; KcjjpaipAkuih .^t. 
nbiiut fift«vn miles west of Niaimpor, on the main n>ad Ir-Iwoch 
Dbulia and B 'li^t, described in I82U aa full of forest but pass-tlilo 
10 carr'iages,^ now bridged and metalled and with considerable 
traffic; CuvlkiiAchAi).<iii and TuAhkpAda on the road botw 

NandtiklSlr and Ntxj>mpiiir«rith fair traffic; Man or TXHi>o»ADJliu,dH 
the road between Unihmauvel and Dabivel, barely nasaable for mrts^^ 
Gu&TitiRi on the road between Ashtana aud Miedtnpnr, througli 

< Cootrilqilol by tXk'tar A. T. Miuiil«T, B.E., Exeeatir* bgtPMa Khtrnkiii. 
* t^ptain Cluixa' luucnij, Iff, tfS. 

-" *^- 

" '^ 



Kliorna, in good order mi<1 mlh coii«idvn>l>lv trofRc ; TssABoiiti, 
on tlio rOAtl from SfUcri u> Siz&tnpvr, wiUt littlo tmlliuj n!ii 
KMAmnftmn'stti^ OD Uie rood betweon S«v&li aod Nizdmpur, 
tbi'i'iii/lt llhrtmor, ia good repair and with ouuHtdoriiblv tntfiic. 

The Sat[ )udii ^)u^^vl^s^ iK-j^miiiif^ from the west, are AMLifiici, 
loading from Am!i towards Dhadgaon and thoK^thi state, pa&sabk' for 
liuloD mdluuks, olopkaDts, nnd cniuolH; SatarqAri niii! ijinoi-VKeXBi, 
from S&Targnon and t^iiigpiir belovf t.ho hills to the K4tlii stale, inuwabto 
Cor unladen animala only ; VAlhkkiuaiii, DuKKAritiAiti, AkomibjIbi, 
ttnd Ai«ahu.u)IiAt, all leading to Dkadg»oa in ibv north and Taloda 
in the wjulh, jum.-'iilflo only for unladcu aninu^la a»d%>ot TuuiHoiigors 
carrying headloads; ChAsmeuohAi, about thirteon miles north- 
vrrat of Taloda, also on thi> road to Dhadgnon and thonce to tho 
Narbwin, in 1820 chokod with forest, now [)A^al>le for inodvrntcty 
laden donkeys and bullocks, and with some traffic ; BdtAka or Dodra- 
DDvAtifiAT, Nautba. and KakuiuAk). od the ro&d from Dhad^^aoo to 
Sural, Inu-uly pusabloby fout< |Nii»cngore cnrryingheodlondejNAVK- 
aivauiT, on the road from Akr&ni to Shdhilda, passable for lightly 
liwlon camels and ok'phants ; and TuiuKMumiiT . on the road from 
Tunmmiil to Khiili('nlii, pnssnble for fimi imiAst-ngers with hfndlonda 
and lightly laden bulIocKS and donki-'ys. In Sbirpiir the only l»SSG4 
itro VadAli, It cart roud from Ltieur lo Va'Vi!i ; ikiid MXi^niu, a cart 
road from (janpur to M^Mpur ; Bakvaji «r Sl'^alpevi . north of 
StUt&nptir, in the Barr^ui state, tjiou_Bual i\>afl froin_iui!or to Sural, 
pOMablo but hard for cattlu; Palahnku or tJiXf^yA. o n the BotnlMy- 
Agra road, alwut thirty uiilcjt wist of HarvAn or Hukaldevi, with tbrco 
Unea, two of them pa^alil^ for carta.' In Chopda, besides sis fo»tpnths 
U»odniorL- or less by the people in the pfains and tht^ Bhils of Ad&vod 
and filhor ptncvn in brtngiug down head or biillwik ioiids of graKSf 
fnel, and biimbooii, there are the following j>asses iised by carta : 
EAkuvAoiiAt, leading from Vardi toGandyaDovAra and to Bormali, 
paxitablo for carta, with traffic tn wood and lHiinl>oo!<; CiiACRiurATi, 
between Kunnidnud Karfnind, po^sablo for laden cattle; UiiAiLiBAitt, 
twenty mites nrtnh-<>asl at CAioptla, botwpeu MAlapur and Chirmim 
~(udin<^ also to Kharjou in His llighnt-M Ilolkar's lorritorv, 

Me for Iftdtm bullocks and tarts, with it Viiojitri Iraflic in 

wood and lutmboos ; SinvA Bagda, on the road from Varad to 
Vaijiipur, formerly passable for cattle, lately taken up as a famino 
work and made into a cnrt rood; Va^jAi-ub, a cart ru«d from 
Adgaon to Vaijitpur, with no spvciid 'timHic ; and Umaktbi, a cnrt 
road from M&malda to Umarlbsatid on into His Higbnoss flolkar'a 
lerritiiry. In tUvda, besides t«'euty mounbiin footpaths, 
VAruimdBi, MaiiclbAki, S.Wkuki>^uAk), NivoivaiKi, Aii<;atrAri, 


Umhia, Hinqonebari, KIorAdi, LovaKj AuB.d'AKi.DniHoaATt, Palox, 
GcnoianATi. nnd Viboub, need gcuonilly bj- Bhita in bringtt);; bead 
or bullock looda of wood and bamb<x>it, Lliu following are the chief 
paassB ; Hhidalbabi, from P&I, with a considerable traffic in wood 





' [b ISHthii waa th« tiighrfwl to Mlinw, Imim unbckltbjr that 1i«t«f*9 Anffuat 
tad DnotnlxT BaropouH preferred uiy other nrnU. C^ytaiu t'lutw*' Itiuoiuy, 4% 

■ 4H— n 

IBombaj 0*i»t 

ipter VL 



vo J 


bn^ug'bt by Vanj^ris from ITia nip^hDOse tTolkar's l«rrito' 
l ft»t.Ai3iiiAin . from Al'bn(i4i« Ui Pill, » cni-t rr>ai] with «o tmirib 
?\ [,\\mn | [ ..»r-iirl mml fn>m Maogrul lo UnriaiulUo Central VVitvincei 
with iii>^']K'fialliiifliL-;J^A||jji i-arl ruad from River to PAl wilti Inil 
in fiipl and bamboos, nnil from Sjiviln (u t'lil with do epodnl tru 
and GASisAiTit, n van nMid from Pddala co Neiiiltd, 

Tl>r> S^lnijil y M B jii-ii nro bc|^'nt]inf; from tbo east, ^JAlffl^* above 
Fanlcpur, ut>uiil thirty miles »iiii()i-4')uit of Piiiboni, wisily pa»snbl 
by PiirtK;' HaldiAouAt, and Jasjali.IohaT, jiasHablo forladen catll 

UoKDBSHVAIKJlliT, » fool})>»tll ; J>»'>E.SAKI01|At, NAndI^AoIIAT, »Ui 

SDKXDRXaiiAT,nT1 jmnsnblcforlitdoii cviltli-;Siiii[onAT niu! AktcboiiAl, 
■ [i>i>t]ii)tba ; KAtAnAT, also a footpaib, fi>:im Uoi'osv^di to Sllrar^.ion 
where a fair is favid in tbu month of Chaitra (Murch -April), in honour 
of tbo god K^ttoba wlio haa a U-inpIo there ; AsaoqiiAt, a ftiatpntU 
from S&yf;aon to Mohun ; MUAisanAr from SilygnoD to Uetiiin, 
p«MSsab1v for liiden c-iittlv, much iisod by people going to the Siivar- 
j^on fair; tiAvTAi.AanAT oi- Amr a, Ix-twocn ChiJliw ciion and K umiiul, 
the old^ tradeTm^ ^^BTrijrarilie hill fui.t.lhc ruiiicd oilv/d l'a( ua 
Etaiidtt. It wiiN oncw nwd by ca rta, and though now out ofropair, 
loiulvd carts with looked whonle ant bo taken down with diBicidtji; 
It vras ori^nall; umde by Aumugxeb aud repaired by Lieutei 
Outram when be srtt- '' "■ • Il hiU at Kanna d ; KAxnoBAcnAsoNua, 
frouTTjoiija iiiurSii Knpnnd ; XimodAt, from PAthnrie lo 
Stilbktind, pa&iable U.-r hidL^n bulIncljB. Ob'ritAir or KAsMNoATnHAT, 
ten milos wmth of CliAlifywon, w«» in 1870 pn:)vidi.'<l with n comploto 
cart iiMid ; it has niuob traffifi in grain, pulse, oilsotd, fruit, and cluth. 
JuxoxvAc'iiAunirffromShiTflpurto Jununa, passable for ladpn cattle, 
was much ii^cd before tlio Outram pass was made. Beyond, iu the 
t utrwnio »oiith-west are n grunp of small piMtscit, KALnnAr, from 
V&nm (i J Amim ^OhAtohAt, fntm Ahank^i t«^> Aml'iila; Gaxksohat, 
from Pdtnato Kalanki; and CHiLHAnonAt, IJADnAnanAT, Khbkbokda, 
and Mlkcik!, from Kluiradi toLodhra; and Uanvatohat, from 
rimjnt^iu to Lodbra. TJiMc arc all footpaths passable for unladen 
cattle oulv. _ __ _. 


Under the British, Iwsidcw by ronds, the diatrict connnanioatioDfl 
liave boon improved by the opening of tliu Qrent Indian Peninsnl^^ 
Bailway. Ilie portion of the line, about 142 oiiles, wilhwB 
Khiiiid('-*b Itmil.ii v.ii-< bcgiin in 1852, nnd opened for trnliic between^ 
ISfil and 18(55. It enters Kliiiiidcsh «t its wi nth- west conior, a. few 
^uiib-3 north of the town of Ndydimgri iu N^ik, and nms ncirtb-east)^ 
keeping near the oourso of tbo Gimd'as £ir aa Jalgaon. In a lengtf 
of eighty-two miles between the western bonndary of the distrif 
and Ithiuuivul, where the line divides into the Jnbalpnr and Nii 
l>ranche«, there are nine )it«tiou!i, Cb&lisgaon, Kiijgaon, Gilli 
Pllchon|^ftheji, MhiisavadiSluBpIi/Talgaon, and Itli/idii (NuHira 
From tRmsivnl, on th* Jabaipbr line, a diatanoo of thirty milea, 
fire atations, Uujkheda, S&vdft, Kiuibora, Kitver and Kh^fipur, nn 

' III 183G, It waa a gooA gaa ro«4 Mul tbe only nmto (or out*. 
lliiMTary. ISS. 

on flio X^ppnr line, n dii^auco of twenly-cight milos,' atv t^o 
stnticiiis, Vimiugiuiu and Nndgnon. Ex<re|>t tlie bridges ttcmes the 
Vii^hur near Nasirabad and aci-osBtlic T&pli tmar Diijklieda, tho 
liiiu was Bunplo and OMily modi*. Uouidcs tho ordiuHty buildings 
fcl the diiltircnL eUtiona, costing from £300 to £1^00 (Rs. SOOO- 
15,000), witJi a statioD master's ho«ee and bookinpr ufiice, and 
at Pacliom, Jalguon, nud Kiidgvon, Bmall waiting ruoiim, Uie.rxi has 
b«!n built at llie Bhnafiral junction a handsoino atation at a cost 
of £80,000 (Re. 8,00,000), with large bath and refrcBlimont, 
a Inr^^u worksluip, dwellings fgr Bun^pcan enipluyccs, public 
gnrdeuit, )uindM>me rcawling roomi<i, und a gyytkhana. 

Tile chief road bridges in Klulndesfa are, on the Bombay-Agm' 
ruad, across tbo Pilujltm at Dhuliu, a stonv bridge with twcutjr-nino 
openings, fift4>on of (Iiirty fwt and fonrtoon of eight foot span, and 
ajrrosa the Bori on tbo Dbulia-Ch^liKgaon road, a etone bridge of 
fifteen openings, nino of forty-fivo ftwt and bjx of tw«nty fout Kpan. 
A llyini! bridgo at Muhunbdra ou tho »une roftd vras carrit^d away 
ill the 1H72 tlood, and a new one is now being set np. 'i'ho chief 
railway bridges nro five in nnmbcr. Thrct- of thctn with thirty f«;t 
openings uu Ibe Tctur, l)i<> Itola, and tbi! Korunda, all tributaries of 
tho Girna, wcro works of no special difficulty. Tho bridge near 
Nni<ira))itdncr»SK thuVitghiir, which ialioi-cSOO ji^nls wide, iMncistwl 
ftt Brat of ten openings s[>anncd by iron gicdera on Warren'a prindple. 
Five of thofio openings were afterwards removed aud filled in. 
Souo after leaving tlio jnnction iitation nt Bhiicuivat tho line eruttseti 
"be T^tj. The nver is oflO vardii wide and subject to audden and 

roro Hoods rising tit times to a btjight of sovcoly<eiglit fi'vt. U 
was ut firft spanned by a bridge 87'> yni'ds long, conttistiug of five 
opeuingB of lltS feetaud fourteen of sixty fcot covejvd iron girdcnt, 
and twonty orctivs of fi-rty font each. Tlio beds of the Vilghur aud 
the TJipU, aa well as of the arosller rivers, are of solid rock, and for 
tbo bridges good foundations wero oblninoil with eaae. But tbe 
Lpuksonry wiiK in ninny coaos uuiialiK factory, aud as some of tlio bridges 
niavo shown signs of fidliu'O, it has boeu found noocHHnry to build tlitna 
on a new tlcKigii with piers of iron CTliiidcre filled with conci'Oto. 
Tlio TiSpti bridge ivas in 1^72 rep!oc*>d by a new bridge on this 
principle, about 652 yards long and consisting of tweuty^ight spttDS 
of sixty^ix ftt'l ond (ivo of luO feet girders. 

The only pnblic ferry in the district is acro« tbo Girna a( 

;}i1ehnnbiini. After tho lo»« of the flnng bridge in 1872, a double 

*ferry boat twenty feet by tiftx^eu, drawingabout throe feet and ablo 

to lio^d fifty paxsongers wae, iu 1874^ built out of local fau<U ut n 

cost of £300 (B». 8000>.» 

Besides this pablic fonyy forty-eight private boats ply at diSerenfc 
plnocn on tke Ttipti, »onio workidjkthrouf^hout the yonr wbore tlio 
river is never fonlable, and some during the rainy seiiDou only. 'J'ho 

Chapter Tl 


* Thii Imncti liaa (wco of «[>wiial importaaoe •• It eaan«cli Bomhkf iritli ona ol 
tha Ur^t Mill txat O0tlnn-){rnwing 'iMTJcta. 

■ lliw IxNit Iu* for •ouie Uuo l>Mn out oi (Vpftur, oad tbc Iiitn contract ia turn 
\\S») hM % Uw Mil cvtttrMtor. 

[Bomlny Ouett 



Cliapt«r VI 




•b UfficM. 

d<y>tli of water lu thcso plnoes varies from five to thirty feet. Of i 
f'>rt.y-vif(lit Tnpli ImkiIh mn; w in Ajnalner, Boven are in HhusAv 
four ill L'itiijiibi, two in Hrandu), one in Nandnrbiir, two in NatiiniiK 
nine iu Sfivda, sovoa in Mb&luUla, mnu iu Sliiqiur, Uiree ill Talix 
an<1 one id Virdel. The IxmU ure gonerallf built of teak 
PmluUha, Hiiroii^lMiiA, and other Kbdn^sb Tillagvs, uti<] xoc 
times broa^bt fi-uiii BurhSnpur or Bombay. Tlwy vary in siat', fr 
ei^hU'ifn feet lon^f liy eiglit brcMKl and thnr« doop, to fortv-aeven fa 
lonff i>y vliiven bniad and lliroo deep. They can cany from fif 
to IW paaiM^ogera and some of them from four U> fifty nmniaE 
Their chargca arc, ftir a prammf^r, from ('(. U> i'l. (i - J iinna), ' 

*«»imals fmni jji^. to 3<l. (1-2 oHtutt), and for carta from d4. to i 
{i-ioniMM). II10 whole vcarly nnmbcr of pasBODKcrs Y»ric» fr 
100 to 7000 aud oi aniinai» from 300 to 14>00. II1U boats ooat frof 
£16 to £3S0 (Ka. ir>O.It<(. aSOO), and but for nearly twenty year 

The erow, vrbo are also the owners of the boats, «ru p.!mtnd( 

Kolii^ iiud Blioie, and sonw am BhiU, Mhdrs, ltaj|>utit, and PardeRhiR. 
When ooi eriiployod on tiiu boats thi:y work in the Gelda ur do^ 
•omo other unskilled labour. They imw tlie boate with paddle 
geuvmlly, in limes of Hood, starting a mile or two higltei' up tl 
streaui tJum the plucu tituy niako for. Othur rivers are crnased eitbe 
by swimiiiiiiK with gourds tied under the chest, or on a gonrd-bnojM; 
oot launcheil Humo diHtanco up the ittninm and guidc<l neroxH by 
or ibnw Bhoiit or Kolia swimming on eilherside. Theasualcoa 
18 from Id. to j(j. (l-J unjia). 

Besidea twelve travellers' bnngalowti at Arvi, Bodrad, Ch^lisgiKii 
Chikalval, Dhulia, Jalf^aon, Khed, Karddna, PiUhoru, Pulaanoi*^ 
Shirimr, Songir, and Vinchur; nine difttriet ofEcenj' buu^alowa 
at Bctt&va<I, U|futUtval, Uhamngaon, Dhulia, Jalgaon, Nandurbdr, 
Nardtina, Kangaon, and Sanndina; and seven public works 
in>4p«ctors' bini^tows at Cbimtana, IVmdaicha, Kliod, Kundaib^i, ; 
McbunlMkni, ^ilkri, and Vinchur, there are ninety-live reat-boasMi^i 
dharjna»hiitiis. Of these one m in the'Aiiuilnor sub-diviaion, scvo^H 
are iu Bliuaflval, four in CliAliif^a'jn, two in Chopda, ten in Ohulit^^ 
four in Erandol, six in Jdmnor, nine in Nandurb^-, four in Nasirabad. 
nine in Filohora, Gve in Pinifxtlner, elevou in Savdn, eight in yiuUuida, 
five in Shirpor, two iu Taloda, and seven in Virdol. Of the twelve 
Iravvllwrs' b«ngalown two aro in tho Bhunival sub-diviaion, five iu 
Bhulia, two in Shin)ur, aud one each iu Ch&lisgaon, Pichora, and 


Tbo di«trteb of Khiindcsh, forming part of the Khdndeah poati 
division, oontoiiut fifty-three post ol(iec«. Of tliese that at Dhulia 
the chief disbun^iug office, is in charge of a postmaster drawing; 
yearly i^iliiry rising from £120 to £163 (1^. 1200.Kj*. 1080); &.__, 
ooa^l offices at ithu^va], Jalgaon, I'd<!hora, and Sindkheda, are in 
chiirge of deputy poetmasters drawing from t4S to £60 (Ba. 480-_ 
Ra. 600) a year ; twenty sob-ofRces at Amalner, Bhadgaon, Bodv 
Cb&lisg«on,Chop<ln,DbaraDgson, Edlabad, Kmndol. J&mner, Miliojij 
NunilurbAr, NusirabacI, Farola, Pimpulncr, S&vda, Shali^<.lu, t^hirpui 
Songir, Vamngnon, and Yival, are in chnrpo "f sub-depnty post 
masters drawing from £18 to £48 (Us. ISU • Kb. -iSO) a year ; cLcvei 



offices at BeUvwI, Fnixpur, Mlms&vaJ, Ner, Ncn, Nimbofa, 
I«i/.iiin)>ur, Ptionda, RanfUa, H&ver, and Taloda, are in ck»r}^ of 
brauuh poBtmaatera drawiaff from JE12 to £14 8*. (Ra-iaO-IUl+l) 
i> year; aud Euvciit^vn bruticli <jfBix-<( a( Ad&vad, Aa(>da.BH}iiUIurpar, 
Dondtticlia, KaigaoD, Kaualda, tv'a)*ardeTta, Ndndra, Puldhi, 
PimpniUi, Prakiana, Shendnrni. Sinid, Sukri, Tliiilncr, Utnin, and 
Viruel, orw in clwrgu of villtigi! «cU(niliiia«iLew, drawing bcsidofl Uieir 
ati)i(«ltnafitcrt«' aaUirias from £3 Vls.totfi t2ll.(Ra.36-BsA^6) ayear 
from the postal depart mont. The potil ot1ic« at Pimpalucr ik, from 
October to Ftf bniary, rt-niovod to Walpur tlitio the in^mUtdur'H )icad- 
quart«r». The MiUicji post office is oiieii from December to February 
white the hdr laata. Tbe branch onicv at Kuiuid, in tho Niii^ a* 
domiuiuns, twenty miloo 6outb-cA»t of ChiUi^aoD, id tnannged as port 
of the KluUide«h postal divitiioD. 

These offices are sapervised by an inspector with a yearly salary 
£240 (Rs. 24UO), bclpox] by a sub^inspoctor with u y«»rly mlary 
of £90 (ti«. 900). At tiomo of Ute chivf titat>on» papera and lettora 
are delivered by thirty-two postmen with yearly salaries varying 
inym £9 12*. to £12 (1{H.%-Kn.l20). In some platxm poKtal rniuer* 
do the wiirk, receiving, iu addition to tlteir salarieH, from tl ■!«. to 
£2 8». (He.l2-R8.34) a yuar. Village postmon, ninoty in number^ 
rocuivo from £S 8*. to £12 (RH.»t. Rit.I20) ayeiir. A pony -cart 
poat, RUinagod by contractors, runs daily both ways from Dhulia 
and Ch&lisgaou. Tbo mails, cnrriod along tho nortli-oast section 
of tfav Groat Indian Pouiusula Railway, ore aortod by travelling 
office ftorters who have the uae of a aeparate carriage. The 
1 sorting-offii-o at the Bhuslival nulway station, in charge 
ofBcor drrtwing £120 (Ra. 1200) a year, in siiiM-rvised by tbo 
perintendent of travelling post oiBcvs, Bombay divisioD. 

BL>«idv4 the railway telegraph offices at the different nulway 
stations, there are at present (1880) two Government telegraph offices, 
one at Bhnsitvul and the other at Dhnlia. The total nnmbor of 
ill 1879-80 was 2036 at Bhas&val, 148 of them Qovitrn- 

ntand 1888 private, aud 9+4 nt Dhnlia, 410 of them Oovemnicnt 
nnil 534 privalo. The oorrefiponding tigiircn for 1870-71 and 
I87b'7ti were '278 and 734 for Bhusival and 408 and 458 for Ubulia. 


Putt OSoN 



The earliest Khiindesh trade, of which details remain, is, in the, * 
third ooMlury aftt-r Christ (247), the tralHo Ixttwcon Broach and the 
southern marcs of I'aithau and Tagar. The chief im|K>rta were wine, 
brasa, ooppor, tin, and lead, coral and chrysolite, cloth, Ptorax, 
wbito gWs, gold aud silver coiui^, aud i>erfumes. ITie vxporia were, 
from Paithan a great qaantity of onys atonea, and from Tngar 
ordinary cottonji in abnndiuice, many sortsof mnaliu!!, mal low coloured 
cottons, aud other articles of local production.' Under the F&raki 

> HcCHndlo'* Poripitu, ISS, 138. Tlw f^d anil silti-or coiiw •ram impotted. not 
from n want o( Itio pix«iu«* h«1>1«, but iMlisrsa wofluofart. Tbo imi«r tutus 
Ibal lb«y ytcliled « imfit wlion vxcluuiecd for the loul nouc;. Ditto, 123. 





kiadrs, in the fiftepnth anJsiixteeiith conturies, besidivijciiri whirl: 
in iiuiiij places yieldfd thi-ee crops a year, Khdudcab gi-ew romarkulily 
Gne vvgctalilcs, excotlt'ni rice, plenty of fluwcng Knd frti!t«i ana I 
abuudnnco of l)ot«l leaf.' In tiio seventeenth century thore was ^J 
great export ot scented rioe and cotton dotb from NavApm- is thlH 
W08t> a hkrge pnck Iftillock triule id gmiii, and n very grc«t product io^H 
of tobiu)co,maigo,and dpiura.' Tboffreat trade cemre wne Burh^ijmr, 
in u ]>ai't of the cuantry with as iiiucli cotton as any in India, wtie>« '. 
wiTo madv nrodigioii.-t i{iiaiitiiieM nf very clvjir inid wbito cslicuts, | 
some painted with (lowers and others with 6owerfl nut) a tiisitue of eoM 
and silver, and other ct^tton cloth, lliotie were sent in vast qnantities 
to Pvraia, Turkey, Muscovy, PoUiad, Ambia, Grand Cairo, aud other | 

At the bcpioninff of Bn'tiBh rule tbo yearly imports from Sarat 
BndDiuuMi,broti[;hlon pack Inil!wk^,were(;Mtim«ti!i!iitnl>ont. 1^,000 
(Bs. -J,0O,O0O). Of ihia, salt represeuted i2oOU, nn;tal .E2 12.'>, spiws 
£2GW, dates and dried nuts£142U,idum £1200, sugariloOO, pieco- ' 
goods £3000, and drugs £2000. 'llio local itxportv, including i^t ton 
ynrii, coarse cloth, blankets, gunny bags, piipvr, hemp, twine, oil, 
tobacco, dyea, honey, wax, hides, and sheep sent cbietly to Boriir and 
Mdlwn, were valued at about £12,000.* Alwut 1824 an importimt 
cfaango took place in Kh&idesh trade. The export of Uer&r eutton, 
eastwards through MiratiiiKir. to supply tbo groat demand of tho 
Bengal cotton weovers, oeaaed firom tJie couipetitiun of English ' 
gootU.' AboutthcHitme time,thoe«tabliahmeDt uf order in Kh^ndosh | 
nnd the iiDprovemenl of the route by the Thai pass to Ithiwndi,' led 
Bombay merchants to bring ^wtton from Berfir t^tmii^ht to the sea. 
In 18341, a« much us 31 ,000,000 pounds irent through Khiindciihfrom 
Berfir to Bombay, and in tJie nine years following, the avt^rage 
quantity was 3-i,75O,O0O ponnds. This cotton wa« carried 


by puck bullocks. 

ponndB. This cotton 
It vnui ostjmotoil itmt not fewer 



til] locks were employed, and in years of scarcity the want of carriage 
was often a great difficulty/ At this liinc tho price received by tho 
grower was wlxmi a penny the pound,* Tho exporters were either 
rich local traders, or Bombay native (irnis, wbo«o agents sent out 
clerlca to make advances to luidholders and village faeadmen, or bo 


tbo ' 

> QUdwin'a Ain-i' Akhwi, n, ffl. 

* Sir T. Roe (1619) in ono cky mot kt loftit ID.OOO bollnclu cwryhc grain. Kc 
VojkgiM, IX. 250. TavtraUr \\WOi (Ilkrri*' Vayngat, IL S73) Mdiwi iniligovf 
mnrt kinij, eviuin, nod luinMU* (inanliUM uf toliaooo. 

■Tavcnuo- 11660) iii llnrris' Vnngok IL VC Abut >'ul |ieOa> notiuM ttut 
Kbandwh wiu fuiiuui r^-r > (iiM rtsB oilUd atorUA, nnil that at DbarUtRMB ririnu 
•ncl linn wdiu niaiW. Glwloiii'* Alo'l-Akbriri, TI. ifl 

* Tlicr« wa* aUo at Uiani a oniMidaTablu cljnirt of cotton !>]■ th« KnoclniMii 
pOM to Surai muI on (mii Rural lir »ra to Itniacb. Malcnim'a (lovoraincnt ot Iiii 
loTl Fniwick (IMO), VomUy AKH-Iloitkultiinl Society Rni>orUf Chapi: 
Ooaaaaor, S}, 

■ The vxiiort of nalioxM (rom Vttffd f«U frota £l.l>fi9,9M in ISID to £2Sa, 121 
ISStt. C'ba|inuiii'a (^lunicrcc, T4. 

* Tbif T)in) pa» waa (182B) «Mty for tarta j Ike Pioiiecn were at work nakiog 
tcttd to Bhiwiiili. Captain CHsMa' Itia«T»rr. 115. ImiirovcmMtatrtoit on in the dah 
Iroa tB3fl tii t^tl. Cnapmaa'a CnnniHroe, 367. * Cli*pmau*ii Conineree, *a^ 

* In I8S7, ri77 ptnoc waa tliuu^ht • good iirioc (Cbafnan^ Cetoutonx, 63] 
IS47 tlie pnoe «m1 «1 (Ditto, CS). 


buy from local dealon.' In 1841, tht) Botnbay ootton trrxle HiifForad 
ervai, loosog, and for some years i-oniiuaod df^pr^nsod, Lbe'nsport^ 
fpom liomlmy fiilliiiH; fivm 104,795,001 j>oimil»in 1841 to47,i05;3U 
in ItiM.' Though in 1848 priixi^ Imd somewhftt risen, tliv cut.lon 
tnulu was in u very l>iid etato. Tlii> powers wera hopelessly inilebted 
and awn\ litllu fur tliv statu of ttioir crup.' As Darlr as \ii26 tlio 
Thai route was passable by carts, and in 1844^, aftt^r (hv itiipruvtimonts 
to tbo road wotre finialiea, cart^ bo^n to take ehe place of pack 
bulluckn. ]u 18&2, ho many Khnixlui^li cartii woro employed that 
their carninffK Itad an important elTect on the condition of chi! pcoplo. 
As fioun HH uio harveiit was housed, laoay laqflholdera either atai'ted 
witli their cart« for Khiinigaon in Benir, or l(»oWecl for a faro at Iiomu, 
Fr<»ii ikinLr or Kh&ndeiiili they Btarted for Ubitviidt and Mildom 
rcdu-nod empty. The trip took aboot six wi>eka and they uet ted 
from &2 to £2 10«. (Bs. 20-R& 2(>). IE fortunuto they made two 
trips in the seafuin.* 

ijiuce IS')'!, by tbo opcninf; of the railway, the trade of Kbitndesfa 
has (ipvatly c-liangcd and deve1opi.^d. Botwoon 1808 and 1878, the 
figures show an iiii*reai««> in paiiHeugiira fi'om 47ri,lO0 ty 727,->05, and 
in ipMida from 43,121 to 1 14,540 tons. The chief passenger fltatioua 
art' Bhimlviil with an increase from 200,872 in I8G8 to 3lJit,775 in 
187^, and Jal^in witltsu increaae from 511,073 to 74,2!IC. Jaignoa 
is the chief goods station and sbowa a rise from 15,310 tons in 1868 
to 47,003 tons ia I87S. The following statement shows for esch 
stiitioii tbo cliatigcs in tbo tmfHc during' tbo ten yoarii ending 187S : 

KlutadfA FoMtftgrraml Oeodt TVii^ JSSS, 1S73, ami I.V7S. 

Ml la 


mt. { 



■^ a™*. 




KjtIlEltflll -'- 

(i^iia ... .- 
f*^;ur« ... .._ ... 
Mtbljl _. _ 
MIlHtVllJ .„ .. „ 

Bhlnoll ~ 

Jhlfffftn ... _.t _ 

Hhntlv^l Jiuu:tl4i«i 

Jf3»alftr tta. 
Dolkhola ... 

SAxI'l . 

KiHT . 

KbiUii|n>r _ 

mtpor LI— ^ 









































Cluipter VX. 




> Mr. Venitirk, i!oiab«y Agri-UorticultnrsJ 8o«nly, IGUi Doocnibe* IfiM. 
■ CfaApsiaii'i Canaueraa, 68- * ClutpnuM'i Oaminoroo. 91, 

• Dtpuin U. Win^ntu. W of Sdlh Mnrel) IS5S. Bun. Uur. ScL 1. 1. TbMO 1mm 
jnitniFvii M'en) not .1 Putd uin t» l!i4 )iB*(i«ni)nioii. Tho work «-&■ vary trying ftna 
nticcuFty txil-^w Um SabrMri luUa iiutiy eUtlu diwl or wen iDJuivil for life. Boio. 
Oor. Stl. XCItL Se. 






*Coinpnriiip(Vie grwds returns for 1873 luxl 1878 thochiof rhnnf 
are, uinfer exjwirla, ao increase iu cottoii seed {rom notliiitg in lii-it 
toiwt, in firewood fn>tn fottrtooti to 9023 tons, io; f(taia from HUSO b 
33,092 tonM, in bidvK »nd horns Front tbirly-dvu to 231 tunit, ii 
linseed ham 4208 to 5826 tons, in timber tnm ten to 112 tons, ij 
country piece-goods from eight to fifty-tliree tons, in country twi^ 
from tou to 1 17 t(in«, und in tobacco from (wo to thirty -«ix tonil 
There is a tall in cotton from 1<),!J90 to li),40l tons. L'n»Ier im|Kirtj 
theru is a rise in cotton from 407 to 2526, in firewood from nothini 
to 864£, ia grain from 77-18 lo 13,4^4, in moliU horn 869 to 1577 
in meha from notliin^ to bii6, in oil from twcnty-nne to 2'13, ii 
' Etiropoan piece-goods from 253 to 361, in country piece-goods froq 
nixty-foiir Lo 233, in «tignr (ram $50 to 2300, and in tobacco froa 
three to 287 tons. There ia a decrease in timh«r from 536 to 243 
and in European twUi from 275 to 2&6 tons. The details are glvel 
iu the fullowmg statement : 



ure. 1 








CMlm ... ,„ 





OMkrii tni 



Krolt and 1'*crUI]1«i .., 





nivKw<i ... ... ... ••• 










BMt« k>d Il-inu 


















ml ^. . 

' — 




riOfs KBoAt, Kurcpfftn _ 




r>(Tviin#s •Kiiainr _. 





SjJI ,> 





Siiifi; mill MtlnWH ._ 





PandrlA ... v. w ..- 




TIM ' 

llDiInr ... _, „ ,„ 




MS , 

TwIM, Ktirvft 



TwM, evunlry „ _ 














Toul .. 





Except tlio produce that finds ii« way to llanrii^d and 
etatitm^ outside of Khfiudcsh limits, the-to milwny roiurne r^preso^ 
tho bulk of che trade of ct-utnil and soiithfra Kh^Qd^Hh. In tbd 
I. north and west, where the inllHiTicc of iho railway i« little felt, t<her<j 
is said atill to be n cousidenibiti Cradt- with GujaHtt, chiefly in cluthJ 
grain, d>'cs, and oil.* 

Bceides increasing traffic, the railway has cheapened cmrt ratofl 
from X». 6d, to Is. (12-8 annas) a ihiy or 2Jd. to l\<t. (IJ-I nnna) 
a milu, fot freo a number of ballocka and a large lK>dy of ou-riorfl 
for the work of tillage, the great wont in Khjtndeah, and quickeae<| 

'This tT»(Ie WM ill I87e iitiinAtcd at £40,000 (Ki. 4.00.O0O). Il wm mii] U 
Mimtoy trocn 8(1000 to 40.000 pnok bnllo^ka aol from luOOto laOO c»ft». Stmt St«< 
tM&M Anoovat ia tbt bumlia)' GucUccr. II. 1^. Ia tbc Uat ;or or t«-o tiM 
capCTt of oottoa by tin* nnitv bM to ninic extent nvh-cd. Soc kbov«, p. lea. 




trade ao that the bit]k of tlio cold wouthcr crop comoe to marl^t 
before the rains set iu, aad in trmiHit sulTors niuvlt lt«)i than 
formori}'. ITiv raibrfty has olw made jKiasible the opening of 
sleam hicttirifii aod pn-.-uteti, hnat iulrodnciAithu BhiUi^, new and 
tnoro pushing traders, and bj competitiuu hati lovrvrod ibv profits 
luid IvKsenod the Dumbor of middloineD. 

Thechiof agencivA for MpnMKling im{iort« and for gathering exports 
are. trado-centrea, markois, fairs, viliagft ahopx, and p(>iidl«r«' pnclctt, 
Kxcdpt Dhutin, Knmltirbiir, and Parola, all the chief local centres of 
trade, lihusiival, C'h^tingtioii, Fui/gnir, Julgaon, ildhojl, lUver, and 
Savda, are either on or close to tlie Hue qf rail. Their Kfidittg 
mcrthants nie Bhiitilis, Vituis, and Bohonts, with capitals of from • 
£C0O 1<,W(>0(> (Its. o'.>liO-K«. :J0,U00), who deal direct with Bombajr 
and other large markets, collecting and exporting cotton, grain, and 
other local produce, and iniporting hardware and cotton goods. 

Except c«lU)n, which, l>y a svitwm of a<l«incee, tho export traders 
or their itubordinates collect from ihe giviwers, iuo«t pniduco passc« 
through the haud» of Mcvcnil middlemen. As a rule the bushand- 
innn hnn received advances from, or tiiorlg;tgi*d bis crop to, Homo 
village moneylender, who, in turn, has borrowed from some larg«;r 
capitalist. Sim lliirly^tn ported articles generally pass through 
scTcnil bauds, l>elwee!i the merchant who bringd them into Ibo 
district and the countryman who buys, either at his village shop or 
at some fair or market booth. Xext to the chief tnulo o^'ntres, in 
tho (liAlribuliou and collection obgoods, come the market lowni;. 
At these towns, on a tixed day in the week a market is held, 
whore, besides the permanent stitlT* of timlen? ikiid shopkecpera, 
fieddlert*, hawkers, and agents for some of the larger dealeni H«t 
up booths, aad offer for sale copper and iron, vcesela, glasa 
bracelets, turlwnH, waist cloths, womou's rx»be-9, ot«r*o cloth, dyes, 
cotton, oilsi'ed, clarified butter, garden produce, oil, and gnuu. 
Special markets for live stock, ponies, cattle, and sheep, are not 
uncommon. The booths are generally set up over night, uud at an 
early hour the murkt'l i-t thronged by people from the villages 
round : and after a slack hour or two in ttie beat of the day, it 
agaiu fills towards the evening. Almost all tho traffic is done by 
money. But in serenil market towns, especially in the mnro out- 
lying parts iu the west, Bliils and other wild tribes bring fuel, 
honey, and lac, and in (heir iwason, moha berries and cKdroli seed, ^ 
Mid biirt'-r ihwm for cloth and trinkets. When the day is over,, 
the sellers pack what remains and more to the next convenient 
market town. Tboiigh chiefly a iqowib of distribution, these nv^rkets 
give dialers and ihu ugeuLi of export houses a good opportnuitj 
for buying or arranging for buying field and other produce. 

Be«ide» wi-okly markets at cert^n well known places, fairs are 
held at intervals, and at Miheji thero is a yearly produce and cattle 
ahow.> The chief EhAndesh hum arv shown iu the following 




• Datwla ot Out M«h*j) Ckir w* gjina niMlor -nAoM at latcrtst '. 

(BoaVftjr i 

Chapter Vt 







Kkii>d**k Fain. 

' — -^ 





Sai :: :. 





Uulto.. . 




imtHm _ ... 


«.» ... . 

lUj ... _ 

It . 

8 „ 


HMdartto 'Z 


Si ii 


lafi fffl 





1 „ 



BlMiiliinil ... 

3ESW-- ;; 


Miultnl ... 

nglri .. . 


!• - 



FxoepI that they arc miicli targfr gntlien'ngM, Ihi-sc fairs 
tittle From the weekly inarkeU. U«iii(I<w by liu'fl] |)«'c]dle 
travulliiiK tii'aiora, most fairs arc attended by tbe agents of 
Irudcnt, sonio of tbetn k-ailiug fintis in distant toirns. Tlie 
ftTlides of traffic are clutb, pota, carts, and live stock. 

Even- !fti;ge villago lina its Bhopteeper, generally a Cliit 

Miirv&<[ Vdni, vrlio deals in groceries, spices, (rrain, salt, oil, trngv 
molasses, and other supplies. His wholv ><to<^'k is worth From £( 
to £25 (R», 11)0- R-i. 2.^0}. He buys some of the innre liusiiii^ war^ 
tit onft iif Ibe chief distnct trade centres or at some large fair, Bi] 
most of his stock i.t Ixnighl (r«m timo to lime at the nearest umrict 
or nub-diviaioDal town. As the rich lav in the chii.>f piirt of thej 
grain nnil gro««nos for a wholo year, ouying them iu the largq 
murkiM^, they take from the villagv Mhopkevpvni ^uch porishab^ 
articles only as cinrilipd buttA-, oil, and sngar. The middlti anl 
poorer ctwsM, except what they thomsclves produce, draw hIidm 
all their HUppI^s from Ihu Vlltogo i<hopkeeper, and accordin^f ^ 
their credit, pay n-ndy money, or what is coumiimftr, have a vrooklj 
or montblyacconnt. Even in the wilder parts the village uhori 
keeper seloMb ImrtODi. He in very often a moneylender, and i 
the accounts of many of bis customers oil and apicc catrivs aro o£ta 
mixed with iuou»y ndvftnu4>s. j 

Below the village shopkeeper ia tho poddler. Some are craftsUM 
who work up a slock of goods, generally cloth, during the rain 
raonlhtt, and in the fair Mi>aaon move from village to villa^ 
(iffei-iug them for sale. Others ttell grocoriciB and hardware, moTiu 
' from honse to housu generally with a pack bullock or a pou] 
•Especially in the wild weaUmi districts, many of Uiwio hawkey 
do iha bulk of their busiDoss by barter, giving the ti-ibesmd 
trtnflA and cloth, and taking foreiit ]>n)duce, moha flowers, 
eh&nJi seed. In thin traflic tne hawker haa getioraliy very 
the best of the bargain. 

Another cla«a of wandering traders are tlio profeeaionsl 
the Lamina, VanjAris, and Nligoria. In the »outh, uudcrsold 
by carte and afterwards by the railway, thoy have almoat dianppe«r«j 
or at least have oeaned to work as carriers. In the wilder tracti 
to the north and wms, Ihay still form part of the local trade systen 
Tho Lanubut, with their buUocka ana cows, bao) l«aJlc am) 




• « 


ag9 ; tbo Vnojlinit, witli thnir bnltoeks, take graiti nntt oilsved 
to the ixiaat imcl briug buck ttall; and (he Nitgiiris, with Ibei'r 
carts, carry both grain aud timber. In haaling timber the L«mJtuii 
fiUftun tUi! liigK I'ne un vnvh fiilo of thv pack saddle luid drag thom, 
trailing on the grtiuud bevoud tbo buiWk'H tail and g«iior»lly 
making deep cuts io the road, Woat of the Vanjliris are can-iers, 
but thoirtuii'^j or loaders deal largely in bullocks, riivjrhave always 
a stock of cattli^, and at tiw and of the hot seaaoii travel from 
Tillage to village selling the aniinaU generally for cash and soiue- 
times OD crt-dit, and the proceeds of the salu are rvidiitod on the 
TaDUH'tt rvturu ji>unify. The Vanjan.-t bi^ their atock in Nemid 
and MAlwa, aud drive a very flourishing trade, especially when, in* 
goo<l yeartt, the Kunbi can afford to add to hislivu stuck. Tha 
uuIiot'kH are sold in lot«, puthat, of from ten to twenty, tbo prlco 
being &et dua-n at ao tntioh a head. 

Of Imports tbo chief articles are salt, metala, cocoanat«, dates, 
grocenea, oil, hardwnro, indigo, mwchin<^ry, twift, and pteoc-guods. 
JBalt was formerly brought almost entirely by pack bullocks from 
Surat. Sonw small oiiantity still roaches the western districts in this 
vrtty, bnt almost the whole Kupplycomc.i from Itomlmyby rnil. Under 
motnls come gold, silver, coj^r, brass, and iron. During the time 
of the AiR«rican war very large quantities of gold and silver found 
their way into tho diKlrict. Most of themivere made into ornament* 
and tho rest hoarded. During tho scarcity of 1S76-77, a large 
smoiiut of gi>td and silver in bullion and in ornaments left the 
district cbit'lly for HoinWy. During tho last two «eit.-^oDS tlw 
better harvcat^ have started anew, ihongh <jn no very large scale, 
the import of silver and gold. Copper and brass wcro formerly 
imported in blocks and worked first into ^^liccts and tWn into ut«nKils. 
OE late years ready made 8he«ta have been largely imported from 
Bombay, and considerably lowered tho price of brass ware. Ready 
made pots and drinking mugs nro ulso hnxight fronnMi.sik. But 
these are used by the wnll-to-do only. The import of iron has of 
lato increased. It is much used for cart tires and axles, and in the 
manubctiaro of iron water pot«. All of it comes from Ek>mbiiy. The 
trade entirely in tbo- hands of liofaora MusaimAmj. 
Cocoannta are brought by Vanis in considerable numbers by rail 
from Bomlwy, and are distributed over tho district. Dates and 
groceries are brought by Yiiiis in small qnanlitien by rail from , 
Bombay. Some of the western [xirtf of the district still draw their* 
supply of groccnes from Sunit by pack bulloeks. Hardware articles, 
iron buckets, wnt<cr pots, and frying-pans are brought by rol^rom 
Bombay mainly by Bohonis. IViKt, both Knglish aud Bommy, is 
brought by rail, chiefly by V&ni merchants, ana distributed over tho 
district to Iw woven in hand-looms. Of latotheoutturn of tho Bombay 
Eactories has to a great extent taken the place of English yam. 
Piece-goods are of two chief kiud-t, haud-tnade and steam -mado. 
The hand-made goods are turbans and women's robes, from 
Burbin(>ur, Yoola, Ahmednagar, Surat, Ahniedabad, and NigjHir, 
and waifitctoths from M&legaon, Yeola, and Xagpur. Silk waist- 
cloths, robes, and turbans are brought from Borhdnour, Yeola, 
Sarai, and Ahmedabad. The tnadtinc-mado piece-goods arc coanse 

TnMta 8y»teni. 


[Bombay Qi 


iit»Ling cloth, cliieflx fur wuntoloths, Hheot«, aud tuneU, 
Bombay*; nnd finer fabrics and prmt« from Knglimd. 

The railway retama ahow th«it ih*,* imjiorlfi of conntry cloth 
of late iQCT«aM>d more rapidly tkau those of ^n^fliifb cloth, 
cloth is almost piitiroly brought by rail to Jalf^mn, ChAliKf, 
Manmild, HAhwJi. Naeirabad, and oUrnr niilway dtationa by Sldri 
and other \'tlaj8 and BohorM, and from thoee centres is distributiid 
over the dimrict. Silkx, like pieoe-KOods, am of two chief kinds 
mnvbino and hand-made. Thvre is no demand in K biiiKicKh for 
8t«atu-mado Etiropean m\k*. Hnnd-mailA ailka, chiedy turhaun, 
scarfs and hfHikvn fnua Burhiinpor and Yeola. and bro«idea from 
'Burat Kiid Ahniedabod, are brought into llio distript S'lmotimus ^^| 
trarelliug peddlers on bullork biick or in chHh, and partly by mil w\^ 
ppraonal linggagD. The chief dealiTH in tiilks are GujarAt YAuis. 
No claui of niorcltauts deal exclusively in silks, but almost all rich 
merchants keep them in stock. 

fizfiurU. Of Export* tJw chiflf am : of T«^lal>Ie products, cotton, gTHin, 

oibiood, chiinili »eeii, eartbnuts, myrohatans, TnoAa floweffi, (i/ or 
madder roots, and timber ; of animal products, honoy, wax, lae, 
hides, and horns ; and of manufactured articleii, ctariGcd bnttcr, 
giam oil, indigo, I'urlH, and cloth. 

CViuH. Cotton is the chief article of export, representing in qnantitj 

about 115,000 bales, and ill value about £1,050,000 (B». 1.05,00,000). 
At the beginning of British riilo, the only local cotton wim the 
poor uliort-stapli'd variety now known as VailiSdi. Ki<:ept u> Sural 
littlo was exported. The trad^was in the haudit of petty dealers who 
stored the cotton in warvhouM's, vakhdrs, had it cktinvd oit native 
hand gins, ehamikt, and sold it to the local handloom wcarerti. In 
1824, tht; ojicning of an export trade to Bombay had the effect of 
trauxferring the cotton trade from small doalors to moo of capital, 
many of thorn Boiulmy mcrclmntii.' 'nii.-i iiew trade did mitc-b for 
thf country by providiug a market for ciittYm when the competitiun 
of English goods hnd reduced the hnndloom weavoni' demand. At 
the same time ihc camavu loBonibiiy wii» at tirNt butli cosily aud 
waetehil. Loosely packed auubken chielly on bullock back over 
rongb nnbridgcd roads, the cotton lost greatly both in qnautitjr 
and qiudity. 'I'htj carriapp pxpciiBOs from Jalgaoii to Boiiiliay were 
, {(J. (3 piet) a pound, and thn fn-ighl aud olhrr duirgeti to England 
•irere so heavy, and the Liverpool piicea so low,* that for many vt-Jirs 
bis cotton yiiildcd the grower little more than I<(. the pound.* 
Beside* injury on the road, cotton MulTcri-d much at niiiiiy sl«)^-s of 
its progress. The grower, hopelessly indebted, gave little care h) 


' Ctmptiinii'ii Coninwpee, 75. 

'Tlivil^tAiU witT* : Ja%»ai toKadliclincarlHiiwnrli. R«. I-I amna, uhlppinf elis 

to'B'imlis.v 'mB'na» mnn, hi 1S48 Uic eon of tnkiiiK « Wrimft, "(U polmJn, I 

Wiarxiijpi-'ii I" KiJkIi,iI i.iiT, iii Kilouttc. wu Hn. IB aii4 lUr Ual uhiuRO Ro. 1 tiuira, 
Carringii uai. •i>iiuil.riii» |>r<iiiutxUu at Ri. Bi-rlti, lu. Ea*t liutia ?»[*«», Id. "7. 

' riiii|im*ii'« t'"iiiimrid. W. Iti 1M8 the p^i^■c per |hiui»I i<f i-lnui nitWm Vfirjwd fraiB 
nbiiut Irf. to IJrA Till* ]7j-i<-i' <M out (mv tho i-oi)!!!?, >iij Uic I'ultiiAUin pmi grain 
uultoil ol ix^ttm. Ewt Imluk I'npcra, 111, 7(i. ^| 


I cotton crop ; »n<l its vhIuo was further losseoecl by adullerotwtu 
ut ttit* Iiaiida uf middleuieu.' 

Since 1860, the introduction of Umnivati and Dhanv-dr-Amorican 
eeed cotton ium grvatJjr niittod the tii1ik> of the Khrindt-itli crop, nod 
tlio o[)euittg of the railway Una cbea]>oued and qnickeued curriasc 
and atopiwd loss in transit. Compitrod with £1 6». (Us. 13) the 
former (181'7) cost of cnrriagtr, tJie ruilwiij- chnrgv from JitlgiMjn to 
Bomlniy iit about £1 2*. (Kit. II) a kluttidi. Little change hstt been 
nado in the system of ffiuuiug the cotton. PlAtt saw-gins were for 
a liiiK> used. But bosidw lowvHug tho Taluo* of thv cotton hy It. 
to (m'. (Ki). --flH.'l) » HaiuJi, they wasted iJie »«ed, knocking oS 
the gonuinatintr point, and from the smell of oil, making the seed' 
ueelesa as food for cattle. For those reasons, though then? are two 
slouin ginning f»cU>rio« at Julgiujn nud »nti at Mhasivad, almoal tlio 
whole crop lit ginned by Iho old itatire cleaner.^ During the last 
two seasons, ItiTtJ and I87tl, considerable c|iiBDliticB of uncleaned 
cotton faaro bt'vu M^nt from Jalgnon, Pichora, mid Clinliigaon, 
to be much ine-gin nod in Surat and Broach. In |in -n^iug there haa 
heen a marked change. Within the Imst sixteen years eleven full 
Steam pressos, seven at Jalgnon, two at Dliulin, and I wo at Kajguou, 
were started. Of these omy eight are working at present. 

Of lute yenra the cotton trade has to a great extent gone back 
to tho sysU-m of s<IvancvN that wa-s miivorifii! bofow tbi- prosperous 
yoars of the Anifricau war. Kuropenua have made little way iu 
Kk&ndesh and the trade is still almost entirely in native bands. 
The only change tine been the introduction of a new clo^ of native 
mi-rrh»nl.-*, thi- Bumbiiy Hhiitii'is, wh'o to a large exti-nt buy both 
from Idcai dealers and from gi-owers, and press the cotton for direct 
shipment to England. According to the eommoit practice, from 
Bcpttmlx-r tti the (md id April, growers and petly dealers go to the 
exjiortera, and contract tn deUrer a certain quantity of cotlou within 
a given period. These time contmcts are generally of two kinda. 
ITie contnKt known n» jatap i» entered into when the plant is not 
even in pt)d. It in homenbat risky, but the value of the cotton is 
calciitaied at al)out fourteen per cent (lis. 30 the khandi] less than 
current rates. Money in ailvimcewlix or six and a half months 
before the date of the delivery of the cottnu. The oilier kind of 
contract is for shorter periods, rarj-ing, according to the aeaaon, 
from one week to one month. The!;c contracts continue to be made < 
till about the Ix'ginning of May when the ginning season closos. Id* 
this case, ali<o, the advance is made at a rale somewhat le-is than the 
cturrent price of cotton. When thu cotton is ready the merchant 


* dujiRun'ii, Coinin«m 01. Accontit^ t« Mr. Klptinurton, b tSlS [Eut l»i» 
Papon, IU. 7") the lucTchnnt a'liuKml moiiV}' to th« uuJtivmtor on th« Mwtiritjr oJhJi 
g ni w iii g crop, the eiiltiriitarMgrMiiiiC to (Ifltiver tJ«cott(.ii and hftvo (loiu ten lo ISftcoa 
per ««nt of It* mulMt price dnlaotwl in iiaynMnt <>( tbr lulvancc. It wu bclivicd 
that nuwjr noreliuiU <tiarg*<l a vtill btavier rate (nr tbnrixlvMiciB. 

*Tlie tnluc □( th« machinu-ginncd cotton in lower iHxAiun of dtoaUcged dortmcUon 
of thu Uapto Uiil the iitaining of thv raw maltrinl b}- oil 

' llatt MW-guii wrra intriKliiVBd b^ (lovcminoiil in I$40. The ooot of giniiiug 
WBi aboat halt ot the ctat by tb« band cleaucr, Eait India rapcn, tlL 79, 

IBombft; Qi 



iptw VI. 


gqfit to the Keller's faoose. Tiia cotton is there weigh ed, luai 
over to tint morchimt, tskon by him 1o his Vfud, weijfhi'cJ a 
time, and tho bolnnov o( tliw price paiJ to the prower. In IS79 
tiiDO coatmcl, jaliip, price for seed cotlou wim llV. (Hs, S) the 
with four ihert allowaDcc, and for clctui colloii £1 12jp. {Ra. 10) 
inaN witb ttj «/m-a ftUowaDcv. 

A comparison of price" imd nont of eiqw>rtin^ cotton iu 1 847 
1879 shown iluit in iht- Isst ihiriy veurs iho viUiio paid for 
in KhiiiiilcMh baa risen from Id. or HJ. to W. or Gii. the poi 
In ltA7 the local pricv of cotton wiu< £1 &). &H (Il«. 13.H.8) a kka 
of 784 pounJx. lliecost of cleHniujr was, by tho niitive chnrak, 
-(K*. 9) a ir'iawit, and 0'. (Bs. 41 ) by Baw-ffinfl. IWking char)(«a Wi 
10». (fo. 5), and tho coal of camaffo £1 0*. (Rs. 13), £1 U. (Ke. 
•8 hr aa Kolnhct wharf and 2«. (Re. 1) more to U^nnbny,' 
Oarrent (lS79j prioe of Kbiudeab standard cotton, Jalgaon <iii 
ee\u&i to "fullv ffood" fair Uinr^vati and Ami'rican-WHxl Dharw 
£18 I6». (Bs.'lSfiJ thi. khnuiii of 784 i»>uiid*. Faiapur cotton w 
i» nura felohea about 12a. (Kn. 6) moi-e. Of tb« whole £18 
(B& Ittd), about £1 -is- {Rs. 12) goes to tho middleman, and tho 
to the grower. The middleman clean;! tho cotton, the coxl of cleaning 
boinjf nearly corerod by Ibe value of the seed. The charge fat 
packing inio bundles, (tohla* or bundrit, each of 280 to 320 pounds 
(3j-4 mans) ia lis, &V. (Rs. Gj] a khindi. Of this, prcosing coata bt, 
(Ra. 2i). baiidH fit. (R«. 3), and Imga U. 6d. (12 n«n.i»). Portorai 
is I«. (8 annav) a khandi, and tho railway charge to Bom 
a £1 If. 8d. (H«. 10-13-4). As the exporter gives drafts od 
b&nker at Bombay at the rulu of about ODO>half per cent dii^couut, 
(Re. 1) a khandi is charged aa commission. Sumelimes aUto there 
an insurance cbj^rge of Is. 10)d. (15 anna«) a ihandi. 

Under grain como hdjrl, jatri, wheat, and pulse. The btijri' 
Bent chietly by rail from Jafgaou nnd Chi'dir'gaon to Bombay; 
wheat fi\>m ijh&hida, Taloda, NnudurI>Ai', Ninder, and V&Utn 
to Bombay ; aud the pulse, including lur, ciiavli, mufi, and peas, 
from Janincr, SAvdu, and DhuIJa, to Bombay. With so uncertain 
a rainfall, the supply of grain varies so greatly from seaMin to 
season that what in one year is exported, is in the next in greitt 
local demand. In avcnige year-s tho greatest export of grain ta 
from 900 to 1300 tons (3000--1000 m»/M). 

- Under oilseedHcomeaemmum and liniieed, grownchioflyin Adin 
^)hanora, Cbopda, Vavdu, NAnder, and Pfltouda, nnd wnt by rail 
Bombay. Charoli, the seed of the ckdr, Bnchanania latifolia, mi 
used in nmking mttire 8wectmc«t», ib largely exported from tH? 
Akr&Di division. The tree i.s carefully proiccted and Ihn i«i,Hids 
aw gathered and made ready by the Bbds. Some of the crop tiioy 
bring to market IhcmifelTos ; the rest is bought by petty dealt 
who go through the Akrdni villages, gathering it in small (jaantiti 
It is finally sent (o Surat and Bombay by Bohora and Vi 

n ta I 


> But b<U» Papcn, lU. 7«-77. 

"* Tht cbid i^jri npcttiBg tnukcto 4i« Adi'rad, Dhuor*, Cbopda, uii] Dbulia. 




arcUants. EnrtliDiitM te grown n« a gitrdm crop chiefly jn 
tMkli, Faizpur, Ner, Smtlklit-dn, and Sivdft, »tid*eent bj 
to Dombay. Myrobalans, found chiofly in tlie Taloda forests, 
' gathered porHy by Binh und partly by the foruisl dcjnrlniuDt, 
Kvnl cbietly by rail lo Bombay and to Surat< by carts. Moha 
arp filtered by Bhils. Tht' whole moha crop of the 
(nortbuni .SiiljmdjiM and el^i-wherf undor the hills, is bought 
ibft local liquor cuntractora. Id the wedt aoue in expurtod to 

SincD the GoTcrameDt forests have luiexi oloHcd, tho Khfindmh 

[dcniHtid (or liiiil>vr lut-t biN^n chioRy inet tropi the iresitom AEufartkfl 

t«tMl^s. Tho li-adiu^ liniher mart la Taloda, where for oi^ht months * 

pin tho year a lar^e bueiness its dono. The wnodcuttorH and ecllora 

ani thv Itbiiif, botwooii whom and the bnyera, n cliiMit of Vntiiii itct 

an interpreters aud bi-okera. Of tirewood there ifi a coosiderable 

import by rail to Jalgaoo. Tho supply chiefly comes from the 

iNizilni's (orcst«, and is »ont by mil from PAt^hont, ChAlisguon, and 

) KAJgaon to Jalgaon, where, on account of the pressing; and apinninir 

[&ctories, a large quantity of firewood i« yearly oonsumod. Of animal 

products, th<t hi'iiuy, wax, and lac are of little c«;n.tCM{tten<^ii. They 

i»re gnihored by Bhils and other wild tribes chiefly in the Sdtpuda 

'forests and arc dii-t rihii ted over the diKtrict. Some ouantityof lac is 

expurt^s] to Htirh^ipur. Hides and hornx aT« sent in conKidomble 

quiuitities Co Bumliay. About six years ago a very briak trade wax 

carried on by BohonU, Khojas, and Memon§, and more tlian £20,000 

(Rs. •!,O0.O0O) worth of hidua and horns wvru uxjxirted. 8ineo then, 

Hit all the local titoreH have t>»on exhatiHtHl, tht.- export liaa greatly 

declined. Clarified butter comes n-om Dhulia and Iterdr and is 

exported by BhiitiAa chiefly to Bombay. Grtwa oil, is nuidu in the 

west and sent across the country chiefly to Maanifid, and from thore 

exported by rail to Bombay. Carls, made chiefly in Talods, 

Pimpnlnor, and Dhulia, aruin demaud in Burh&upurand Khiiudosb. 

Coarse cloth, both bandwoven and woven in the Jalgaon weaving 

fectory, is sent in some i^nantitica to Ber^r and oven to Benares, 

Irat DIO01 of it is oonsnnwd in tlio districts 

Chapter Vj 




KhfindcKh crafts and iodnstries aro of local coneeqnonce only. 
The chief are : in mineral satmtiutces, working in gold, lulvcr, brass, 
iron, stone, earth, clay, and lime; in vei^tablo products, wood* • 
cutting mid uirpi'ntrj', tciigur and catwhu making, iliHtilling, oil- 
Dressing, and tipiuning, weavijig, dyeing, and printing cintou cloth ; 
in animal prodactE, the making of luc and clarified butter, the 
we«riug of .lilk and wo»l, butcher's work, and tho making and 
working of leather. Gold and silver working goes on in a!moi«t all 
market towns. Most of the workem nr» Maratha Sonera. They 
have seldom iitiy store of metal or omamentM. Their customers 
generally bring to the goldamiths' honsea the metal ihey wish made 
mto an ornament, or tbe ornament they wish ntelted or re-made, 
aod aa goldsmitha are proverbially cunning and unscmpoloni*, the 
ctistomer generally seta Bonte one to watch wfailo the goldsmith la 


[Bombsy 6b 






VI. a^wDrk. Kltundeah ffoldnnitlut lunlce little oxcopt ver? .jntfa 
Jewell^.- Those of UliulU ftud Naudiirbir h&ve tho ' 
mutui. Tlipy huvv fairly eteudy employnieut throu^liifut. iw jn 
and ftM a cliwi* are wiill-tu-do. Th<ty nlmont alwayn wiirk Ut 
and §ot<Iiim have aay wares for sale or aitend fnirn or mark 
Thoir vrouiPD do not add nnythin^ to lUo family earDiufr^. 

CopjxT and tiniM> W(irkin)r in carried un in all tkr lart^er rilL 
Th« workcnt are Tainlrau and Ki&&r9, of whom ihuro are 'm i 
about seventy-fivo families. Tlio inirtat conira in tiboots 
Bombay by rail to Vuni tiKirt^liantM ohJeHy in Jalgiion and DbnE 
Ueri» it Lt l>ou^ht by country copjteramiibs and laJctm by thrmL 
*thpir homes to work, or it is boni^nt by a metal doiiler, gvDeraUyl 
Miisiilman Hohoni, lux) nndvr Iho cHai^ of an ftp.*i>t. seut ijy 
to market lowua and faint. l*be raw metal ^nerally kvUh at 
9d. to Is. i&-S anna*) a ponnd. Tbocopporsmilhe, many of wl 
buy thu raw metal, work it into caldrons, \»t», and mug^, «« 
tbem at the rate of It. 9d. to 2s. (14 aunaa-&e. 1) a 
roprosonting, for a tiirly steady worker, a daily wage of 
{6 annat). Thoy work from eiuH to ten htmrs a day. 
ornamental nmper work ia made in Kbiindeiili. [tut ibe cvijjperauit 
of Songir in Dbulia and of Faispur in 8avda have a n&aio for tf 
Hkill iu mnkin;;; f^i>ir^ nnd bulb. Tho bn«iuvss is mo^t acoi 
durinf^ tlic rainft, when many ooppoi-^miths lay in n atort> 
vessels, and in the dry season move from one market or £ur I 
another, off oriiiff them for sale. Thfir women ffpnt-nilly help in (| 
buBinesa of turning copper TesaeU. The craft i», on the vthc' 

7ro>i. Iron-working is carried on inmost large villai^es and conn try towt 

The workors aw LohSrs and Gbiwldis or wandoring Uukors. 'IT 
iron is brought in Hhoetx by rail from Bombay by Ikiliora Alusili 
men of some capital, settled chiefly in Jalgiton, Sindkheda, Dhii 
and Bhns&val. ITicw; dealers sell cither to village bliK'ki^mitha 
send agents with iron to sell at &irs and market^a. Kiuianii 
trade iu iron at Pbarnngaon, Pfirula, and Amalner. The 
blackamilli lays in a 9t<)re of metiU iiboiit twice a year. In the rail 
he makes nails, hinges, buckets, water cisterns, »ii?VM, spoonN, mr 
Iiatchets, hoL-«, and :<cy tbr:<, and in the fair season is busied chiefly 
mending c»rt^ and tield tools. Hia tu-rvioos arc in coiuttunt demand 
Tltey work from eight to ten houra a day. Tfaeir women help 
^blowing the bL>)Uiws and doing other light work. The dnil, 
earnings of u family vary from al>out 9(f . to 1*. (6-8aMBa«). In 
outlying partH much of their wagea ai-e paid in grain, 
generally sell their wares in their houses and seldom visit 
or markul.H. The blacksiniths of Loh&ra, Knsirabad, and Dhali^ 
have a name for special itkill. The opening of the railway, t\ 
machinnry works at Bhus4ra), and the ateam hwCoriee at Jatgaoi 
have brought the blaokHniilhK many now openings. Afost of 
chief fitters and firemen in the railway and factory worka 
outsidom from Bomt>ay. liut koiiio of the local bInckKmiths hav 
nK«n to good poaiDons, earning from £1 IOh. to i.2 (Us. Ifj-Rs. 2( 
8 month. The class luu; guinvd much of late by the increaaed i 


m. But tlii^agb li»rdworkin>7, thvy an? rallior disaipatf 6 aoTl 

done little to inittrovotln-ir ix'tidilitin. Tin* G liiiiiUlii: or tinkers, 

nud nicud fielii tools. They have tiitie or no HtuL'k df imo 

ander duriuff the fair season, BtoppiuR for the rainy months 

c i^cutnU town. Tbvy nro gt'DAmlly poid in gnun und charge 

iderably lemt than the regular blacksniitlia. 

Stone -catting is, in most parts of tbo tlislrict> carried on by 
'<itliiirvtil--i .nini IMdft nt. St«)iw! is g^-nynilly ijijiirritii l>y r&tharrats, 
Eieir daily dmrfissa ranjring fromlii. lo 1*. '.*'l. [S-ll- linnets). Some 
UDilioti, m Dliarftugaoi), Dliulia, and Paroln, have a name as ekilled 
orkmcn. Hut for any spouiidly difHciilt imiltrljiking, ittonocutCera 
re gvuorally lironght from BurhdufKir. Building with iUmu and 
lortar is lUe work of Gaiindis. most of whom are Musalmiiit') from 
lali^gaon in Nd'-ik. Thi-ir ('hiirgi.'a aro from It. Qit. to2«. (af. 12- 
Ifl. 1) a day. Tliey ai-e woll.t4>-do but oxtravagaat. Boldftnt do 
he coarser work of layjog mud bricks and buildiujf walls with clay 
nd tmnit or rouffhly hown oluno. Thuy have a fnir snpply of 
mllnuka luid buSaioca to carry water. They generally undvrtAko 
orks by contract. Their nitos ru&go from 4^. to C*. {Ra, 2-Ra. 3) 
h« hundred cubic feet, and tlipir avora^ daily \iay from 9d. 
la. (6-8 antias). Great part of their (Uub is spent away from 
kcir hornits in placOM whcro their wrvicvs arc in demand. Their 
mploynieDt ia rather uncertain. They work from eiyhl to ton 
ours a day. Their women add uotiiing to the family eamiDg.i. 

Pottery and hrick-m-iking go ou in moet towns. The workom 
Tti ICtiiubhiin, B«Id/tr<,aiid Kiiubin. lltoftnyiNgouorally dug from 
omc tt»itahk< field, pond bed, or old village siie. Besides bnckM and 
lies, the chief artiekis m.ide iire eiirthnn wat^-r pots, flower pols, jars, 
nd wat<!r jug*. I'ntu-i-.i jir<' |«id i-Iuetly in graiu. They do not work 
D the rains and generatty c^iUirato small plot:* of land. In the 
»ir Hojison they are bi;*y preparing thiiir wares, taking thom to 
larket iu carts, and with their asses, gathering mbbiab to hunt 
n their kitua. The S&vda potters havo a name for their skill 
colouring their wnrvff. To colour iho chiy .tmall particles or 
rain.4 of lac, ilane Uikh, are mixed with the dye iu the pro|X)r(iou of 
wo to three, and pounded with stones, till, from the beat cansfid 
ly th(! [xmuiling, tho lao midtM and mixoA with th<- dye. Tho 
olonred lac is then moulded on the end of an iron rod, and th«» 
►ot luiatwl and smoarcd with the liie. The jjotlors ««ra ooongh 
or their daily want.-*. Sonm Ktithi-Wiir Kumbhara, of whom thvro 
>re fonr ^milies iu Ohulia, two in Jalgaon, and three in Bhns&vsl 
re wfll-to-do, taking contmcls to supply tho Public Works and other 
epnrtmcnts with tili^it and bricks. 

Looilrifl mnko lime. They dig a round holo aboot eight feet in 
iametor and from five tn six feet deop, and round 1 1. s brink build 
brick and clay wall about three feet high and with, openinga 
ibout three feet apart. At tho bottom <a the holo they place a 
uyer of firewood, ihcn a layi'r of white oarth, khaiU, mixod 
ilh cluircoftl, and agaiii a layer of firewood, llie wood is kindled 
hrough the holes in tho wall. And after eight or ton dayii, when 
he whole xn thoroughly burnt, ihe couleut» are taken out, and 
■ 4I1-S9 






[Bonbft; Gantl 



ClupUr VI. 



ufUtr «eparatiDg il from the cfaarooal uod sprinkling- it wi 
tlie 1tim> in ready for sale. The dniljr (<iimiii^ of tbe Lonitra 
from 3l/. to 'Ji^. {2-6 anno*). Buci'dus bumiug liniQ sumo 

Of induii)Tims (,'oniiw:Iod with Tejretabltftn-iiiiwis, carpent 
cairiud oo in most of tlio lai^r rilla^n^. Tlii' u-gg^jcuj^n an 
SotiirA nod others wbv limm I be craft, of whom thi-rt> are alt 
about 2500 fuinilies. Most of the tiiiiber coate» trot 
forpHtH ill tlie west of Kh^odosh, and ns a role boUjugn tu 
who eupajfc' iho niriH-nlers to work fur ih&m. 'ITib wtirk is 
steady, briskiT Jii the^lry season than in the raitu. For almi 
moulliH ill the Toarihoy t-arn from Id. to 2". (a*. 8- Rv. ]| a 
Their wives iwld imihinjj U) Iho familr earning. Of tho 
corpenlent, those of Uhulia, Choi»da, Taloda and Fiuipatuer, 
Burh^npnr are thought the most skilful, Taloda rair[ii,'nt«i-s bd 
excellent. cArtn, nod ihoiki of Dhulia, Tntoda, and Chopda lunko gwi| 
boxes. Few of iht-iu bive n stock of toys, cota, stools, or lioxo* ; nltnol 
all their work is doDe to order. They arc on the whole u n-oll-to-dii I 
class. The turners of Chogxln, SAvda, and Dhuliii, hare a ^lod DSdM. | 
They make oxcelkint <!r»dlo8, cot legs, and toy.i. Very fow go 
to work. Uurhiiupar and other etnuiger tamers ^aru foxmi 

Sugar-making in carried on by all tfa» b<^tt6rclaM u£ culiivutor*. 
Gmat Htone sagar mills, found in many of the Sl(tj>iida v. ' 
ahoiv that sugarcane uiwd U> be more widely grown than il i, 
Tho mola«ae.i is sold by the maker to the rillaoe Khopkt-^iM'i 
tho rate of from Ijd. to i^d. (1-li annas) a pomd. The 
generally gatbent a coimidenibli? riuautityand fornanU it to one n? 
the district trtde centre*. I*impalaer«nd Ni-r in Dhalia arc 
chief producers of sugar, and the supply in graduullv dixtribut 
among the district shopVcener* ami travelling ^ddlers. T 
yearly oiittnrn \a eHtimaiea at about 1 100 ton*. Almoat 
clamMeH use it, aud little Icntrcit lliu distncL ilucli i>t imported 
rail. Til e orili nary relai) wric* Tariefi fiiuii 2(ii. io'-ifl. ')[-•> aunt 
a poiiuil, with a slight rise anritig the marriaffo mit i>re|«iri 

dainties tbo rich daas&s mak<s nwe of refined au^,,; i-.jayhl fvt 
'Bombay luid Bonares. 

Sweetmeats are made >n most large rittngrit. The makers 
chiefly Hindus of tho Pardenhi, Giijarfit V^iu, and Uhdtia caat 
Tbo industry isupports about 100 faroilii-*, the women helping tl 
men. Their vrork is pretty constant, but tlioy urv spociidly basy 
in the marriage aeiMODs iiud at fairs. They nurk from six to uight 
hourji a day. They buy tbo sugar and spices, and offer Iho 
sweetmeats for sale in their shops or at fairs and inarketit.' 
Somotiiiies niiiterialit are given them to be mado up for a feast. 
The industry is fairly prosperous, the monthly earnings of a 
varying from £t to£3 (K* lO-Bit.SO). llie sweotmeata of I 

■ Tba b<ronrit« ■■■«*tnia*t>i ar* : iarjAJ, pvOdt, jitH, taOt y 
nSjdunnU^ plienit, aail gJUcur*. Of ibMtBnihiiMuia •nm buy pMd* 
Wiv ttrMtmiata matt b« pnpM(<l la tlMir Iwdm*. 






Thopdn, Jalg&on, and BhnsAva!, bav© a special local iiainc. \'ety Cha?t«r TI. 
ew leave tbo district. 

Comiiarnlivoly little indigo is now grown, aud lbs iuduslry haa 
Itocal died out. A coaitidcnible quautityis imported chielly by rail. 
i is u»ed by djera and i^lico prinlt-M, Of Ut«, ifiiicv tlio 
iuu)afaotareo{(i«]artltlii<lifp)lia.tcon.'>ed, Kb^udcab iudigo ia tjndio^ 
ftfl way to Siirat and oilier (iujarAt warkete. Tiu> doak-r gvnorntly 
iislribotea liis atoro to retail Hhopkcopvra or triivdling tradei-a, 
irbo move about anioug tliA (litTtirtMit faii-ii and markets. 'Sbe 
retutl price varien from 1«, to Is. 6ii. (S-12 flMwa*) a pound. 

Catochti, the thickened juice of the iAiuV, "Acacia i-atechu, eaton 
ny natirix) along with lidttflnut and leaf, waa formerly made by Bhils 
in large quAutitii-a in the Taloda forests. As th(! kftair trw; in now 
carefully preserved, tbomauiifudHre has coancd within Hritish limttn. 
It still to a small extent gi^ies on in the lands of tht- I'anri chief. 
The juice ia prepared' and kept by Bhilg, and gencmlly disixised of 
Ijy them t'j travelling dwilrrn who aime round wiiii cloth, trinket*!, 
and hardware articles, and at a very handsome profit, relieve the 
Bhils of their \m':, CHti>t-liu, and other foreat produce. Th» dralor 
diatrilnitcB the stock among the local markets. Very little leaves 
the district. The retail price variist from SJ. to 7i<f. (2- 3 oiiium) b 

Liqnor ia distilled almost aolely from moka, Bassia latifolia, 
flower*. In March and April the Howers are gathered by Bhils in 
large quanlitieii, and what they do not want for their own nstc, ihisy 
RoU to travellins dcaloTB. The dealers dispose of them to KaldU or 
profeiinional diHuller.'*, who Iny in largtt Mlon-n in March and April, 
and distil them, according to demand, during the rest of the year. 
Tlw. Ilowerit aro Itoitcd in n <')oat-d caldron, uud tlie ^tnm is carried 
tliran);b a [lijw and allowed to condense in a cool vessel. The prooeas 
i» i<o simple tliitl largo quatititius of liquor uru distiUud amon^ tlia 
haU \,y the BUiU. 

Another important brnnelt of distilling is tlie preparing of oil 
£mm the foc^t gm«i known as ra»ha, Audropogon schoenaulhus, 
which is oftUD kinds, one wi|]i bluish and tlw other with while 
DowerH. The oil prv>ducie<l from the first is of a green lyiUmr and is 
called iophia ; llnit fiiun the nlhcr i* whito and is called motui. Tlxo 
mo/ia oil fetches a higher price than the topkin. Both grimsos grow 
freely thmtgh not vrry widely in many open hill aides in west 
Khiindesb, especially in Akr^ui. The original scat of the 
uouufavture was I^poloer, but as the oil is in great demandj tbo 


Oram 0H.1 

> Doriau Fubmary ao'l tli« threw Mkiwing ainnUia th« miking of Mtediu, JkU. 
niai tlulAiur bM^ em|it(>y« niaoy ini-n. Tli« pnK>oa^ tbovidi mlc. u linipl* and 
Itoap. XAact hraa<^D* uwi-iit. •trtp(>iil r>f tkiur l«ub, wiil dboppod into thi** w 
h m«>;(i*. TbvM^ iiul inlii iwrlliiii iwts foil itf wator, are boiUd, and tint irattir, 
_ nu In shwia, Iravu* a thi'dc ■tii'xy iltMXKiiiin. A pit U (taa five or tin feci 
jind narrvw «mo«]th tii bv c»im>1 ■>}' a ROiall liaiaboa buEvt. Tbe thick 
ia ;fcea-l ill III* biaktl, uhI ok it tl^Ii^^ Ihc water ainlu into tlie gnwitd. 
laMp^yt til Urn ^ll. au'l Uiu luhin ia loft ia Hic baakcC Tlio extract 

sviUiag DMrvluuita. 

plao«J ui Wv«a ID Um aM, and when dry, aold to pnddlan and 

thoaibmf Qt 




Oram Oil. 

Oii Prruii-J. 


muniifttcliiro baa of lat« spread to Nandarh&r, Sb&h&da, 
lllK.(la. The mafcon iire 3(uitalniiins, who, at the clnnv of ihc i_ 
alioiit hv^ttpmber, »'boii (lie ^n»* i* ri{ieiiiug, bny it from 
HIiiIh, (tiack it, iind »i<t furtiMcos at the aides of brooks wbure wnodi 
water are plentiful. A large pit, four fuut lipn^ \iy tvro wide i 
2^ de*p, in dajf, and a furnace, rAii/a, prepared. *Oii t.hi» fanau! 
pWctKi a (X^pptT or iron raldruD, large onoiiRfa to Iiold from tbiTtfl 
fifty pot» of water. After pouring in M>nw water, tlie ealilrcm is fill 
tu Die brim wiib c-Wp|N>d graxB, and a little iiioro n-att*r ia 
11ft itioiith of tbv culdroD ct can^fully (-IriiM-d with an ircnf 
ooDper plate, miide fast with wheat douffb. From a hole in tb? 1 
a nunboo tubt-, wmppod in u piece of clotJi, pWtercd wiUi 
flour, and bound with ropes, paaaetiiutoniieeond closed caldron,! 
to ttu) luxk in runiuo)? water. Theeteam from the Rra«K 
through tlie pipe, and is condensed in tbo Mcond c&Idron. 
when full beffiDs to shako, Aa soon as the shnVin^ lii-^ns 
tubo iH skilfully removed, and the oondcaMxl uteum ik poured : 
a third caldron and stirred. Theu the oil l>eifins to npj ~ 
its t<urfnix-, aod 18 slowly sIcimnH-d off. To uuike ttlraufj: 
mndi^iiHed atenui has to be dtstilltMl several times over. It is mil 
in den>aud as a cure for rheumatism and for other medicti 
piirposos. There were 197 Klillii in 1S78-80, produciofr uliout' 
cwts. (100 mim»). More than 100 stilla are worked in Naudni 
alooe, and the iocrease of the mannfacturo m pniTeiiicd only by 
the iinircity of the gnsa. Tbe oil is packed in skiuH, and Kent na 
biiUovk Itsmk over the Kuuduiban pass to Surat, and by Dhuliu anijj 
IklautDAd to }tomhay. 

Oibpressing is an import&nt industry giving employment 
filioiit 2U<)0 Ifindu and MnsBluUln families. The chief oil seeda »rv 
8e»amnni. jfT'trfu imiiidy in the min-i, and linse)-*!, u i-uld wnwther ■ 
Oil is iilwi pn-!<«.Hl frutti tastor seeds, earthnuts, andycocoanuttt. i 
uil-presfler ^euerall}' buys the tM.'ed fnim the eulUnttor. lie si^ll* 
part of the oil to the iieonle of the village, and sends the rest in lar 
tvather jars to the cnier distrii'l trade ceutres. The mill is kept 
ooo of the rouina of the oiUpresser'ti honite, nnd ia^orked hy 
blindfold bullock driven round and round in very smdll eircl 
The mill is rough and clumsy, allowing wi much vegetable mat! 
and dirt to mix with the oil that it miiekiy bft(,-<>uies mnciil. Of 
different ktmU of oil, ^ennitinm auu cocoauut ai-e osed chie&y 
cooking, ami linseed aiid ci^loroil l-ir burning. Of late the profitat 
■ the local uil-preasera hare been nincJi rediicynl by competition from 
M^lwa and the Ninlm's terntortra, and from the growing use of 
kerasine, which is brought by rail in wnsideraWu quanlitii'si, and 
is now nsed in many Kunbi uonseholda in the district. On ua^i 
days the uilniftn'it wife geuemlly take" some oil to sell in 
Deigbbriuring towns. Tbe er.dl is said to lie at present so depress 
that its member* are taking to other employments. Thu avenv 
price of oil in from 'Hd. to -t^ff. (li-3 anHot) a pound. 

CoMon-spiimiiig. once tlie chief eiDployment of the women of I 
poorer olaescs, had almoat en tjip ly ceased. The first blow waa 
introdoction of Rieara-spno yaJVbom Europe, and of Into by 

oonipotition of locnl and Boinbny Ht«ani-!ipun yum, tlio band-spna 
bos }>wn L<imi)ti'l«ly undersold. Cotton liandlixini weaving; hns ^tufiQd 
by the fan in tho coat of i,iirn, sad though tbu cqii'pcl ilii>u of European 
and ci^niilry xUiam-wOTeD gooda luts greatly roduoed pritx-e, tho 
iodiistry is still of oon«id<'r«l)Io iroportunce. Tbo weavers arejMrtly 
Htnilu» aud [Miftiv' Muaabniias of tlio Momin class. Tito Hindos 
belong chiofly to tnc Khutri, Sili, and KosdiiicnHlcM. They are found 
in ihiimII nuuil>eri< in mosC sub-diviaional towns, and In grmtcst 
streu^^h in Dhnlia, KasocU, Dhnmn^m, PitroU, Erandot, S^vds, 
Fniitpur, Varangaon, Pimprdia, Nasirabad, and Jalgoou. ThAgh 
many of them aro small capitolisls, hnndttimn weavers are geitenilly 
employed by men of (»pit«l, moat of thorn V&nia and somv Bohor&s 
and Khatris, wUo §uppiy them with yam chictly spun in local aaJ 
Bombay etvam tnilb. Thoy aro piiid on au avurago from Hd. to 9d. 
[2-6anitaa) a day. Botb men and women weave, keeping not 
more than thirty hiiliditys in tbo yittr, and working, except for ' 
about an hour's rest at noon, from morning to night, »o lung as 
they have tight to «x'. Of laU', clnVfly liy tho competition of local 
Ktcam inillH, the prices of goods have fallen, and though part of 
this reduction i» mi;t by the gn-att-r cbwipnws of yam, the margin 
of wage left to the weaver has within the last ten ytwrs been 
towered from about ijil. toSil. (3-2 onnuji). Tbu.cloth is taken by. 
tbc luaater weaver who advanced tbe yam, and distribulud by him 
tbrough the chief tniAv (x^uln-Jt, tuins, and wi-vkly markets. It ia 
OMtiuuiti^ that about nine-tenths is consumed in the district, and Uio 
rest, sold and resold at markc't^ and fair-..', findH its way over thu 
Ajanta pas>> iu lAllock nirt.>« to Iterdr and the NijEAm';! domioioiu, 
orby rail to Bombay and tbo Contnd Provincoi. Tho chief li and- wovoo 
cloth goods nri-' woinfn'n rolieii, {n^ag, from Erandtd, Dharaugaon, 
PSmla, Chopda, PimprSia, Kasirabad, Fuiupnr, .Savda, X'urangaon, 
and Jalgaon; flour cloth.'* jiijanu, oottoD ebeeta jiiiwdU, stamped 
dirty-FM courlets phaiikit, smaller shootH and cuiibionfl tMhuIu, 
from Nandnrl>ilr, SluOi(i<ia, Varsi, Betdvad, Stndkhvda, Cbopda, 
Jali^nou, .Kiuiner, Faispur, and Chinaval ; long white floor cloths" 
iitret, cot tape ttavdr, bulluvk c\oiii»jhtil*, from N'ftHdrirlwu-, Shdh&da, 
Vaivi, Ktinai, and Ka^iMla; and coarso cloth jtAotfi, from Jimnor, 
SAvda, FaiBpur, Jamti, and Cbopda. 

Dyeing, l>oth of oolton cloth and yarn, frivea employment to 
^bont lOOO soals, cbicHy Hindus of tho Bh^T»nr and Rang^ csst«s 
in Nundurb^rand Sdvda. Tlie chief colom-s are scarlet and blue, 
others being otere tnodificatiuns of them. To dyo Mcartot tbe yam or' 
doth is for four or livo days altenjLat«ly soaked, driedf and aoiUcod 
again in yellow sandy earth, lilia^i, and wafvr, or ciurl>otiat« of aoda, 
papad Ichdr, mixed u-ith ciiKlor oil.' After final washing and drying, 
thto yam or cloth is plunged into a pot of litgnid Indian mulWrry, ut. 
An the dl powder is very light, <<» keep it togetlier, C9u>tor oi) is 
mixed in the proportion of one to twenty ; atnm is added in the 

' Thu jM>v nutJi ia liron^ht Eium Hv«r tbka by 1Ini4-b«r««n, Lomirn, and 
tioujiht Bt • 4»at oI 4 WifT* for an tuna. Tbt c*ititauta of loiU, UMul by tbu riahet 
ilyan, b nwob mms aerviMabla Uiu UiaMMbnr outfc, and t* Utftty Uoporwd bom 
DcctiUy Mftoortom Vk. (Ba U) UMfBb«I tluw noM. 

Cliapt«r TI. 



IBomhaj Ouettwi 


»pt«r VI. 


p9}portionoFfivo toonooroDe-half ; and the wbolo is disgolved i: 
a caJdron of lioiliu^ vriiicr. Alter the mixture ban biiili-il tor Honi 
timu, ibe prepared yaro is pluopcd iuto it, nod left (o soiLk fur abtiv 
three dnys. U u IIk-d Wii-thvd in freitli, und if puxHiMu, nmuia 
WAtiftr, and aoinetimes, to brioff out tho colours, lias &o extra bath i 
a muttoro of gonl's dung and M'uter. Aft«r thU it i» again vrashs 
ia tioab water and dried. The dyod yam is sold to handlooi 
irearers and tho vlolli (o rilliigo dealcn, the coitt of dyving r&isiii 
tha prico of ram hom lllif. to l«. i\d. (7^-!^^ urihua) a poMn<i 
and of cloth &oin 2ii. to S*. (Kv. I •!{«. I \) for onclt pit>co of clot 
twolvo cubits loQff by I { broad. Dyeing blue i» a simpler prooes: 
uThe yam or cloth lias not to bu vpocially pruparvd. Aft«r washiti 
it in purii vf^t«r, the yarn is plonged iato a not of blue dyo sta 
prepared from^two pounds of iudigo, ono ponnu of plantaiD aahw 
ouu pound of cement, and one pbuod of tarvad, Ca^Hia uurti^ulatx 
seed, boiled togetbor and disnolrvd in watvr from thrue to eight dayi 
Aft4;r tln'« it in washed and dried. The cost of dyeing klu« in ai ui 
rate of Cd. (4 anna*) a pound. 

Ho»t of the yarn and cloth is need locally, bnt aomo of the richd 
dyers send thuir wares n» fnr a» Bvr&r and XAgpnr. i 

Cnlico-priuting .U carried on chiefly iu Faiicpnr, Jalgaon, m 
some other largo townx. Thv priutKrH nru dyers and tbey gem-rull 
print c<jarse haod-madd cloth. The favourite ailourH are durk-re 
and dark-bluo. Bufuro preparing it fjjE printing red, thu clod 
as in tho caso of dyeing, undergoes, for fiv« or «tx davH, sevwa 
naahinga in a mixtur^of water, carbonate of Nucta or hhadi, aal 
castor-oil. Next it is plunged into a mixture of twenty pound 
of dl, and eight pounds of dkdcda, Cunocarjms Intifolia, now«ri{ 
powdered and ^Kiiled togothur in wator in a caldron able to boll 
128 yiinl« (10 tkuna) of cloth. Tho addition of four pounds | 
myrobaUnH, hirdiU, while the mixture i» boiling, giwft tho eloth 
dirty yeltuw tinge. The whole is then dried, sprwid on a bonn 
and printv<l by a wouden handblock. For printing blue, tbo cloU 
has only to bo washed before being stainpod. The red colour i 
n mixture of alum and gutn, and the bine a mtxtUTV of ttulphal 
of iron, AmifciM, and gum, both dis^iolred iu water. The woudc 
hnndblork.^ liavo tha pattern deop cut in their Uu-f». They ax 
made by the printers themselves, who, in cutting them, use from fort 
to fifty wmitll .shHri>ly pijinled ntwl nail-like toc)l!<, IHie printor wh 
"makes these stamps generally does no other work. He has a stoci 
of pattoms drawn on a iisiper, und sometime.-*, though rarely, supply 
new devices. From the paper pattern, n drawing in ink or otke 
colotintl .lubittanoo is mndu on the ftice of tbo wooden block an 
tho pattern is afterwards cut to the re<|uirod depth. In the riahe 
designii, where sereral colours are used, wich colour has its ow 
block with only so much of tho piktiom engravvd on it as belona 
to thai colour. In printing, the workman has beside him a pai 
soaked with tho colour tie3» using, and on this he pt«8ses tbl 
block between each timu l*«tamp8 tbo cloth. A blue piatonil 
the simplest When more eolours^ihanone luivo to be used, tho n«! 
where tJio Blanip ia uot to mark ia covered with a mLxtaro of gui 




il saud which is afterwardfi wa^hod olT, and the ntamping rcpontixl 
iritli the othtT bluclcM nnd coloui^ till iho whole patl«ni ia.nnnt^d. 
AJhvr printing, the whl|l<^ <;loUi is uguiu vroll vriisla-tl in pure 
voter, and aonK-times, to brioff oiu tln» colours, reeeivea a hath of 

ifttV (Inng niid wati-r. Aflcr this it ix ooc-ii tnoro earufully washed, 

ied, aud t-spi'sell fur sale. 

SttMitii Kpinuing, woaviu^, iniiaiu(r, and l^>llo^l•pn'$)ling, have be^n 
introduced imo Khaiidc«h n-ithin tJR' Inst twenty years. The only 
Kl«nm)ipitiniii^»nd wciiiTiiig cotton fwttory is (it Jalgaon. This^torv 
was iitartt-ii iu 1H74, under the uaiueot the Kbiiii<U-i<h Spinning and 
TiVeavinjjrComiwny Limited. It bad»c»pi(«l oti;75,000 (Ha. 7,oOfiOO) 
and liiiiidiii^ iind nuu'bim-i-y ibat (;o&t ai>oin. £1I&(I0 (II».{*5,0ltO). lt« 
mui bui-Dt down in 18"H, but was re-opened for work iu Jamuiry 1879. 
It has at proMont 220 ioom.-<i nud 18,000 .tpiiidlcV, nnd conauitx-H 
on an avunig:^ HIjO tous (8O00 paluiji) of i-oitoii a ye»r. It umploj-s a 
staff of ^i^ workmen, itbout AW of them Musalmitns, ^r>4i .MiinitbiU, 
60 Portugwcsi?, Pimieshii*, tmd Pirsis, aud two, tho chief engineer 
And the epiunin^ master, Europeans. The MusalnillDB, chivHy from 
Indor, Bombay, Pooni^ Saliira, uud Xu^r, and a tow nativea of 
Kh&udi>!(h, are nkilled wearers, nilers, carders, and spinners; the 
Manirh^g, strong, sturdy and iniiiH'ul4jr, from all ]atrt)) of the D«ccaD, 
art- tabimrvrM and carriers ; the Ponuji^iieso,, hardnorkiug iind 
iotoUiKCut, are Gttei's ; and the Panlcvhii-, peasants from Hoy Bareilly, 
l>olhi, Ayi-a, and Cawupiir, nro chielly uie»s(iig('i-!< anil watchmen. 
Ono of the I'firitis iv a we^ljngr, and one of ihe MarAthas a cardinj^, 
niaater. Ivxceptt^ clerka no high caslu Qiudiis arc employed, and 
thvro are no Miinrs or Bhilx. Of th« who Icritaff about onp^third get 
fixed wages, the rest are paid by •piece-work. Of tliose who get 
lixed wages, the monthly pay of the engineer is &W (Rs. 400), of 

,c (iptiiuing mttsU'r .WU (Ka. SOO), of the smith £* (Ra. -«), of the 

■icklayer t2 (Ita. 20). of tJio fittcre from £1 IOk. U> £2 (Its. 1&. 
Bfl. 20)', and Among coninmn labourers, of a man 6it. (i anmt*), of n 
woman •IJ'i. (;iuji«u«),and of a child IW. (2 annas) a day. The piece , 
ratM for spinners are S^d. (2^ aniKi") the 100 pounds of yarn, and 
tor weavers from t», to 5». (Ks. 2-Rs.2J) the huudrod |>ounds of 
oloth. Tliis repreaenta, for au average steady worker, daily pay at 
from 7{4. to 3«. (5 a»n«*-Rs. 1^) ; womvD generally earn from 3d- 
to 7\d. (2-5 annru), and childron fwra 3d. to 3iJ. (2-2i iiattat}. 
The wurkiug hours are from sunrise to auuiiet, with half an hours 
rest from eleven to half past eleven for (he middny nioal. Residea, 
the uMial native bolidnyH, a half holiday is gives every market day 
(Saturday), aud three days of rost a mouth aru wanted to clean 
the maebuiery. Tlie Cotton most used U the long stapled Klutndvfihi, 
Hiugaugbal and DhariWir. There is al&o a demand for the short- 
stapled V'arhadi. But as in Eliande^b, the growth of the Varhadi 
IB as much as possible diiicouraged, the local supply htw to bo 
itnpplenionted by imports from indor, Jabalpur, and Gardevida. 
About fiOOO pounds of yam aro niatly » day, thu wholesale prioo 
varying from £12 to £14 (Rh. 120-I|%l40) a ImiIo. Most of the 
outturn JH used locally, bought by local aealers, and distributed over 
the chief market towns and osvd by iho handloom woavtirn. A 
good deal is worked iuto cloth, the chief Torietiea of cloth being 

Chapter VL 

SUim Spb 
and H'd 

IBombajr OtunUs. 




tJtfjetH, towels, sail clolli, and conno ctotli of every sort, which rtlfl 
vholo6nl« nt It, {H annas) n ixxind. AltiKKst thv wkiilu of it iit liuoicUl 
by luL-a] (lealiTH and sold in Khd^sli, tinr&r, and tho NizinV 
domiDtuDH. It IB cbiofly usod by nie poorer clapaes for shirt* nafl 
wuistdollii}. Tboy also make cotton ropu nnd tnine for utw in iM 
Dull. I 

Bcfides the spinning anil wcavioff mJtl ihrrv are elentn sl<aM 
fttdoriM in Khiodeah, throo of tbem ffiouiug fadorics and eigwl 
prraHeH. Tho ^nnin^t r«(rtoriaa, two of them at Jal^non noil iincii 
MhasAvad, hnill betwoon 1800 and 18''-J, an- fiiniished witli Pfatfi 
Baw-gins. For tbo rnutt-nji already nieutioned, ctie dcKiructiun of tki 
«|pd and Ibn injury to ibe etaplt', eaw-pins, tliouRli they uvurk (oniM 
eleaper than liMia cirancrsunii wi;r<.- omnt ; 18 tt*) prulty widt^Iy uivifl 
hare for tbv biMf fuiir or tivc yearn lain aliuust idle. I 

Of tbo eight strain oottou proHHos, seven ai« in Jnlgaofl 
and one in Dbnlia. lu the Jalgann pre»N>ii, tlie prvKsing cliargfl 
■H &«. Gti. (Rh. 2 as. 12) a bale, with an additional Sd. i2 antniit) £■ 
oirrifligo. In 1879-80, 9l,iiM balw ngiiin«t 16,021 in !S71.72 iir^ 
rvpOAcd (o haro been preaed. The siz*.' of (ho b«le is four : '1 

inch lont,', one foot sis inches higli, and ouo foot fivo iucli' .J 

During Januiinr, FobruHry, Manh, and April, wht-n cctt^m cotuea 
forvrard iu btrgu ([uautities, the prosaes are at Wiirk night aud dayj 
tba men being paid from 3il. to djil. (2-3J a>ina«) on each liuM 
pveasud, and dividing the amount among. ihemKelvos. >Soiiiotiraaq 
thfi preeaes work for a fow Ix^nDt a day only- Tbej have uo fixaa 
lKnin> and tbeir wiirkiDgutinie dejwudit ujion ibo stoijkof cotton. Im 
Jalgaoa tho presses employ altogether three Kurojieaa engiiuvrvj 
nbout liftcen to sixki-ii pn-ssmuu, and thirly to thirtytive biii^iuri^nd 
to can-y the biilvg from tho jirx'W to the nwlwiiy ^tjition. DurinfJ 
tbu biiity ft'iiNon the ])rea»mi'Ut who are chiefly Mariitb&» anS 
}kl iisalni&ns, earn from £1 lOti. to <2 IOji. (Re. 15-lU. ib) amoulhil 
nio carricrit ar«! Di'ccaii Mariilhiiti. Tliey iirp pHi<i from l(i#. ttm 

* £1 lOii. (Ks. &>1U. 15) every hundred IkiIoh atvordiug to the dixti^ncal 
Tivin tho fm-tory to the ntation. lAT^icn the ihssoq is over, some gol 
to their villagPH to cultivate, otbern auiy in Jalgnon and find 
work in tho onlinury bibmir mnrket. Some hare settled in Chopdn, 
Varid, nnd Vlriid, where they bavo bnilt houses and hold land. 
Tbe pre!4smeu and carriers are nearly all Dec<(>iui MarAtfai« 

^S&t^ra and Poonn. llioy livu in hnts outside of Jalgaon. 

, Cotton carpets arc wovon at Kii.«i)d» and P&Idhi in Emndol, a^ 
Aftodn ill Kiisiruluid, aud at It.inola in Nuiidurlmr, by Ufaangar and 
M&obh&T Ilindns and by Miisnlmiin J'injaris. Tho industry is n 
small one, ttnpjxirting not mum than 400 families. Almost all 
are lidHiurera supplied with cAttou by ^lutuilmfin and JljirxlUI^ 
dealers, and paid for their work nt the rate of Si, to4}if. {i-3 aiinaf)i 
a day. A fairly skilful and steady workur oumB, on an &vvraf^g 
from Gd. to 9tf (4-G nnnaxjaday, Tbe demand ia ateatty, britknigh 
at times of faint nnd dullivnt ih tli« rainy weather. Tho men worki 
from six to (-igh! honrs a day, and keop about thiriy yearly holidays. ' 
KxiH-pt I'iujAri.1, they himily ever follow any other muiiloyuMint, audi 
tbeir women seldom add anything to the family gnins. The coloora 

6l. ^^ 



□erally nsed are red, yellow, green, Aiid black, and tlio pttttonu 
ulninvl. nlnttys simple eitripeii fniiu ouc-1«uth of an inch to 2J 
IS bnMil. Theae carpets ar» offered for sale at moat market 
and religious gittlmring.s. TlioJr l>u«t nwrkct in ul TtlaJiini 
tir Tliey *n «eut iu small (|a&iitities to Uerflr and the Niic&m a 

Gold and silrcr thread are made in snuill (]uantitic« at 'Ri.-ror in 

ivilti. The worker.^ are Hindus of the Son&r, Sliimpi, Rajput, and 

taa^ri castes, and Miisalm&iiH who liaro lately come from 

Jnrhlinpur. 'Vhv industry \» of litlltt iui porta nc^e, !>u]i]ioriiDg nob 

Bore than from fifty to one hundred famiUae. Most o£ the gold- 

bi-ead makers are labourers supplitilbya Mlirviid capitalist with the 

bread and iiivlal, and paid for iheir work generally al the raK; of 

\d. to 4)d, (1-3 annas') a day. The women of the family do not 

oke part in the employment, but they generally e»ni a lit4]o by 

abour iu the tti-id-t. The demand, fairly coustiiut throughout the 

'ear, is briskest in the wedding seasons and dullest dnriu|^ the rains. 

The makers gi-neriilly wrork from nix. U> eight h'liiR* u day, and ke4p 

iboul (lixty holidays a year. There is a craft guild comjK^Hod of Bl) 

[dull males, but except enloniiag holiday-kwping, it plays but a 

smull part Intheoffairsof thecraft. In niakiuggold tbnrad, a i^ilrer 

bar about a fool long and one and a half inches thick is covered with 

gold leaf, which by sovoral hcAtingK and hammerings is welded into 

the !>ilrer. One end of the bar in put into one of many dilT<^renb 

sized boles pierced through a rough iron plate. The point of the 

bar is oaiight by » large pair of pincers, whose handles are secured 

by a ring fontened to a rope or chain ^ing round a wooden wheel, 

which, worked by threu men, drags the bar through the hole in the 

iron plar«. In {>ai(siug through the bole, ibe bar grotT-* eoiuiderahly 

honger and thinner, and the process is repeated through gradually 

diminishing holes. When reduced to the niza of wire it is handed 

loTer to another workman, who, by working two small wheels, drags 

it through a fiwiie ])ierci(td with very fine holes. When fine enough 

it is tluttoni-d by boating with a small hammer on a nttiol anvil. It 

is then twisted with thin yellow or orange silk and wound on reels. 

When ready the gold threa<l iit distribiitoil through the different 

narketa and fairs, and bought by village dealen and bandloom 

weavers. Most of it i^i used in the district. The demand Cor gold wire 

IS wnall, and the workerK are badly off. 

The chief crafts connected with animal products are the making , 

of lac, clarified butter, the weaving of silk and wool, butcher's 

Work, and iho making of leather. I^, produced by the puncture 

of the female insect. Coccus laeca, on pimpal Ficua religiimta, 

pa/oji But^-a frondosa, and bar ZieyphuH jujulra, trees, is gathered 

fehieQy by Pim{ialner Bhilsand other forest tribes in April, May, and 

Kiftrt of June. \Vhen about thirty pounds haro been collected, it ia 

feat in coante cloth bagM from elxveu to foutloen cubits long and 

fcbont twelve inches round, which, with their mouths closed, are laid 

hear a hrc and the gum left to melt and uoxc oui. The supply i» 

bold by the Uhil:^, partly to travelling Hi^hora and MArvM aud other 

[V&oi peddlers, who give in exchange cloth and hardware trinkets. 

I ■411-W 









Iflie r««t lA taken lu markM. lowns nod )k>1(1 for money, or ^ - ~~ 
oloth. 'PbodoalprecolliH-LthiilM^iuiddiBtribiito tt to silk <i 
SnrlutnftiriuidVeolaMuaalm&os.uidtoLBklii'rtLHorbr&i < 
H>)fit of tlM> cropis naed to the iliiMrirt in dyfiu^ /uru u: 
in vomi-ring wuod. A little fiudji iln iray to BtmLr and iJie J^u 
duminioiiN, itnd some ffuofl by rail to Bumbnjr. 'Vhv priai I 
consumer ^uorallj' \'nrtra frura Qtl. to l«. ((J-H annati} a 
The dcmiind i^ fairly couitaut, but rec<eot furust raatr 
liaT« greatly reduced the supply. Imc brvcelotH of mHoos 
are made in DbiiliA, Gmwiilm, liiid BliuiUtral by Jjakher^ whol 
said lo liave come froii» MArvid abont a i-eniury a^. 

* . Clarified bQtl«r, tup, it nutde chiefly ai Dhttlia and Lali^l 

Almost all wwU-to-do husbandmen sell clarified butter, aad, 
by them, a lai^e quantity is prepared by prufmeioaal herdji 
the Dhnn^ar and Gavli cih<(c«. The wom«n do tho dairy wiiri 
hom^ttimfift gn to at^U the batter. Clarified butter is of tn-o I 
one made from bufFaloe'e, the otiicr from nheci>'» milk. The 1, 
made from bHlTalov'M milk ia (he lieitt, feic-hinA- frum Gd. to U 
(4>8 iiniinir) a pound. It is used by idl the well-to-do. Shetf^ 
butter, fetching from 4\4, to 9rf. (3-6rtnji«) a pound, ia alti 
chiefly by thopoorerclnWHM and in mixinjc. Cow's butter, whicJiil 
used for mediciue, ia seldom made. The producers ffeut^rallywC 
to butter dealers, lontl and MArvitd Vtoix, Bhatiiiii, and Knc-bhit, 
wlio )iru in the larger towns and travel about {^theriBB 
supplies. They keep the butter in large leather jans, duht'u, ana 
<U«posa of most of il at their shop* in market and other !»r^ towiu. 
Batter u daritied by boilinfc tt in a brass or iron pot. \Vli«i 
mod it keeps fresh and fit for use from eight to tifl<!un daya. Almoal 
the whole supuly i» mwd in Khiindejih. A little finds its way lo 
B«r^ and the ViEiim's dDmiuiona. There has Dot of lat« been aigr 
marked change in the butter trado. 

Glam bangles are to a small extent made by Mnsalmtos of the 

^ Uani&r ca«:te. Tho vhicf cmftHmvii used to bo found nt Na.'iirabad, 

Yltval, Sakli, I'AroU, and ICrandol, and in Nasiriibiid there aru Ktili 

from 300 to 100 of ihetn. Tl""y Imrc now much difficulty in finding 

wood for their furnaces, and the iiiduwtry does not proaper. 

Silk work is cnrrii>d on to a small extent in Krandi>l and Pdrola. 
Tho indu»try euipluya scvuml classes of workmen, sorton, ' 
t and weavom, but it is not a large industry nud dueH not :<. 
• more than about seventy-five familie*. Almost all of them afo 
Isbourt'rs supplied with ^ilk by Gujarat V&ni and Shimpi d^ialora, 
and paid by the piece. Tho Hilk, cbiuBy Bengal and Chinena, vt 
brought by rod from Bombay, Tlio only silk-apiuning is carried on 
by the Khatria as a kind of bve-work. Thvru are no aiatiuctcliwsos 
of silk wearers aud dyera "nie ofaiof colours uHnd are red, yellow, 
«i>eu, black, aud blue. The weavers, Salis and Koshtis by caste, 
^iellv make tadit, rholkhans, fdgotit, and phadkis. Tlie demand 
for their work in f>irly constant, briskest dnring the marriago 
Beaaona and dullest in the rainy mrmths. The nilks are made ov«r 
to the dealer who sells them to village shopkeepers or sends them 
in charge of agents to the diSerent markets and fairs. The retail 

■ DecciAj 



prices of Bilk gooiU aixl 2s. to 4r. (Re. 1.R8.2] ayard forturba^B; Chapter VL 
luid from -t«. U} £2 (Re, 2-Rs. 20) for robes. Rich pi'oplo, BitiuoMM, CiafU. 

Sbiti^s, and Gujai^t and M&rftnl VAnin use ailk clolb. 

Blankut-nuavitig is almnst the only woollea maDiiiactare. It ia fifonfei 

ied ou all orer tbe district, but chiefly io DliuUn, Nnsirabad, WMvutjt. 

ner, Amaltivr, and Virdol. Ilie wenvoM nro almost all of tb« 
Dliangur ittnte. Sheep are generally sheared twice a year, in 
Uan.'h and in November. Tho wool, chiefly bUu.-k with M>Jno tbrwida 
of dirty white, waiiboil tM>veral ttnieti and cleaned wilh the bow, ia 
coilfctvd liy tho Dhangare, Bome of it set apart for their own use, and 
the rest taken to the cluof district tradn acutrcsHuil sold to wool 
dealers, also DhuigarB by cft.«to. Frinii tlutsuy dmlort* it is bought by 
tbo woariiiff Dhangara, wbo, though of the saine tribe as t^ shepherd 
Db&ngars, do not rear ehcup but upend their time in blanket-weanog. 
Most of lliem buy tho wool und work it into blankots. Othorg, 
eoiployod by dealora as labourers, are paid from 2id. to 3d. (H- 
2 anntu) a vard, rates rD])rcsciii ing to a fairly good workman 
mbout i^d. (3 annat) a day. Tbe weaver wbo woikti hiit own 
wool oarna on an averaj-e about &^ (4 aittur*) a day. They weavo 
generally in the oixiu lur, and rain forcea iht-m to stop. They 
work from aix to eight honra a day and keep about tlurty yearly 
holidays. Tboirwunion and children help in spinning the wool, and 
tho men generally apin when it is too wot to weave. The blankets 
are offered foraafe, eitherby the wearersthemselveaorby Ihelmdnr 
wbo has employed them, at all fairs and markuts, and in the shopjt 

rofmOiSt large villitgtt.*. They ftrn in dt-maud among iiH the lower 
clawes, and almost the whole local produce ia used in Che dtxtrict. 
A little goes to BorAr and the NiaUn's provinces. But the quantity 
imported from &tilr\-^d, ShoUpur, and Fandbarpur, i# gonnnilly more 
than what leaves Hhe district. Thor« is a considerable sale of 
t Eoglisb blankets in Jalgaon, Bbnaltral, Dhtilia, and ni<arly alt the 
larger lown-s. Blanket weavers have no guild or trade ansociation, , 
There is a good, and on tbe whole a gTx>wing demand for their 
wares. A blanket generally moaaures from three iv six cubit«, and 
oostg from It. to 'da. (ani»i«s-na.l(). Almost all aro plain. 

BiitcherM* work in of two branches, the kilting of cows and AtfrS 

buffaloes and the killing of sheep and goats. Tho butchen of tho *'*"'^ 

brger animals are Kiut^f, ami of tbe Hmnller Khitika. Butchers A 

«n» found in nlmosE all market towns, but beef is uaed only in placen * I 

where there is a large Hnaalmiin popilntion. Tho indnstrv aupporta* M 

from 200 to 800 uuniliea. The cowx, oxen, and bn^oes are | 

generally brought by culdvators. As a rate they are old animals I 

pasi yielding milk or doing work. Somtt cultivators and many of ^^1 

tbe liindn town tndorn used never Co sel! their cattle to tbe but4;her. ^H 

Of late, it is said the practice haa become mneh commoner. The ^^M 

demand is pretty constant, and tho bntchen lead an easy life, the ^^M 

women doing a great part of tho selling. As a claes they are well- ^H 

to-do, charging U'i. (I aniMi) a pound for cow beof, and SJd. (]) ^H 

emnaa) for goat's Sesb, prices that leave them a good profit. BaSalo ^H 

meat is rarely used. Mnsalmins, except the poorest, and even these ^H 

00 their three or foar chief holidays, eat both beef and mutton, ^H 

(Boinbaj auaRM, 

ppWr VL 





amuntf Hindus, Ahir Shuupici eat ^at's flesh pretty constoatlf, 
and Kitut)i» nnil Bhita wbea they can afford it. 

Leather making and wurlcing ba» Itvo ljivn<-heitj t&mung anj 
ahoemakitig. 1'anniDg goes on in almost all large vUlag«B ui 
tonHB. Tod worlcmon nr? cfak'fly Mdngs nnd ChAiubMrs, and Uie 
iudUBtry supportti aI>oul 100 fnmilu^tt, Tlic liidt^^ »rv ^nerall; 
(lajred by village Mb^ and partly dried by them, and lut^d ro ni«t 
the wnntxof vUlagore for U-athor ibonga nnd ropve, or they are taken 
into ihti larger tovma and »old to hide dealent wito nre mo«iIy 
Husalni^s. The bide dealers export some of them by rail b) 
Bombftj, but moet are soot to bo drevsed by local ChinibhdrB and 

Jkl&ngs. They firot put the hide in water for two or threw dayi, 
atid «Fh«n it ia irashed and has had all the hair gcraped off with ircD 
kcuTea, they nt)ply limo and thi-n fiild iiud keep ibc bidofonbiw 
diiys. After this it is again washed and left for nearly DinrtMii 
iajt in the cxlrat^ of larvad, Ca«Hia auric-ulnta, bark. Then it 
w^hedand laid In pure water (or another fiftH-ii dayaaud then drii 
in the shade. Tanners work about eight hours a day and ki 
DO boltdaya. Thoir women and children take no part in the tro: 
Moat of the leolhor it sold to Kh^udenh sboemnkerR either at hun 
or markets. '£he tanners of Dharangaon in Bhus&val and of 
Jalgaon in Dhulia have a eiwcial local Dnmo for skill in their craft. 
Litue leather Inircit the district. The demand is coBHtonl and 
the cmft fuirW prosperous. Shoemnking goes on in moAi 
large village*)!. The workers are Mochis uu<I ClittmbhtirH nnd lb 
industry Mupport^ about 100 Mochi nnd 1200 Ch^bhdr families 
The leather is bought chiefiy from local tanners, and as » mie the 
shoemaker works with leather be ba^ himself bought. Mo«t of the 
Mochis and Cbiimbiirs are both tannera and ahoeuakera. They are 
paid from 1'. ti/<|jr. (a«. 8-Rs. 2) for a pair of slippers, repnaeoting, 
to a fair workman, from 3d. to 6J. {2-1 annav) a day. The demand 
for his work i» st«ady thn>ughimt the year, lie works about eight 
hours n day and takes no holidays. The women of bis family help in 
tbe lighter parts of bis work. He nuikv:) Mhovw, Kandab, buckets, 
Bod wat«^r ba^s. The shoemakers of Dhulia, Taraod, Erandal, 
Cbopda, and Xandurbdr, have a good name (or their native 
■hoes, and in Dbolia, Bhus&val. and Jalgaon are Mom« men who can 
make n«at and nseful Eiigliith shoes and rough pony harness. 
Most shoemakers koop a muuII »lock of slippers and sandnia foaM 
• Bale, or send them by an agent to local murkotM and fairs. TImIV 

•n-hule supply i« giiucrally used in the district, and small qiianlitiea 
of English ^'lux'S and boots are brought from Bombay, and native 
■(k>O0 from Poona and Ahmodiutgar. Tfa« demand ta on tbu whole 
«t««dy, and the businotts prosperoua. 

Hom-gntlturing is an industry that has spmng up sincv the 
railway was opened. Near mo»t rmilwuy stations large heaps of 
horns and bones are collected. They are generally brought from 
the villages round by SIbiirs luid Bhils, and sold by them to 
Bohora dealers who send them to Bombay. Some aix yiairs ago 
boms were sold at the rate of £3 (Its, 30} a hundn-d and bones at'Js. 
(Re. 1 ) a hundredweight. Tb« demand hah now fnlUin and the Irada 
is not prospi-rwus. 







Cart-making in aa important indimtry. Wood is clu>nj) i^d 
good, and ihe Dondaicha, Taloda, C'bopda, aod Navdpur earta are 
•0 marked aii iiDprovotnoat on tho old cnrt tlutt tbey have become 
mosl popular. The mnnufacture llourislieB, the price liaving been 
iWMcf, without lowcriD)^ the demand, from £'2 to £4 {Ha. 20- 
tU. 40). Tliey nrv madt^ bv Dv«hi iiiiil Purdt^hi SutArs. Tliv iron 
parts are the work of local blackHiaitlis, ths material being supplied 
from Bombay tbrongli local sbopkeepvrs, BohoHi8j Viiniiij and 

TliD making of salt, gunpowder, paper, and opium, are do longer 
prftcli^cd. Formerly, on account of toe oxp^pae and risk of brinj^ng 
n frt>ra lh*» eiismt, uttlt p»(>d tobeUkndc by stcmping «irth. In milch* 
tho samt? way nilro was extracted aom earth and gunpowder 
made. When Captain Briggs came to KhaDdeeh in 181H, he found 
that gunpowder wiw nmdv in ulnio«t ovory town in tho diatn<H. 
When the district wae brought to order, the demand for gunpowddF 
oeasod and tho workmen bei'amo limo-bumors. Gunpowder is stitl 
made is small quantitioH for fireworks by Kome Mugalnulns. Cuarm 
paper QR«dto bo (1861>) manofactared at Erandol and Yiival.' The 
ruimi of ptiiier-niiikon^' houwwareatillsiH'ii.uudaTory §matl qcuintity 
is still made. Of the decny i^f tho indigo and o{iiion maimiacturea 
•omo nctwunt has been given in tho chapter on Agriculture. 

Cloth and turban wearers, oil-oxtraotors, hosbandnioti, bangle* 
makers, car]>enter8, barbers, potl^Tii, goldimitha, washermen, 
tailors, dyers, and dt-sellers, hare caste or^nisations which, 
(o somu extent, lake the place of craft iriiilds. Euoli casto has a 
nnmher of Itsiding men, mahiijan*^ subii'rdtnate U) a limd luudor, 
chattdhri mahdjan. ilia olKiw is hereditary, and in all matters 
coming bcforo him Lo coQ«ult» men of iK'knowlud^ty] reputation in 
the caate. From three to nix members, including the president, 
ehattd/iri mahajan, can give an anthoritatiro docision affecting the 
interciitit of the whole frutemity. llieHe decifiouH relate chieSr to 
marriages, re-maniagtin, and questiona of caste rules. They have 
no direct connection with the crafleman's work, except eo far as any 
special line of condiiot would be a broitch of csMtu rules. Finos 
recoveriKl &<om defaulterfi form a fund from which caste carpeta 
and cooking and drinking vessela are bought. The practice of 
approntiut!0bip prt^vails, the appr«ntico getting neithor pay nor 
allowaoces. liilrikes are almost unknown. IVelre years ago the 
barbers atrack and succeeded in raising their wages from fd. to It''..*' 




> Bom. (iav. M. XCUI. 307. Tha p*p«t ira* Jafcrior to tUt iuBiiui>ctUT«d *t 


• n.a-lSOO A.D. 



The oldest Klitodeiiil) I(>g(^»d» bctoiii; to tW hill FnrU of ^qq)^ 
ttnd Aairjrad . Tbw M^ | iftbluLra t meptjoiia YuvaiiAsliya. the niif r of 
• TarafflSa^^ fi^'hTin^ with tho CfcndAVK,^ and Asirgad aa & pkcQ 
of worship of Ashvuftliiima.* Acwirdiug' tn local Uaditiuu, Asirgi ' 
vra.H, fi-oni ttbout 1600 B.C., the bead-quarters of a Bajput chief wh< 
sncieatore cam« from Ondh.* 

In CMirly time!* KhAndi^Nli, like the rrat of tlio Deccan, wan probably 
ander gr^at vassals, ma/iiifnai)(fttfe#/irars, and hewMlitary land- 
holdors, paligart,^ Betlltrtl at Asir^'ad in the oaKt, Pdtna in tbv &outh 
NA.iik in tho vf09l, and lialiiig in the centre, all und<;r thv control 
the orerlorda of Tagar and P&ithan.* 

The rock terfjjlw of PJlalkhora. N^Jeik. and Ajant a show that in 
the second and first ijeuturiea before, and during- tbo fir^t thrc« 
ceotiiriea aftar Christ, KbAndceh wsb nnder rulors who patroDioed 
Baddhitin i. aomo of whom lived at Paitba u.^ Tb« first dynasiy of 
whiofa distinct rooord remains are the Andhrabbrit yfc ^ or ShitaviUuma, 
whose ca pital wae Dbanaka t, purlwips Uluirniki.t on the Krishna in 
tho Madras diatrici of Unntur.* Thu diii« ii( ilitjir riw) to poww is 
uncertain. According to tho mout recent eatimatcH, their founder 




' The cibi«r owunHitiona te thi* ehaplar m« tbN« p*jp«'* on K]iiiid«di Uitw/, 
HMratdv prepared lij Mr. W. Runiw, C-S., Mr. A. CMw|n-Bo«v«r, &&, uid 
llr. J.foU«n.C.S. ' :^r J. aUouIn ia TMm. Kaj.&t.Soe. L 78. 

■ AahTstthlaiii is (till wnnibipii«d kt Aalrgsd. CHiitnd frovincf (iui'tlotir. 9. 

'tinuil DatI, ISl Tb*> Cliohln*. ninniw other*, cliuui tn htm nilml kn Anr^ii ia 

Cfaialoric tinM*. Tml'* Anna)*, II, 4W. Kfalji4Mb Mcmi U onii tiioe ta hsvs 
I tnclnilvJ to thacoonliyof VijbtfUk, whamuoM ramaui* in Rnlu- which tatj 
ha*« tiMD tko Midont o»pit«L Ttdarbh mu aC varimia poriixU « lorritory oE 
oonnidonibjo •xtonL and uownr. It ii monticiiiod in tli« Rimiyui, the U*hitbli4rati 
and tita Ponltti. H. H. WlUon'* Worka, ni. Ifi«. 

* lamva't Iti()kMh« Alt«itliiin)aknndc, TV. K7. 

* Aa«wlr <<*3S0 a<'. Tacaria aaid (fl rant Duff, II) tubsro bonn itnportaot ononrii 
* to attract Hnptiaa morchaat^ Ita ponitinn Uan not fM b«a Sxad. It h»« Ululy 

•(/oar. BooiTBt. Boj-. At. Soc XIII. V) bMii Ulimtifiad with Jntmarr in Pbona. But 
Jnanar data not agrM with the acouiint of Tajcar, Klrmby tho anihorot th« Perlnjiia 
(SIT A.f.l, whopLaoM it ton dajii eaat u( I'nttbaii (*ee McCrIii<ll<i'* Pnrlpliia, 125^ 120). 
OraatDaffa pontioo tHivtoir. U) ■ liltln to tbo norlh-*Mt <■( the nawim town of 
BhicMema moat prohahU. The rr^ark in tli* pMriplu* (McCrindle'a cditioo, ISS), 
MuitMMiywttoholwoa^tintaTagiir ■ fnon lhejiartoa)ongthaooa«t,'waTe*Dnt ont^ 
wagoaa to Broach, aeema to ahcw that Tagar waa In ccmraunluatinn with the Bay it 
Bongal. Pattbaa.thourittradilionaltyfouiuMbrSh&livihaniiiA.n. Ttt.waaaplacoof 
noportanooMtartrBalha tUid ooatinry Ka B(Uu Piji tn Jonr. Bum. Br. Roj. 

' Fbiguaoen and Barren' Care Temples, lit. The oarlieal oT the KhAndfah ea' 
hraploa ia orobablj one at Pilalkhora, dated about 150 jlC. The earlieat Ajauta 
NiJk«a*MareabontlOOa.c llitto. lfi$ and 178. 

* Traoa. See. Inter. <:oi^t. 3t!X The auM Andhiabhritxa or Aadhrii' aqrraata is 
•apyoaad to ihow that bef«ve they bMama iadBpeodcot, ibBj were lubjoot to tb» 
mynatagfia of PUaUpntra, tho roadora Pitaa, 




Sliiprak, SindxUt, or Shishnfc, lived before the cioeo of tho Mrd 
^utury B.C.' Thi* wmild plin-w Krislinw, the m-coml of ihe 
adhnib1irit,i|*il«, vflio is lueuliiined in one of the N^ik eaves, early 
^in tin- it econd oeiiturr before Ch rist. & da(« to some i'xt«nt snpportvd 
by the old forms of tht^ It-ttvni used in the cave inscription.* Th© 
^ADdbmbbrit.N*^ seem to have continued to rale in Nfeik,* till, in the 
utter p&n of the fir«t wntnrj- of llio ChHxtiau era, NiUuipdu, a 
ikythion or Parlhiaii oC thu S&b. Sat ray. or KshaiiartHnWniU ^ 
. twrth ludia, drove them ^Rom^aMK und Kb^ndciib, oau also, 
it would eeem, from Piiithau.* 'lln-st' Kilh rulers, originally 
Bobordinutv ti> »ime overlord, seem, after thou- conquest of the norta 
, to hare mada theuiKclftt ini]e|HiDdeut, and ruling fronl' 
wa,' to ha^ cliowtii Nitfilc an (he local seat of goverunienl.* 

Tbrt H^ kiii^ aeem to have held N&sik and Kb^ndesh Cor 
ftbont fom- years only, whi-n, l ietwco n 121- and 18& . Shitnkanu 
fG autaniiiml ni n»Um-d tlifc A iid bral'lirrt viU. earning the title of tba 
•ticrtroyer ol hiiaks, Yavana, and Palhavs.' Aboot forty yeara later 

■ BUn lli}i i4o»t. nam. Br. l!oy. A*. Sw. VII. 118 oaA VIII. 210) pLkc« Sliinrftk 

ilfcofMrth MDturybnIonCtirtat iBtut^rlil IndrAji tJuur, Ikmn. Dr. Kov. Al Soc 

nil. 310), *houl 210 B.«. : FnnMp (Bu>yi II. Uacfal T>)il« H) uid BhimUrkv 

niiB. 8P?. Inter. Caag. 3s£) ID N.b 21 i Wiiroril (A*. Um. IX. 101). betwwu Ui« 

■tUHl UiinlfOBtBrica ; uid WibonlTliMt. ninil. I. 68). u Utcu a.i>. 192. TIm 

OSS of lite ]imt dklTcrisocc m the Mtimnte ol ilstca in the doubt whatbM' Iha 

fdTiiMrtla*auall<Micdlii tbcFuTtii«M(oIkn>ingt)iuUMirrA*|315-n3B.c.), nicotwltd 
Ot»»»DoUM3. Ol ru!«l At tbewmelutMiiLdiliDrgat MrUu( theooantxT. 
' TMiu. Sfc. lotcT. Cong. 3G0. FtorgHMon nod Borgon' Cbt« TcmplM, 263, 2TS. 

* N*jilk Ckn XIU. hu u intoripticn with the nune of Ae grort lUktiiiri wIhm 
pDlwUadttoukboMt SUn.c FwgnNMa uul Bnigan' Ckt« Tenplo^ 163, HH. 

* Koithar tlie atitm' oar (be dat« of the ^np king* hu faccD nrtaialy lUad. 
flf^vtuD (Joar. Bom. Br. Rnjr As. K<kl J.X. 6) tdouKht tlify ir<<rc PArthiiui*, and 
llAMB (Ind. Alt IV.S3) thought that lh*>b*l<>uiiiul to th*A|il"Unii* trtW of Viwtolii, 
> Ut* (thy thuo oonqneKar* o( lodikhi IIih nen^iid vunlnry bcfmsCbiial. Thftt tbcy «er* 
Iter^Snen Eton tb« aurth ia ihowii tiy tbo Orock motto on tbdr omb* (Jonr. Bom. Br. 
iJUiJ. Am. f^oe- IX. ti>. Though il b *till nnccitun, th« fUh Uav* probably lUtcd 
fbniu tho rtluk cm (78 ii.D.i. >viUiuit<«l,at IcMt tD[9Di«nlt. tlH 3£8 «.■>. (Jour. Bom, 

[ Kf. Itov. Ai. (<«:. VII. 28, iinri 'IVtin*. 8m. Intor. Cong. 392-303). Newton IJoult. . 

Ikno. Bt. Boy. Ail Imv. L\. T| oaUa that the iBicriptiona nUtiiig to I\'kha|>iii in the 

Jf AiiV, Kdili, amt JuiuiiU' oftvi-i mabtuUi nvo |>ainta; l.bcwu riihor a li'ng uraa 

I oAocr of (onMi iHMmiI noiiiircfa ; '£, liii rule wi wu)o«fM«id, inducing much of tho 

ISmobh I 3, ho ma* totvigiwr. fmiiixUy a Parthian ; 4, U* danfbtct hjul a fliTida 

r.BMM and w*« iiu>rii*<l to a KiihIu, ttto con uf a fliiula ; i, hia daaghter, loti'Ui'law, 

and tnisiiiter wrre Bnddliuta. 

* Their cupital oocbu at one tiaw to kav* bMD a town aome war aontli of Vjaii^ 
Bcntioiied ai MioAiiaia b.v I'u.laniT and in the Poripliu, bat a'A i^olifiod. 

* Trma. Sk. Intur. t.'«ng, iM.' From Ntiik and othor ova insiTriptiniit, tli« 8ih 
rnlna Mwiii to luivc btcii voir (nc tii tbdr poata botb to Brahtnana and Baddhiata, * 
Tho uaEKvtancv of Ihe.Nlaik and Ajanta HMniaataMa ha* iaduied CoL Yulo (lad/ 
AiA. IV. St)S)lo|>Lu€)lha Tabard, Plokanjp'a taoe ol M0«4i(a> in Khiudaah. 8m 
BwtiiM' naltmy. -Jia. 

' tfrn-hnc. Inter. t:«nc. 311. 0■l■tamiplltra^i date itepand* on tha dato lixad tor 
Ilia baidaiAig o^th« Andhnclynaatr. BUndirkar {Tnat. Sec. IqIm. Ooug. 311), 

' fisBig Uaba^BDiui of tht Andhn dyiiM^ at a Utile bofon tha Chrialiaa «r« and 
OautHniMtn'a date at 3lff. oiTei th« Slh Ung^ of Kialk a period of abntil 140 jaata. 
Hie aridanea from tha wriluiR and OTDamonI in tba caeca aia»i eoafli«ling. Tte 
alphabet aaad 1^ UahaTuliu, Uio Hoond iWih ruler, diffeia rf>r; alightly flora that awd 
br (iauUiiii[<]tra. At the aann line ih« pillar capilala fa HahapUi the Ant 8th 
ruUr'a >-.avo |Xo. Till.) am m> arawh battar thaa tboM ia tha varandah of 
{hotaaljiiitn'e <*vo (No. III.), thai Oantanripalra'a •ami to Mnuit to a much latar 

', Mflod. IFargnaton and Burgoaa' Cave Templaa, 266). ftolamT'a(lf>0)>Dantia«iof Bti 
Kbnaioa ai r«Uii« at i^thaii, *« £*r a* it goca, anppuvt* Um liaw that Sih raU did 
■Mt teat over forty yean. Sri Colemku' na«N corfaapoadiag with Polimat, {^luuavit, 
(« Fuduouljn, tike aon and auccetMT ol 0«itanl|nln. 


Early Hindi 

ipter TIL 




Rtfdrft Diaaia, n Siih king of Gujiir^l, ftgwin n-duood tho An^lir^ 

Kwer. BOt li does Dot ai>pear that te conquered any part of the 
icc&n.' According to tDfl Vivbnn Pnran, th« restored A ndlim- 
hliritydit continued to rule for Diunty-Heven yvarf afti'r iho close of 
Gautamiputra's reign, that la, accordintf to the calculation accepted 
•bore, to about 2w a.d. At ibis tim<^ Khiindegb was on the hieli* 
way of eomuifirce bvtweeu the coast trade centro of Broach and Uie 
inland marts of Paithan. and Tagar, ten days to the east of PaitbaQ, 
till) f^rontost city io ilm land. The goods wore carried in wagon*, 
and tbuugh much of tbe country was wild or desert, it was in placea 
oxtromcly popnlous.* 

Of the Bucccaaom of tlin Andhratibrityd« no record remains on' 
early in the fifth century (41 pj . an inscription shows'tLat Xa«ik wi 
Kovcrni-d liy Virwcn an Aliir kiijg .' fhoiigli, awonling to i. 
Purin*, Abir iuiiependence lasted only sisty-seren years, the 
Ahirs are of coDgidiTabk> importance in Khandesh history. Their 
chiefs for long boUl ibn lending forts,* und thu ]K;opl« atill form one 
of the main elements in its population. 

In th« fifth, or early in tho sixth century, a Yavnn dynasty, the 
^'J' '^ti** er VAkfitaka tt. nr obably nnder the G uptfa. stretching 

fr^j lu and central India , held parts of Kb&ndesh. Thejr 

cea I 


have leit thoir rocord^in »omo ot tb« riohost of tho Ajanta cav ew.' 


■ Jour. Bon. Br. Itoy Ab. Soo, XII, 203. Bnrgca' Arrbnolngiail Snrver, KAthiAvir 
ftnd Cntvli, 131-13.1. Sftli |>owur Uxtpd ia Gii;&tlt loSM. Iliat la. onlcuUlin^- on Uie 
Sliak (M. U> A.u. 32S (Jour. Bom. Dr. Roy. A* Son. Vlt. SS), In thv OimAr inn'rip- 
ti'iti Rudn Mmu (ITS] lUtra thnt thongb he twiov cimqiicrvii 8bit>kKiii, (roni 
tbcic DdU- tdatUtiuhip he diJ oat dcBtio; iiim. lad. Ant. Vli, 362, 

* HcCnodl«'> P<T<|>tii>. 1S5. 

* Ttma*. See. Int«i. Coug. 351. It «*&■ (omu'rijr tbouohl (Ktliot iu Jour. Hoy, At. 

IV. 4-7) tbat ihc Ch.Unky^ b«]d KhioJcdi during tli«fouHh mitii^ |3M). Uii« 
infonuBtion iccmi to niaxn tlu> unlikely. |S«« bvlov, y. 341). Coius b^ve (IS70) 
bfcn (oond nt Nlaik ■u[>iKaod to belong to the end ot the fuurtb century a.u, .TIi< 
hins'e lunie hu been reiKl Mliiia* Nriim, but rothiii); of hiio i* koowti. Bhla IM. 
ia Joui. Bo«n. Br. Kny. Aj. .S>t^ IX. vx. and eir. 

' 4hift *"* ■><■■■"">■>* >■> NJiiih, ftiid ill Kbiixl«li muij irtlMn oUmm w* 
tw» divialoD*, *lmp1a and Abir. Id (onin vUbM tha nrijtinal Mitle 
to hava been mppteincnted by a complete Ahir ousunuitit)'. Thi 
Abbira, vlin Arc utilt fouad In the y<nth.Wo*t Protincea, BeiigoJ, Oentral India 
Mid tliu ('i^Dlral PraTmece, and in Dombiy. in Cul^b and KitkiAwir, toem to hiTD 
oriuiiiHlly b>Ioni[*d to tbe north-wat of India (Vivien de St. Miutii). Oeo);. Gr«c. 
ct Lalui d* rinde.SSOl. In Plalrmy'* timo (lAO) their cogniry (AbiriaJ waa nppcff 
* Sisd (Hartiua* Ma|i X.]; a hundred ycara later 1347) they wcra in lover »ind 
4alW"l trtini .^nraatrenn (MiH.'riudlo'a I^iplui, 113) i and acccirding to the PuTlni 
)n'ar<r* Hlndna, IIL 490, and Wilforda Aa. Itca. Vlll. 336). their coantry lay 
liMwean the TCpUaud DnvRail. (!4m Bird'* Mititi-Ahmadi 8, and Eliiol'i Itaoaa 
N. \V. P., L 3). Of the origtu and aoalbsnTd maTtmcDt of the .^hin there n* 
two tbeorioi : that they are □( Skychlan doaccnt and teprem-nt tho AbAn who 
moqnerod tbo PanJ^tb in tbe neoond eeatxttj belors Chriit tCunnlngham'a .\r:h, flep. 
II. S3>3>1), or ibat Ihoy are an older lodian raee who were diircn ■oath and cait, 
b«(or* and ainaaa the diSerent tribei o( Ind^Skythiau inviidet*, Oimpate C«n(. 
Prov. <ka. IxiiL 

* Jour. Bom. Br. Roy. Aa. Soo. VIII, StS. One ot IheM kin« daHncd to kar« 
eonqnored BcIAri. Sraial; UJain. JraxJi ; Coromandel, Haling ; ChhMiigad, Kotiat ; 
Jnanar, Triiur ,- Broa«h, tdl ; aiui Tetingan. AnMra, CenC Pror.tiai. Iri Tha 
^uiMof th«kiDnaltieVikltak <1yua*ty an Vindhyaaliakti <400 A.i>.k PrararMts 
I., Dmsco, Rudraatn I., Pritk*iMn, Rndnuen II.. IVavanata II- MD ot PrabhAvali 
QuMa, danebter of the great kinj; uf kin;? Sliri Dev Uapta, j>«th«M at tbe and uf th* 
filtb ar bc^uumig ol tho Mxtb oMtury. FtfsuaWD and Bni^cM' CaT*T«Bi|>lM, 30tt 

•l «V»-i 




Towards the cloee of the fifth century, th© ChAJnl tTfa. un^r 
Piitakoshi 1. (-189), piisKinif i wutfa from Gam nit. conquered tba Deccan 
and established their power iu< lur mrutti u» Biul^mi in Kslfidffi.' 
Under the ChAlukyis, probably during the sixth century, were 
cut tht- hunilfiiinc nick loiupica of Ghak^tkach near Jinj^a, nine 
miles £n>n) Ajanta.' The next dyiiiisty thiit. hiw l«*ft (tocph in 
KhAndesh and X^ik wtks a race of Yidava in the latter pan of the 
eighth i^Dtury.* Thoeu Yudavs f^vg placo to the lUthods or 
BAa htrakuU a of M^hed near Uiiidiintlmd, wbot conquering the 
Deccan, Konkan, part of Gujar&l, and Central India up to the 
Vindhyw, reniaiiiud in powor till overthrown by the Ch^lnkys 
Taitapa about 970.* Of the ninth and tcuAi couluriex, lite only ■ 
relics are two small Jain excaTationa to the east of PAtna near 
Cliolisgaon,^ and perhapM »omv of thu Jain cares ut Ankai new 

Of the l owd rhi f fa who at this time (80O-120O) rated KhSndesb, 
the nv^ord of two Faniilies, the T6k» of Asirga d and the/^ i 
Nik umbharanahfa of P&tna pyr pl|lrtff jjffl^B5i]5iii-r From iho(^/ 
bepinnin^ of the ninth to the close of the twelflh century, Aairsad ' 
in AAiA t(i liiLVf- boun Ik^UI by u fAiixiu:* fninlly of Tiik Ititjpiit«.* The 
standard bearers, Tiks of Aair^fad, are several times mentioned by 
the pout Chand a« li^'httng Cor Cbitor against Musalm&n invaders/ /I i 
lo the itouth, tho N ikuml)l|yT mnh| fci frf Piltn n- fmm lOOO to 12\6,[vf\.' 
rtded IttOO Khitndosb villages. Thev would seem to have been \ 
worKhip]H>rs of Shir, and one of tuom, Sonhadadev (1246), is 
Diontioned as endowing u college with money and land for the stndy 
of (he astronomer Uh&skarAchirya's works. Fi-ohi the epithelM 
' devote^ to his master ,' ' strongly devoted to his suzerain,' lbs 
dynastyf^' would «eem Ut have been subordinat<! to nomo great 
power, pr obably at first the ChAlnky ils, and in tfie twelfth and 
lhirtw>nth eenlurioB, tho Y^jdava of Devg iri.' Tho Join caves of 
^Ij^U^r near N'tsiimpur and ot ^koLneiir Mnnmrid, and I he Brahman 
cares of PAtna nea> ChAUsgaon, probably date from tlie time 

306. AnuthfT inKTipUm (AjiUlU C>v« XVI.) niMitioui *oae nhiafii j f A yhmftt of 
vhoMiaalhi*}!!* known. 'k'Utj an EtluitsrMrtni.Hsri t<*cnbatiit*<)ii., K«faftip4l Swari 
Bamln hia K>n> Upanilngupta, *nd SkiK'lu bii *un. Fnipunuu ■tiil Burgcn* Otra 

■ tuivo'* IfidiMbx AltcrtbunukuHdH. IV. (H) ; Hrat In Ind AnL VU. S47. It »u 
fonnprly Uimiglit (hat lli'.i brknch of tbe CbAIiikyiu wu vatAlillnlioil la tlm Diircan in 
Ui« founli caolary HH, Elliot in Jour. B. A. ^w. JV. 4.7), and liad in tlm fttib 
ODDtury (i>roMl iti sat norlJi to OujiTtt, aad wm j47:!| in jiuMOMtiui of Bm«cli (Inil. , 
Ant. VI 1831. Bui th« Utnt ojntuon, Ur. FUatV, U tlut th« Onjarit Cliilliikyl>« 
«( th«ti(lh o'Uliiry Hers tlivn un their my wiuUi, and diil ikot nnter tha Ptcc«D till 
Utrj »(rr M by f'lloliaihi I (4S9). Ind. AnL Vlll. 12. 

* Fctigumun Hiitl ButvcM* C fv^ T ifiiii>)f . M fl - M T. 
' I aiTT It'll luditohu AlUrt^raoBknnda, IV. 190. 

• lod. Aal. VI. 60. • rorsanon and Sargw*' Oav« Tcnpla*, 492-493. 
' Cantnil Pf '•iuc Ca»tiM«, 377. 

' To<l'i Kft)«thua (Kd IS73), 1. 05~0e. Tfma TUu, vho luTa dia*»ncan>d iu modara 
UlMa, are bcbcvMl by Tod to haT« bo«n Um boada of a mat SkTHiian mva«OD 
wliidi *w«pt over fodia about 600 && Oa iko oroaiul that boUi Taktlutk and Sig 
NiMn nako. Tod would kUotily tke T*k* with the Nig tribM. Ditto. T. 411. 

' Thu pedignw ia : Kriihuiu-iis L tail""' lOOU). Govan I., Goiindnlja, Qoran 
U.. KrlibnariH IL, Indmija luinnipd Shridnvi •>( the Sagar race, ivgont afler hia 
ilMtb 1153|, doi-au IlL, Sunhadwlev, )lMna'Ii<l«v (l^lli- 12IT1. ti^ Ant. VOl. 3«L 

•i<rut. Roy. A». Soc. I- 411 ; Ind, Aiil. VIII. 39. 

=£ :^^^£l=: 

IBoBibHj 0*Mtt 


aiapter Vn. 

Ruly Htoaiu, 


Q% this dfoiuty. Aft«r the hi) (1216) of the Kikonit>hartin«IiJ 
Kliiiiidtwh wm {n-filMiiily amlcrnn olSiMM' of Uk> YhHuvm of Devgrti 
by whom most of tb« old temples, uoudi>, luid wells, known 
Hi'niiidpmili or cf Gauli Tia j, wc»r« biiiit.' At Afiir, proljaltlv in 
beginutDg of lUt tliirttt^mh i-cntHry, llic Tiik« v,vro driven out, 
their place takeu by Choliu PB. who, accordiug u> tiadiliOD, came i 
Kh&ndeHh from Gulkutida.*_ 

TowiirdH Ibo oliii'ti of l\\v thirieonth century fl2ff5), A U-od-' 

Khiij i, the ue]>hew of the Delhi Emperor, suddenly appeunnf; b«f< 

uovgiri dufuntfd Rjim Dcv, the ^ udnv rnlor, and (on.-ed him to 
pay tribute. Khaiidegh wiw n( tluit lime held by a chief styled 
* the Itttjiv of Khandfsh who would seem bo have been theX^li< ijiiti 
nil ur 0? Awirtfitd." Avcurding to one atvotinl, on hia way back to 
Ihtltii, Ald-nd-din orerran Khindesh, taking AsirRsd and dratroying 
kU the ineiidifni of the chief's family vxcvpt <ino.* 'lliia iuvaRi^.n 
was little more than a paA.tiufc raid. For Home years no Musalmrin 
tfXwpH vmrv i-turioned in the Decicau, and no trihut*' wo!» r^v.ivcn'd 
from Htim IJev. !n 1806. w hen limdy estahlixhed at Delhi, Alii>ud- 
din sent his jreneral, Malik Kiifiir, to re. impose his tribute on Ham 
Dcv, and to von']uer the other kin|fs of the south. Malik Kiifur 
• stopped for wome time in 8ult(>upur. But making no impressiou on 
the local chiefs, he determined to march on, and atrengtheued by a 
force from Gnjariit, advanced against Devf^ri. Unable to resist the 
Mnaalmdn aniiv, lijim Dev nulniiilted. He wm taken to Delhi, 
reooived into hi^h favour, and on doin^ homage, w«a itivestod with 
the governiiient of a larfjer len'itory tluin he formerly held.' For 
the next four years Itam l>ev, paying a yearly tribute to Dvlhi, 
coniiiiiti'd to govern in peace. In 131*2, his son SImnkal Dev, 
withholding hiit tribute, wait dfifuatvd uud slaiu, and bevgad 
the centre of Ulnsalm^n rule.' 

In the disorders that followed Ahl-nd<din's dcatli (1316) 
Marnt,hi'i.<i revolted. The revolt was put down in 1318, and )f tuiailHi 

5owor r^.^tabliHhed.' Two year hiter ( 1 820), on the murder of 
Tul>nrik Kbilji, the Mardthas again threw off their tUlegianco. 
Gheias-ud-di»'s ftml attempt (1.322) to bring the country to order 
failivl. A second expedition (lUi23)waa more ancvi-Ksfal, and under 
Muhammad Tughltkx (]32.*>. 1351) strong rule, the Deccan was 
thoroughly subduod.* In 1338, the revolt of his nephew Kur^hasip 
brought the Emperor to Devgad, and its position and tureugrh ao 


' HcmMpMll, their bnitilvr, «u embalily the minuter of Ualidder (liMO-l' 
tbe fonitii nl thv Yh^Iat* of Dav^in lUur^w ia Iml. Aot. VI. 360). The ) 
tnvJitional i(lmttHcat>"B OS Ui4 Yiilim willi tlic Gaali Riijte or dMptiMil Vxa^ 
woul'l tiHiiii to tliDW tbal, aa wiui the caso in KilliiAinlr. the YAdvM aail Alun 
wcrs vmj oliiwljr connm'tnl. Sonw of tli« nuuninB liKall)' known >* HhoAi}- 
pnnli, th« n<ak-li*wii ratun-oir in Soxdr fort, tlio waUi of Tanwall fort, sod ttia 
r Tunioinil Uko Atimt* *l*o (ud iu Iw lli« trorit of tha i>uiit GorakluMtfc, arc prgl>aUjr , 

tDiKii uI'Ut llisii III* Yiitilni. iMslivlou', 'HDwiilianti.' ^m 

^ • Tod'K Ai.uj.lii. II. 111. * lirigg. FerialiU. L 307, 300. ^H 

* i'qtiird I'ri>TiDi« Oajwtbiw, 9 and 377. ^^ 

* Ktiu ttev'a ii>ir teinliiry iMnai to hava inttudad tlw ooMt dialrictcf HiLim anit 
Buret u Ux iioTtlt aa tli« T4ut), ulueh had (ontxrlv bsca poll ii( Ouj»t*t. Sm 
ericgi- ftvi-liU, I. 36». • ftrign- Fehahta, L ITS. ' BeiK*' Cambta, 1. 389l 




it lh« captlAl of ^^tn 

Be<i liiin cbiU liu dotormioed to mako 
apii*.' Itiit tbe (linorilcrs cnuu-d by 
prcvfutod the scheme from auccecding. 

A f©« yearn later {13+7) Devgiri was seirpd by the rcbct noblcn, 
and finally (IS.'d) puMNsl into the himcJK of Uaaan (>a ti|fu, the 
fonnd'-T of the '^^iSjU^' dynasty, lender Muhammad 'I'uifhlilc'H 
govfirtimcnt, Kh^nOMUwaa portof tbe charpp of mi ofti<rr stotitmi'd 
at KlujyjuuaJjurir.' On the revull of the IJi'i-nia uoblefl in 
134C, I mid-ul-MulK. jyvgnior "f j^'''''^'' "^fd KhApdo ah, abandoned 
^%i)t prr*vmce and re tifea to Naadnrb^r (lien in Unjart t.* Th« Bohu- 
offlwTft joini-d thi) iDsurfienG'^n^i^JH^fWlr^Fas in the end 
iuccessful, and c)ie indciwndciHce of tlio ilalunaai kings ws8' 
acknowledged (I3A1), no pari of Ebindeeh, except llio wniitprn 
diatrjctii of Nandnrbfa - ana Snlt^npii r. romaincd niiiU-r tho Delhi 
kingR. 'Wa pi)wpr"'or ilJo flahTiiiinH,"'lli'MijfE' ita^liniifs afeTiot 
clearly laid down, Roomn to hwvi- ini,'iudi>ii, in the weai^ Ahoiodwigar 
an d noatb Ndsik . a nd in the pftst^mvt of Ue r^r. B^-lvrtH-n tiu-SL- two 
points bahoiam. ftt lT di^^a t.^ pipm ty-,Jigyo pe^tf'cd _north of _the 


1399 •ITM 

B bi; 

to lave been a 

a line of indepe nrt 
The cast waa nnder 

I ba wegt w»a io tbe banda of tho 
Thua nrMttenreinainen 

Ilia iTiert* wonTJ socm 
fs a t Odlnn , A »tur , and 
■■ tirfuf JHS^j^ fl jief, and 

1^! ilu^iln. 


given to tbo Empror Peros TnehRI 

the din tricta of 

Frontie r, were ^rant 

liigh family.* H^talili.tiiinii' inmseT 

i, in lyirard for timely Vilp 
ID a Gnjar^t hunting party, 
^ on the OujarAt-Kbandesh 
Ftoiki, a yonng Arab of 
in nTrTmal! dixtriot, Malik 

J W HffWl 


1370- ISsi 

ijii wont ttjniinst RAja Bharji the Bd jjl&p o bit;f. luid forcing him to 
pay yearly trib;itr In Delhi, wiil thr Kii"|ieri>r noino clg phant,« covorod 
with goId-<?mbriiidt!red vtilvel housings and sovt-ral winud-liioda of 
Khnnde»b muslins and other maniiftirtoros. in reward Malik, 
wttk th(> tillo of Khiindo«h Cominandvr-in-Cbief, ^i/miA taltir, wan 
ntised to the command of 8000 horse. Ue wwi »oo6 able to 
mutter 1 2, (K)0 cavalry, and his dowot was foil, and liis friendship 
aougbt, aa far jeftWt^* jBurit^faandla in the Ontral Provinces. 
Before SErtP^BjPiP^ra^TRettfale of KhSndosh was very 
wretched. For years without any reffulargoveniiiienl, it had lately 
been vi^iu?*! by a (amino, so seven', thai nol more than two or Ihree 
thonsand BWUnnrl Kolis Mm-ivcd. The only proii[»Tr ous part of 
thn district ■.';.- \. < u- Asirgad . whore Asa, a rich Ahir, had during^ 
the fitminii ivi diTTPopIorrom bis gniin atort-s and bnilt many 
great work:), among tliom the walU of Aairgnd fort.' 

' Origin' P^mfcl.. 1.119. • BrigK"* F«rt»lilfl, IL 287. • iWgw' FanikU, IV. *87. 

• BrijiijV JVntlii^ IV. 201.393. C rmt Ttaff |MMitli» ITUtiwy. SSf yiutx* 
M al'Anwiij ill ihii Darlh of tlm Ehhiiixtl JlfttiUiiiiMu, (otncwboro iiBftr DIioiIr in 
KhURISC F*ri()ita'B (Brigg^ H'. :ii'.>i l||U|[a|j|L mmu to l)« tlm tract bttwocn 

" rJi.».l.iig fo TPoriifit. iBrics^lV. 2M) th* tamity cUiaod do«oiH from th« 
K -.Upti i;nur I^Arok. Hu f»t£w Chaad Jehiu wm > niiawtor a< AU-ad.iiui 
Kl:ilii'» cniut. 

' Hilittpi' PeriAK IV. 287 i Olndwin'i Xi«.i.Akl««ri. II- M ForithU moiitwo. 
(Pat^jw iHlilioD) that wImd Firm lUrUk w Tugblik (IUI-1386) ImuiI oi Am* 

[Bombay Qiuett«er, 



»pt«r VIL 


j\.ft«r tbo deolb of Firoz Tu^hlik, Malik R&ja'a uuportanoe wad 
(1^90) ittcreased b; lite marriage of his son, Mitlik Nasir, to Um 
dau^htor of DilAvar K htUi ihe iadupoDiluiit ruI«;r_ofMiilwn. 800; 
aftur (l3M)i '(uatTulIin^ willi MiniiifiiJ' Sli^ b wlio had latel 
diK-tai*d hiiUM'lf imiopendeui ia Gujarat, Malik Raja iriTaJf" 
b^jjk^jywrandNjuiiiiuJj^r. Adviuicinff oy forced mwrcbrs, Miiwifn 
doft-ak-d hini, drowliim back on Thjlliior, and laid si«g« to lUa fort, 
lluiu^h, iw bii V.IU* uQxiuus to be on friendly terms with him, 
be did not farther press his advantage. During tho n,'iii»iQiiij 
Bixypsra ofhis riilv (l394>1399),MiUik lUja made no frexh attac! 
on (iujanSt territory. The rest of hia life was syeni in prorootin, 
, architect ure and imiiJ^Yin^ ajn^culture.' Malik's spiritaa) giiido 
and bMctii-r, SWikh Ztiiii^iid-ilin of DuiilntitWl, protttiitt-d hiui with 
a robe, ' the garb of desire and asRect,' and tliia, so long as the 
dynasty lastoa (I37O-I0OO), waa carefully bunded from rulor to 
ruliir. Before his death, Malik R«ija invwlcd bin older son 
Malik Nasir with this aacrcKl robe. Of his two chief forta he 
beqnenthed [.aling to his elder son, and "Qiahier to ilalik Iflikhiln, 
ttio youn^-r brol hor. Ho died in I39y (ApnlSo), and was burii 
a haudnxniti uiinb at thu town of ThiUner. 




father, and had in luany ways helped to estabUsh hia power. 
Writing to Am, Malik NiMir voinplninvd that ho wtw hi f^at 
atraits. 'Hie chiefs of B^^aa^AatvinagdJ^ghrla* were, he eaid, 
riainf; a^iust him, and Lalmfrjiisonly Ibnms unsafo. Hn prayod 
Asa to (nki! charge of h 11^ family, A»b B|^w(d, and shortly after 
2U0 covered littora wert? bmupbt into Aairgiul. The women weral 
well received and visited by Asa's wife. Next day, another trooprl 
of Iitt«r8 arriTod; Asa and his sons went to meet th^m ; buti 
instead of women, armed mvn rushed out and alow tho chtetJ 
and all hia sons. Ijoaminiar of thv success of bis achcmc, Malik 
Ka»ir came to Asir^d, and stren^lhening its defences, made it 
bin head-qnarters. Shortly aflw, Snejkh Zoia-nd-dio. tbp itpiritual 
gaide of the family, camo to congratulate Malik Na^ir on hia 
BiicctMts. At bi« advioe, two cities were built on the Titpti, onu on 
the east bank callud nftvr h J m Kel f Zf i iia Im^ , tho other, afterwards 
the capital, on the we-it called BurhAiipiir after Sbeikh Burhtln- 
■ nd-din of Daulatabad. A few years latEir (1417), Malik Ntuir, 
"jealous of his^yonngcr brolhor, with tho help of the Sulliii of 
" and kept hia brother pri»*iner in Asirgadn 
>uItAn of &1dlwa, Malik Nasir uiodA a j oint at tac k j 

Mftlwa, took 
llion, with tJio 

V««llb, h* vn>l« to the oortimtfT tit KIiAnilMb raprimanduig lii&i (or aUowtDg nob 
pomr la >prinj( np uIom to him. 

' Daitng tL» tarav last y«u« of Malik'* rviga muI ttir Bnit nioa T«v> «( hi* 
mOotMor*)) tba tMiiuiu Duryrhteri fsniinr Uiil tb« D«coMi waitp. iSm) GtKal DalTi 
HMtoty, !!6). Nosijvoiiil r^fnnw to tJio (utTcrinBt m Kh&nilrah hiu b^Hn tnMd. 
'. MMnu prubabtv that tbiiina tb« EkmiDS wfaich ForUhW pU««il tbiity yam 


' Kfbria U in iMol in tbs Centnl rrovioow, 




on SuHrtnpur . Ahmad I. of Qajar^t took axHre roeasuraa to m^t 
ilietn,:iitci Malik Xiuiir, womtcd bv tliu Gujarfit gcnornl, was-redncied 
to «xtreaie distress. Retiring mt« TbiUaer, ha tiiitdti ovcrtiinjs 
to Ahinad's ministfirs with such huccobs that his presents were 
ftC«'pt«<i, and with the titlu uf Kh4n, h« nx'civod tlie whitd canopy 
and HCftriet pavilion of tin independent rnler.' Some jwirn l«tcr 
Mnlik N'asir aiorried his dauj^hter to the son of Ahmud Shilh 
Buhnintii. and iog^-thfp thpy inado an attack on Gnjars t. This, like 
pr<-viou» atu>nipt, failed. Home time aft«ri ui^d by his 



Viaa- 1T60. 

ItoU Natir, 

ditu^ii tor's complaints of her bushond'a condnct, and incited by tlte 
Gujnrdt kiup, Niisir KhiJn iggadod tho Bahma ni tvrritory (1437). At 
first be n»» mil iixtly eucfcsafnl nad had the pin;]ic pmycrs read in his, 
name, 'i'hen foi-tune changed. Na^ir Khan wa» defeated by the 
Bfthmani ffenera!, and unable to rally his troops Uurhfinpur w aa 
fa tkyn ami w^kw l, and after another dufrnt ho was ( tlint ap in lAliOg 
and (lied thtre of vexnliou iu 1437. 

Mir&n Adij Kltto ( 1437 - 1441 ), bis son and succeeaor, with the help 
of a Gujara t anny, forced the Dcccan goacral to miae t h e aie ge of 
1^1 in^ and rutire. After a reign "f about four years ho waa 
aHNiMHiimted at BuHnitipur. HiasonandfliicceHSor, Minin Mubiln' k.ft 

aoiet king, after a peaceful and nnoventfnl reicu of seventeen ye*rs, 
iediu 1 (t>7. Minio'esiicoesstirwait hitt i>oo Adil Khan, who,durin{f 
n long reign of forty-six joars (I-157-l.'>03), (freiitiy iucrt^ii^^od tbo 
aO«ni;rth and prosperity of hia kingdom. lie npread hia power over 
the neighbouring chiefs, forced Gondvan aud G arha Mau dla to 
BcknowlfdRo hia snpnfmBcy, and clc«TOmmTJfnR!S(!r^f Bhil 
and Koli nil)lK<r«. Ue s trengthened ABirg iul, forti(yi:ig the strong 
outwork of Malftigad, built the c itaael of Burbi inpnr, and 
raised mnuy handsome pnlaOM. Amnming Uio title of Forest King, 
£)7tiiA-t-/A<ii'it!)>i/£, he withheld tribute from Gujardt, and doclarod 
that he owed its moimrch no allegiance. His pride brought on him 
the strength of Mahmmi ^ ' "/*J l^i^'ydw ( 1459-1511), tho gr(.<«tost 
of the Gujarat kmgs, who [^tV'Si), ilriving the Khiindejih anny beforo 
him, laid wanto the country, besieged Thiilner and Aairga d, and did 
not wilhdraw till all tribute arrears hud t>Pen pai<l. ihroo yeara 
later Adil Khan died and wn« buHi'd in Iturhiinpur near the pahico 
(if the l>«ttlat Maidiin. Adil Khan's suoceasor was his brolhin- 
D&ud. During his reign of eight years (1603-1510), DAad planned 
an attack on some frontier Ahmedoagar bnwiui. Bofom Ins piiin wu 
oarriftd ont, the Ahmcdnagar king marched (1507) into Khittido»h, 
and IMud, forced to retire into Aeirgad, waa relieved by the king"* 
of Malwa only on agreeing to acknowledge hiro n« hia overlord. 
O bit«!>i Khiiii, Oiiud'K .■>on and successor, was murdered by ono of t]ie 
U'lTiliwa few days after he had boon chosen ruler. The sucoeasion 
was now disputed between A lain Kha n who was supported by the 
Ahmcdnagar king, and A dil Kh ^nwho waa supportt^^d by .Mnhmnd ( j 
Bcgada of Oujanit. By the efforts of Mahmud Begada, who advanced 
into Khinde«h, and gave him his gmnd-daughtor in marriage 

> migtii' Famhta. IV. m. Aiwohllaii to Abiil ful (Aia-i-AktAri. U. C7I, Hm 
giuit olwU titio wa* the otigia of tli« ii>m« KhAndMh, 

Mirdn ilmUrS 

AM KMn, 


tsos-isio. ' 


TfiombBy Gutt' 



i'jsti iTua 

ftud a fium of £20,000 (Rh. 2,00,000), Adil Efaftn IL was efitablts' 
ncBurh^Dpur. Though threatened by si'veral coii»i)ir8icip9, by his 
own rigour and by tho hvlp of Muulfar II. of Unjariit, Adil 
Khiin tnnintnim'^ h\* pii«r«r, and w»s able to levy tribulo from 
the (i^iiia ciii i-f. a tributary ot AbnM^^lnagar. Afl*r serving with 
(tifUuctiou iu the Malwa L-ainpnigii andvr his fathrr-iu-luw Uu^fitr 
Shah, ho died ill i:i20. 




lukmumad H., 

Adil Khiin li.'i* successor was bis son Mir&o Muhamma d Kbjn 
{1620-iri3&). Joininpf with the BcrJIr kin g, the^ lOTgllt against, 
but were defeated by BiirliAii Xizilm of Aliim^niigiir {).^26). 
Babfeiur Shiih of Ouja r&t Ilien c»m*> to their aid, and adTaucin 

» together into AbmecfiugM', they mH with no niinstAnco ani 
Bahfidor's guprenmoy wm» i»dmilled. Kight years later (U>3.1), Mi 
Vftut with BfthiSdurduringhiBde^t hv thgEjjjDgjgjt^jjiyjjiiu, who 
but for hia sudden recall to inoet Bhir1s Enti^TiimHYui^-ould ha 
ovvrrun Khdndosh tm wd] na Gnjantt. A JU-r HumiiyunV withdraw. 
UiMn aid(.>d Bahiidar Sh^ in drisnitt; his oniemrt outof MiUwa. ITo 
was with the QuiarSt army, when (Ib'-ib) the news came of Bahadur 's 
death at Diu, and was chosen his sucetwHor and crowncJ nt M^nd 
bat viokentng in)mi?<ii.itoly uftor, he digl . within nix wen ltn, Wfu 
reachiug GujnrAt (-ith May 15!}<>). Mir^n's successor was hk 
brother Mubdi-ik . At tba request of the Gujarat nobles, be ga 
up Muhammad, ncm of Lntif Kb&n, the broUior of Bahadur Hb'iib, w 
was token to Giijanit und crowned {1&30). A party of Oujard' 
nobles favouring Mnbitrik'x claim, be ndvaneod into Gujardt to 
inpport it. and ibcnigh drftiiit-d, gained the Taluafale cesaioii of J. 
dytric L s ijI S[iliili ut(| i- and Xy idurMr. In l-5i>l, a Moghal cbi 
Pit- Ikfutiatnmad Khttn, peGsing through Mnlwn, entvrod Kh^ndc^ 
and with the gronteet cruiOty, Uid wnxto the country and sitck 
Burbdnpur.* As t he &[cybals withdrew, heavy with eipoil ai 
debnuchcry, they wore surprised by Mubdnk on the Narbada banks, 
and defeated with great low.* After a ruign of thirty-two years 
Mnl>4i-ik died in 150C. 

Miibiirik's enoceasor, bis son Uirdn Mu h flmmad J T. (1566>lfi7i 
was in the first year attacked from Oii jurat- Bat with tbo help 
the Berir chief tlie Guiarit commander was defeated and (orcca 
fly. I^earniog that a party of tbo Gujtudt nobles favoured bis ctaimi 
to the (inisrAt crown, Miriin atlvanoed towards Ahrnedjibnd. But' 
mcctinp with n seriouH defeat, he waa forced to retira to Afiirgiid 

^ with the lo«a of bin elephants, artillery, and royal eqnipage. Shortly 
afler, Kh&ndesh wa» overrun by the h\xr/-Af , the eousias ot the 
Emperor Akbnr, who l»id it waate and left betore a force could b« 
brought ngainxt them. The district suffered agaiA (1671) at the 
hands of Mortiza Kiz^m S htih of Abiui-dnngar, who, enraged at 
Himn for helping his rival the Bcrir chief, sacked BurMnpu r. 



> Hu iqkIo ft rsiil ialo KliiadMb, vekod BoilLLDpaT, iJnuf htwed tbouoopk nott 
unnierdtully. aait currieil ulT imiMtiiiHi txiotj. BlnchBiaiin'* Ain-i'Alitttri, ]. 3S& 

* Ompu* T>)Mk>l-i.Ak)drl in KlUot, V. 37<l Pi' MoljMiuniuI't harm «•* Ulh 

by aoiBcl, add bo WM Uiroun into Ihe w*tar And tlmwneiL ' Ky waj' of wat«r, ]_^ 

wcatio tat, and tb« tiflM of or^ihuii. noor »r«tch«e, ud opiiT**, ut(l«d bu 

buHMM.' Badtani, 

at. foot 




Aod blockailing Aflityitl, hftJ to Im> bought nff by Uiu paTnicnti>f 
£40,0W i«,O0.0O0 muta/ariM). Two years later {1570), HjnUi da-d 
of fcv*«r. 

On Mirdn'ti d««t1i, na faia sum Uiuiaiii Kliitii vrti» a minor, liia 
brother ItA ja A li was cbo:i«n sucopsaor, A. tnan of ^reat tatenl, juat, 
wise, prnd<?ntl7 nn<l hrsw, RAjn Alt, seeing tlmt Akbsr'a power tDUBt^\ 
becomo miprerae, slrcive U> win hia fiivour by si-iidiiig him ripht^/' 
prefieiita and admilliup his snpr«inacy. In a dispote betiveea 
AhmcdnikgAr and fririr. ShIiUhiI Khiin the Bcriir jiorernor w.-w 
wonti^d. Kctiriiig l'> Biirhiiiipiir, he prayed li&y-i AH to bolp htm, 
but OS he ^ot no cvrlain promise of help, he ^uriicd Kurbsnpur, and 
retreated north toirnrds Agm. On tho way li<! was ovcrtnkcn on* 
the Narbada by lUiH Ali, and di-foated with the loita of many 
elephanta. On reaching Afrra, &iUbal Khin was received into 
favour and siippliwl with mcnns (o wajfc waron Ahmi-dna^r. Rdja 
Ali, pri-awd buiU by the Delhi and the Abmednagwr gi-nei-iild to join 
tJieir parties, finally ai ded with Ahinodnag ar, wid thu Mu^'hfd 
Bcnontl was forefid to rclrwiT Thoiijfh on thi-t Oi-cmion h" alliud 
himself with the Deacanis, KAja Ali, cbietly tbroui^h the perana^'ion 
oi the £han Kh4uriin, ehortly aftor declarctl biii aiU-giniicc to Akbar . 
Coin wiM airuck and prnyent read in Akbar'a tiami;; Ehi^deftb was 
given aa a grant to lUja Ali Kh&n ; and be was enrolled araonfif the 
nobles of 5IJ0O.' In llio next pxpodition (1591), for thu coii(]ui;«t of 
thu DoLVaii, hu xided with thi' M(^hali> under priuix- Miirad, and in 
the great ba ttle of ^ P P 4j>t on the Godivari l\ ^ii7), leadinc the 
attnck with jrrent l)nive^7°^ ^^^ killed by the cuance exploBion of 
a jiiiwdor tuinbriL' 

B ahdJur K hin (159fl-15W). R4ja Ali's son and auoceasor, built 
the fown^ BiihAdnrpur about wven miles puhI of Qurluinpur.* Bv 
npgbHrting to piiv n-H(iect to Ak^lrar'a representative, prince D^nyiU, 
and by «biilting uimsi-lf in ^tirgadand laying in stores fur a siege, 
he brought on himsolf tho lull wt-ighl of llie imperial nrmA. Akbar 
marched in mraon to carry oti the war, and arrived at Burlidnpur. 
Ue overran KJiandeshand blockaded Asirgad. Tbesiege was pressed 
vrith vigour, and in spitu of its ntri'^ngth and the abundance of its 
storftt, the outposlM wei-e taken, and the garrison, w^Akoned by 
disease and by Ualiiidiir's inismanageineni, a nrrendered i n 150 'J 
(10<iS H.).* fiabtUlnr waa sent m a pri«>n«r to GwflTor, ' itnd 

(K...... ,...., »'>nd<.!rfully rich and well peopled, yielding in places 

great abundafipe of grain, cotton, wool, and sugar, with great 
markets for 'try fruit«, yarn, prints, c-alicoes, lawns, brtss-ware^ 
aruH. and di-ug.t.* It f<n-uiud a province ISO miles (70 kta) front 



BuJUrfor JTJ 

•>m<ton. TI.?4I. 

• IkiKito* KitttthM, il. -2741 III. 309 : IV. 334. ■ PcnahU (F«niaa SdLX H. 5W. 

*Tli<)>ii'-' il.^ :> ritliwlunaiiii'i Xiu-i-AkbMi, I. 337) Mtiil tofaivebam arraafad 

*Tba lr.t>Jkiit uccd FUcfa ud Kowbtfry (1985). Jangigny'i Ud*. 304, and 
Stdxiak (ICOI) lu Hwiw, 1. e& 

f Bombay QuttUtr, 



!h&pl«r Vn.. e^t to west and 100 miles from north to south. It wm boun di 
con (HI n oil HurK^fwoe 

M.l'M^ t. 


I2W- 1760. 


U of 

jrere aaaata ow r. It 

BUD-aivisionw j^ipldin^ a yeitrly reveuuo of 

HitHi(lt<» IliPito, tho Kandarbir 

£7&,8Mo (l,'2«,17,O0i tungaha}.* _ _ , 

dislJHct, with soven sub-divieionB and an area of 007, 2v3 acres 

(o,01,62,2oO 'Mm*), and furniah<>3s00o«V(ilry and 6000 infantry. Tl^B 
winter waa tempeiuto, the air delightfal, and the rivers «ml >itiviin^^ 
abundant. Tfao thirt}'-twoJial><d)viKionK were all in high cultivnlion, 
«The husbandmen, KuiTbiA, Uhils, and (iondH wviv dutiful gubjc-ct-s 
and very hard workers. The chief product was Indian millet, 
jcari, which in »ev«nil |)lneott jieUli-d thri« crops a year. Rice vnut 
excellent, the Tegetsblee remarkably fine, betel leaf abundunt, an 
Bowers and fruit plcntifnL' Of manufactures, there wei-e differc 
kinds o( finw and onlinary c«t1on doth.' Ofeitips there wei«? 
Burh&Tipur, a large city ioliabited by people of all nations abounding 
in hanmcTafta ; Afiir, a large city at the foot j4 the fort ; Chopdr " 
K largo town well pitoplud ; Damburni, a populous town ; a: 
Bdlabad, m good town.* 

On its conc|ue8t by Akbar, in honour of prince D&oyAl wh 
was choaen ilt* fftiTertior, the name of tlie province was changed to 
Dinde^.* For the first thirty years, though without much n-giilar 
fighting or oymn opposition, the district was unsettled ami di>cliiiing. 
In 1609 (February), the English merchant Hawkins, travelling from 
Surat to Bnrh&nptir, even with^ nn cncvrt of abont eixly Path^a 
hor»e, wa» Kttiiekeii by n troop of outlaws." Svxt year (Jnuiiary 
Februaiy 1010), the Viceroy had been defeated by the people of ihi 
Peocan, and the country was disturbed. The roads were not si' 
for bodiiia of less than 1000 hono. The Doccsnis made inroada 
the Tiipti, plundnrinu: tho people and sacking Kitvvr and »th 
towns/ The places mentioned arc: Niwimpur, a large town under 
PralApshah uf UAgliin ; Dnyta, ngrent town in it fvrtiic soil ; Badnr, 
a filthy town with a manufacture of maha wine ; Saler and Muler, 
two fitir cititts where utahmitdin worth about l«. were coined ; 
Nandurb^r, a city with many tombs and hou&ea of pleasure, a eaatle, 
and a fair pond ; Linga), a beaxtly town with thievish pooplo and a 
dirty castlu; Sindkhoda, a great dirty town ; ThUuer, a fair town 

> ilB^tAkllMaJI^Sf)^ TtMmb-dividonawMt^ Anr, AtrnL Krunlol, Pu 
Bibgni. t^irmAl (to tlw wtat <J BuhAnptir), ParmAl (to the ■oath-aut o^lhirh 
*. *, BhiUniir, J^mod. Jiair. ChiUiiliir. J>lod, Jnr«», Otocn. Ddntri, Kivci. Itn'iua- 
par, Sivda. Mlhil, SoksdgBiia, ?<ebitd, Nuir-SbMiuUd, Loliiig, ijjiadarli, Kdltbad, . 
IiOhUa. MU)jni<i, itDcl KMir«b«d. ^H 

*KUiido*h ii n'<'"^'ly montuticd «■ oae of tlw Iwtt mango dJ Mrictt. Bloeh^H 
ntian** nia-i-Aklaii. fis. " • jf ^^ 

* Fiaeataff called a6(ll<(A,lUld•^rdin»ryc«tto« cloth knonn a> drij>n/u>d iMnian. 
Sm Blodiantn'* Ain-i-AkUri, I. M. • (ilBdwio'* Aiit-i-AkUti. 11. fil -M- 

* AkbM colled it Medeab, « ooiupoaad ot DinyAl and Khtiuloxh. BlooliiiiMUi'* 
Ain-l-AkbMf), L 336. Copp«r coiat oftlkd Dicpuu. ciiiaod ta Snthiapnr, ««r« (a 
1818 «iU tonaa in Kktodcah. Mr. CravIoyBoorcy, C.S. 

* Korrt Voyagei, Vm. 229. f Piadi ia Kcn'« Vojrsge*, MIL 




riUi a castle ; Chopda, a grcnt town ; Kiiror, a cotititr]> yiUage ; 
. Jival, « largo town wjtli good caMilo ; and Uarltdupur, a rory largo 
bat beftstly city, witJi a fine gai-deo, banquet bouse, and cASlTe.' 

Ten Tears later (1618), Sir T. Roo found thu country quite as 
unsettled. Tnivvllent wben they stopped for the Dighl inndu a 
i^n^ fence of their carte Hnd pitched tlifir tunt« tnEido. On any 
"iuitpiciim of Iho lowil governor tirovidttd n spDciiil guard of 
horse.* The dititricts were full of cattle, tlie east miserable 
and barren. The towns and villaj^ woro bnilt of mud, and even 
BorhAnpur, tbcmgb with trade enough to ntlraot an Kngli^h fnctory, 
and deacribed* ' as very great, rich, and full 6f people/ wiva, except 
the houses of the V iceroy, tbc cominander-Jn-cbieF, auQ a fow others, 
entirely of mad cottugOM-* 

Soon after the beginning of ShAfa .lab&n's reigo (1629-1630), 
Lbiiidesh suffered from the twofold calamity of war and famine. 
ban JahAu Ijodi, fonncrly governor of tlio l)ec«»u, nujipcctiug 
he bod !oKt ibe truHt of the Emperor, fled from Agra witb a 
ii^e body of troopAi and made bis way to thu T>i.>ccAn. The 
imperial power waa much reduced, including only eaat Kh&ndefth 
anil purt of Benir. So serious wms the rovolt tliat Shtih JabAn took 
the iield in poreoa, and balling at Biirhinpur, sent throe annieis 
into the b»xtib> territory. A detachment of 8000 horse under 
&ja Abut Haaan waa sent to take Xasik, Trimbak, and 
Saogamner. They passed the rainy sensou in the vilhigo of Phulia 
near Laling fort. After the rains, they wore joined by Sher Khitu, 
aTCTDorof OujanSt with 26,000 men who attacked Batora near 
'hftndor, ravaged the country, and returned with great spoil. 
WhiU* Sbor Khi'iT) wiik engaged at Oiunilor, Khiija Abtil Haxan 
itered lUglilu, aud finding that oil tho people had Kit their rillagea 
ad fied to the billi, rtent. tmnps after tbotn. Corn and other 
iiDce-«Karies were c<iitecced and many of tbu enetny killed or takea 
Orisoners. In the east Darya Kh&n, one of the rebel nobles, passing 
ito Kbitndo'^h by Chtiisgaon ravaged Krandol, Dharangaon, and 
_tber ptac«s.° These losses were followed by a total failure uf rain 
orer the whole country From Abmednbad to Daalatabad. Landa 
acd for their richne« were utterly l>arren. IJfit was oftirrwl fora 
oaf but none wouhl buy ; rank for a cake, but none cared for it ; the 
Orer-k»untcoTi8 Iiund was stretched out lo bog, aud the rich wandered 
in scjirob of food. Dog's flush was sold, aud the pounded bones of 


7V UoghaM 

■ Pincb in Rorr'i Vajag*^ VIH. 279. 

* Terry'* Vorasn, UV2. H/hi, whoM chkplab Tarry wna, nMlcn that vhM thty 
•tapped ki Cli«]iaii, tbinr t«nU wars (UAnleiJ by thirty koiM aud tirtiity iIhiI for 
fear (■( tbnir bcmit attMskod by robb*** (ram Ihv mounUiia*. K<tPr'* ^'vyw**, IX, 356. 

• TcriY* Vo;*!^. SO. 
«Rncin Kerr'* Voyagcc. IX. 236-'J5T. Oflhcmrd p^rU Tarry (Voys^M, ITO-IW) 

rrlt«B : The vilLiffmtAni] very ttiiok, but tli«hoii*nar*ii;«B«r>lly v«rypwr«tiilbM«. 
LlllbeseiwDDtrydirolliagiiArvMtclaM toK>lbcTi noue «(iukI» Rlajflj' sdiI iJimm. 8oom 
-a( tbc hnoMi have tkrtb wall* mixcii with irtntw ml uu Jnst altiir tlxi nkiu, aod 
baTiag fe \«ag niMia to dry, >t*ail firm ; lh*y am hiuk lnw mid laany <J tbam flat. 
Winl iif thnr nrliaiinrii miiwsUy ^i, hub. uid Ixum, btiilt uritli i'i<ry litlla ciiarsa. 
Ml on witli uicki talhar diw tunbcr, la t^at It thay cbHiKH t» tire, ttny nuj lor 
very little tM re.edtfi«l. ■ BAdaUh Nima bi E2liot,VIl. Ir), li.aad 17. 

■ 411-83 

fBombar OtHttMf , 


Chapter VII. 




tbfl dead were mixed wiili floar. The Sesh of n son tm pr«f« 

to htB Isve. The dying blocked the roads mid those who sun-ived 

flud. Food bonsoH woro opened nt Hiirhanpur. Krer? day soap 

Aud br«ad n-eri: diHtributed, and each Monday £000 (R*. 5000) vo n i 

given to the desorvitig poor. The Emperor and the nobles maflri 

gri-^tit rvmissioiiH ui rovonuo.' 

In IGSi, Kb&ndofth wiw nudo into « aubha, kd 

Ber^ a nd the nreacnt district of KhinntBB!n & far ao u 

The district* oi S nUdnym; ^ d jjian dnrbA r haJ FormerTv beenjofi 

to M&lwo. The country Koutb of Khwdeah, ns^far im t ho Shi 

part of 

iug7.ob. Nest 

was made into a aepafate ttifcAa, of '^M"'' T">'!"''-'' 
Bolh g(>vermiieutHwena'in" lC36 " 

year the Mo)«hal power was mBcb'ntoK.- ;iriiiiy eaiauJiaTurd in Niisik 
and west Khhiide«b ; NagJk, Tnmba k, and aorenJ M tiio Ciiiiudiji: hill 
forts were taken or siirroudi-'reil, antl ibe ^jf^foT^Q^I wax forc^cd to 
pay tribute.' Doriug the years of pence whii^ followed, Shiih Jahin 
introdiiood into KhiindvNli T-nIiir Mill's fi. mous rc'votme 8«ttlo inf nt. 
The land was measured, the prvtiucftor each Inglia ascertained, and tho 
proportion to be paid to fj^vemment sellJect for each field. Thia 
asJWAiimvnt, lonj; known in Kbandesh n» tankha, cuiitinned tliu 
nominal tttamli^ till (lie introdntrlion of British rula At tliiH time 
and till the close of the Boventcenlh century, the presence of \nifC9 
bodicH of troops, and of tli<? courts nf llm Kniperor and many of hi> 
chief nobles, lofjjothcr with the centering of trade along routes tliat 
led throU{;}i Khiindi^sb to Surat, greatlv eiinchi-d iho proviiiCH, Iq 
1860 it yielded a revcnne of moroihan £2,700,000 (R». 2,70,00,000). 
Few parts of tho Mt>ghal Kmpiro wcro so ric h. Hie ways were 
fafely Kuarded ^nd it was full of villages and well peopled towns. 
Probably no part of India was richer in cotton, ric<-,* and indigo, 
and in many places were tiugni'canu plantatton)^ with mill!! and 
furnaces to make sugar. At flnrbaupur the cloth trade was as 
gi%at as in any part of India, Tho costly white duths used by ilio 
rich »« veils, [■corf.*, iind kcn'iiitrfs, w(^ro in Mpwial favour from 
liie beautiful bleading of i-ilver and gold;* prodigious '(oaiitities 
were sent to Poisia, Turkey, Poland, Muscovy, AnUiin, and (irand 

The middleof the seventeenth eenttiry was the time of KhAnde«h'» 

h ighest prosperity ^ A few yoars later Baw the beginning of tho 

• jtartitfaa exacti oPB, from which tho district contiutnil to suffer till 

• fffTwiqnoarCyllie British in 1818. In 1670, after hia Sttoond sack 

» EUiot. VIL fij. 57, ■od 8ft 
It wu mull and whitf m 


) BtdihAh XAOH in Hiiot, Vtl. 94-^ 

* Thir ri<^ grown st KavApur htd ■ >p*aial valat. 
and bad > muk-likv fcont. „ 

•Tli««ii)t'» Vor»g[w lie«C). V. 212, 216. Tavomiw (tMO-IfifiO) in H»rTi», Tt. 
.laa The«e rq^HU o( tbe gnmt riclinMx of KlutBdah protwhly loillv rafar i>i>ty to 
tbewell vtitand WMtaod to tlietiirhTdutt v^Uv. (hiiliijr'i I16T0) woouDt <.\Uu, 
V. 236.->3H),tkit.tlio«8lipl«auneiu](lfruiUii1uaM'tliaTip<l, Kbiadeiii wu » niMrt 
nkrta li»rrtn, nnvhoJoMOM, twkdj-, aad liry. wcnu mor* likely to be corrert. Erta m 
tllvHcli paria, acMiriiiw t« ^rnier (L^tten. Ranhav fiditloci. UI. 71). tao sround 

wttttohnlly poor. It »■« no tmatl Uiing wtm tb»y bad whcnmfiUi t« Uva and 
«t«th* tlt«BNatvM aarrc*);. 



o! Siir&t, SUirdji )Missed south throafth Klillnd«s1i, uid n fejv 
tuontJift lat^r sent an officer, Pnitiipi'ilv Oii ftfj "n*' for tbe 6rst time 
dcmani1('<l the p«vra«nt of ono-foarlh oi tiie rereniie, ehauth, aad 
pluudered several \arao towns. Moropont Trimal took tho iniporUint 
tortroBB of ^jlbflr in Biiglfa. comiiianding ono of tlte f^*'*^' fo ada 
uCo GujarStTT^m this time the west was often di^lurbod by 
"aritlin and Moghnl cnnflift'', iitid by the cxactiims of a (rwebooter 
_ kmod Kbniidfrrav IMbliAd e, wlio, hostile alike to tlio Sloghals and 
Mai'£t)iii3, managed to support himself among tlio w(!«lem hills. 

Tn 1 ()72, tbo Mogbals under Mnhdhnd Kliin besieged S^lhe r. 
Shivilji sent a foi'cu to rsi)% the siege which was attacked by i)\o 
MophalB, but after » »rvtn< nctif)n, the Mojfhali; v,ei<: dcfi-ated, and . 
the w'^v raised. In IGTTj, Shivaji pltindered KhaDde-ih, sackingaiid 
burning the great marts o f Chopda and fjliaranmop. two of the mnst 
flourishing plncos in the dixtnct. Hi-i ilealh in I08O did Utile to 
feaLore peace.' Four years later (168i), the Kmperor Aurangzcb, 
entering Kh^ndesh with a grifit army, aiVcr a fierce n-tfi»lanoo 
gninud the forts of Ch<tnil»r^ n^|[|i|^[[^^ j^l^'tf- ^°^ paased to tbe 
south. No sooner were the^iogbaia gone, than (1685) Sainbhiiji 
overran and plnndorud the whule dintriett took Qmjj^miu^ and 
retired ravaging the country along the has© of tnoSatmaU hiUa 
towards Nil«ik. For _t won tv yuarn the ktru^o wont on, Forta 
wore tiiken and retakenj and'froin time to time the Uar^ttiU spread 
over the country, burning and pillaging.' 

AtUfr AnrangzeVs death (1707), disorder still further increased. 
In 1708, S hAh u, ShivAji'a grnndfton, gaining his liberty, mixed a 
body of troops in the west of KhitndpHh and plundered the country 
from 8^^a^. to Uurhitnp nr.* In 17i;{, a dispute iK'twixn Hu«iin All 
K h£n«i>d Ddad fe hdn. two of theleading Delhi nolijes, endecTiwar 
Bnrh&opar in a fierce bnttia in which Diiud Khan wax itlain.* 
Believed of his rival, Husain turned hi-i attention to suppress 
Khaodert v Dabh ade. tho Maratba kader who held the west of 

* Ome'a IIwtorie±l FtmtrnMiit^ H 1*% 

■ Sambh<li [«)l D{><iii Biilmiiiiriai r obniit «nfn dijIm *a*t ot ButhAnpiir, * riirh plu« 
wilk nuuiy luuilwni ond morvliaiiUL J«f>(1j. money, uicl c<m1« trom xlt inrUut Iha 
^Wild were fonlwl there in ftbuiiiluu^o. Hx lurrotilvlfil 3bA at(,ick«>) ttii« pliir^ wid 
• BnollMir towti called ll«Jdk|iuiii, wliicli wiu i>tilcii|« rif Ibo (i<riilScMii>n<, kliil hi* 
wl v«a ao mdiUu and BiioxjioctMl, Mjieritlly ujxin lUli^urfiar, tlut 110 ona 
|m« able U> UTo a Mm or a Jiram oI liii nraiwrty. ar a tiast* eoo of hia wivnt and 
L^ildirn. ThoJEnprmlBBncfml, Kikar KUn anil tiia inea, MWtb* moke ad IbctowB 
Itiabg to IIm A.J, but «-M aot atrong enon^ to attuk tbo plsncleKn i •» he ihnt' 
111 i ma If '■pvithinBariManiu'widlooVod after th« ae«ari(r of rta yatei aad dofcBoca. 
f Smi:!!!-?.!!! oUior pliH<«8 M note ia tbe Bcis)it»tirliaad ol tbo city, all woalthr and 
1 (liiiii-»tuii^, wvr« utnodered and banit. Muatakhalf-ul-lDbdb iii l^bot'a Uiitory, 

VII, JMi;, 

'In liiST.KibaSiaJia and othn officer* »( Rltn Rij», cnUvIng Kbindob from 
tbo vfttK uiih an ana; at SOOO horto, drfvxttd Ihn MualntiD cnmmander Bbmui 
Ali KhJm and cilorleJ £1S,UOO (Ke. 1 .90,000) trnuj TbJilnvr an'! tho couiitty RiODd. 
•nd KUpM (Ri. I.4O.00O) (roDi Naiwlur><ir. MoaUkh»b.<>I.|uUI> tn Klliot. VU. 
'MS, 3(3. 11 the headmen eaww nut aad ur««d to uar a e«rt»io tarn, lb*y w«n l«ft 
]unole*l*a by tbe MaMtha. EDiat'* Hlalory, VII. 4SC 

* ElUot-a lUnon, VII. 300. 

* Tbe cause of t£U dimttta wedd ■«» to have be«n, th:U th* R«pM«r Vamkahor 
bad privately ineited PCnd Khla to racial Uomid Ali Kbla, tJM OMniaal aovMiut. 
BUA-a Hiilofy, VIL t51. 

Chapter TI 




TV JToaJUfi 


PBombay Qi 



pt« vn. 


1099- ITW. 


KhJindtMli. naaain's sUctnpt fAilod. The foroo sect to thd irea 
ftoa -lurprised amoa^ tUo liiUs, surrotiuded, and out to piooos- 
Shortly after, HuEsra findio^ he wus wanted at Delhi, made a 
tr eatjr with the Sfar Ath foj oeding thnin the_oiJi'-fyiiiilK chauth, nnd 

M. Tins treatT th< 

one- tenth, Kar3e*itm<al 

I roTeuuoa. 

treaty the 

Em peror rufHaod to rat ify, and thu war wunt on till, in 172 0, under 
the loHaence at li^litji Vishranfitb, ~ 



{SeTfenns were ngrfcd to. 

Not long after 11720), Chinkilich Efa4n, better known as tl 
Nimm-ul-nmlk, wh«, after the murder ui tVroksliir, liud been 
AppOllited governor of M&lwa, revolted, and crosAiiig tbe Narbnda 
at the bead of 12,000 men, 31 ■iiiod B urban pur and Aairp ad, and 
dcfoiktiiig lh>! imperial forces, first at ilurbftii pur ami tbeii ut Billitp iir 
' in Berdr, reduced and annexed the ivholo of Khilnde §h, and made 
himselC almost suprx'me m the DeccaiT Aims so opposite as 
fche Ni}!t(ni'!i and the Mar^thjia' soon led to a collision. A nbort 
campaign, ending lather to the adranlage of the Mar&th4a, waa 
followoil hy an agreement mider whit-h Khiiudcvh was to bo 
respected by the Mar^th4£ in their passage to and fnim M^wa, and 
nothing but the usmtl tribute w»k to Ije levied &om tbe Deccan. 
Thi* trwty remained in force till Chinkilieh Ebiu'i* death in \748. 
Four years later S^^iatJangi. bis eon and 6ucce&s<or, waa attack &d 
by tJie MardihM«iaol>ng5rt« anr roodor moat of Khtode eb. and 
aiier twelve year* (17dO), the Mai^tba victory was comp1et«d by the 
fall of Aairgad 




Next year (1761) the Nixiun, taking advantage of the ruin 
that fell on the Marath^s at PfiDjiat, msrcbed on Poena aud 
compelled the Pcshna U> re^itore the InColy code>d parts of Kh^deab. 
Hie suocfJW was KhorUivcd. * On bis way )mck, overtaken and 
defeated liy the Uar^tbAs, he was forced to restore the toi-ril«ry 
tlie Peshwa and confirm his former cessions. 

After a short tenn of p«^to», di.-sscnsions broke ont amongst the 
Hartithii*, and in the di.M>utes between tbe Peiihwa utid his uncio 
HaghimiithniT f ^7<W - 1 7H i1. Klmndesh wns often the scene of 
dinorder and war. In 1774. after defeating ibe army of t! 
Brdhman minist^-rs at Pandbarpur, BagnnAtbriY amrched 
^BrhAfpar I'Jl'* 'h wPP to JJ^llw^ , and then, to gain followera 
Gajar^t, roove d to Thi lnor and gnrrivoned it. But the fort waa 

soon after rediiwHl by the Peahwa's troops. 

In 177 8 (February 6-25), t he E nglish Brst appear as a military 
"power in kb&ndcsh. Colnnel Ooddar iT, on his march from Qentnu 
*India to Sural, found Kbil ndeah most prospe rous. Ikfany of tb<» 
grain carts collected at TfurhiUiimr weiv left behind by the speed 
at which the army moved (!)00 miles in nineteen days), and the 
troops had lo depend for provisions on the villages along their Una 
of march. The .-xippty wu« abundant, aud the people, industrious, 
happy, and humane, did not liy from their villages, but voluntarily 
offered prorisionn nnd gniin. For cifflity mili-s west of Btirhanpur 
the cotintry was full of villages, fertile, proap^-rowa, and well tilled.' 


Anuiut ot BomUy 11781). 280, 390. 





In 1 705 ( 13th Matvli), after his dofMit at K^da. fbc Nn&m, 
MDongfSCfivr territory, cwi(-<i to Uie PesEwiiliiB Kh^udcAh 
pORsetuions. From tliii«, aft«r luakJDg grants to the great MaMtha 
chiefs, eepcvinlly to Holkiir and Siniliii, tho part Ivft to tlto 
Po»hff» watt (oriDod into a aejmrato char;^, tuhha.y' I'he 
distarbaoces which followed the dcnth (1796) of Poshwa MidhaTrfiv 
II. wuri>, two ytiara tutor, incrcnaod l>v the dispuies atnon^ the W 
aons of Uolkar's general Tukoji. Kiishir&v, the eldest legituoate 
eon, was sapportod by Sindia, Bad MuDuimiv, the itix-ond son, hy 
his iltcvitiniaie broiliors Jasvantr^v and Villiobft. Malh^rrfiv waa 
killed oy tiindia in u trpncliOToits attack mado, it was miid, at Ibv 
instigation of Ki'uibinir who had im-ilvd SiNiiia to tLo deed hy a 
bribt'of £3&,00(} (lU. A,bOfiOO). Enraged at Kfishir&v's ancoess,* 
J aBvaPtrtig broko into rebellion, and gathering a band of fro»* 
bootcrit. l aid »nWo tha Khindesh Narhada districta. ravaged the 
hi)! country between tho jJarbada and the T^ti, t ook Ina or, and 
succeeded in driving K&sliirnv iutu «xiIo/ Next, joining in the 
titriigglo botwem UiulatntT Sindia and tbe tvo widows of MiJh^d&ji 
bindia, Jasvanir&v attacked Diulatr^v'a forcus, plundered their 
camp, and drove them from Kb^udeHh. 

The new century (1800- 1W3) had worse evils in store for 
EhandMh. War broke gflt Miyy^ TTrJltur an.l Sii..1i». and 
Sindia, advancing hurnealy firom I'oona, waa (1802) mot and ^ 

_ ief eatod by Holka r. B<tfor8 thoyoar was over (October) this defeat 
WB--* rfvpngrtj, mid K'likar's army wa» routed with the Iosb of ninety- 
eight guDs. While Sindia inarched on Ind»r. Jaavantrav Uolka r, 

' ntheriDg hia acatiorcd foreea. advanoBd ag^^nqt T'o ona. Passing 
i rocn^b weitt Khfade /ih, without pity or fuvtinr, bo utterly niinud 
and laid it waste. His aat-coss at Poona (18021 forc«d tbe beat«n 
Pe»hwato wick British ai3^ The treaty of BMwei* followed (SIst 
December 1802], and tbe English, marching on Poona, made Uolkar 
retire and ro-watt-d Biijintv as Pewhwa (l.tth May IdOS). Passing 
throDgh east Kb^doshon his way north, Uolkar rained it as utterly 
aa he had before raiued the west. A few months lator (23rd 
Sept«mhtir 1803) tbe battle of Ab^jito b roko the power of Sindia 
and of the Rrija of N^por, and tbe Keglisb entering Khdndeah 
took Burluiapur and Awrgad (21sl October 1803).* After Lho 
farther defeat at ^X.l L'itfin (28th November 18^3) Sindia waa forc«d 
to sue for pencil. Under tbe terms of the treaty then made, part 
of his lands iu Kb^dcah were rentoreil to Sindia and part given 1o . 

^^bo Pcfrhwa War was continued against Holkar, and his share ot 
}Cb^adc-^h waa on-iipiiid by Briliith troopw. After a protractod 
stragfflc, tarnished by CoI.>ncl Manaoo's retrea t and by the failure of 
the Bbaratpor m b^i-. H olkar . ao ing for poaco, reveired back all his 
land s Bonlh of the ChamE arflSOgT" 

Khindsflh wa3 now in a nii«crabla plight. Oo Ihe top of the 
rnin wrought by Uolkar came a failnre of rain. Xo harvef^t waa 

Chaptar TI) 
V Bl«t«ry. 



> Th« *aUa bobxUd Oifais, KUBdcali proHi, Menir, lUJJfid, Pi] KmuUL and 
nixUa. HmbIIMi'* 1>«Krlpt)tm of aiadatUD, IL 9& 

■ Tb« mvM of «aiBD b^Eii)) ufficitn who dud in tbii ciwpusn uv ibn tkown at 
KkT*ApMU In Jiauier. 




(l)omU7 Oaiett«ar J 

reaped, the whole stock of cattle perished, and the people, dying^ 
o^ Bjiog to Gnjarni, left manj pnrts of the district dteoiatQ. 
The Bhil.t, who hml licforc livt^d with thu othtir iiiliuliitaiil4, and 
bad, aa villas^' wati'hnieii, been the great instrameais of police, 
retired to thu hills, and whon tliv famiiw was over, pillap^d the 
rich plain villagf.4. ^gaiuat such an encniy do MciipniiN wen 
thought too cruel or too baw. At Kopargaon jlSt H), BAUji 
lAksDnman, tempting frtiin the billti a lurgu body ot the Cbttndoi 
BhdM, iiurrouiidc-a and masmcred them. This treachery only mad< 
the BbiU fiercer, and tho Mariitha officers rvtuliatod br most cmi 
B Hwaacro al Ch^lisgaon, Dbaraiijaiftq ti^ a tid A mur. Tbcno aava; 
punish m en ta did lilllQ to rpsto re 'order. Uoaltlo to proteo: 
theoiHclvfH, thi! oliiffn and Inrgci In nd holders called in tho aid 
Arab nierceoarie s, and these foreigners, nol Ws frugal than warlik 
soon rose to ponvr. Saring their pay and giving it oat at intorostr 
they became the chief moneylendent of the diHlrict, levying large 
soma both from their employers and from tho general body of tho^ 
pooplu. Besi<Uw from Bhil pliindertTS and Arab n^nrfra, the distriol 
•offered from the exactioas of its fiHeal offict-ra, who, farming th' 
rerenncs for a year or for a short term of years, left no nieoiA. 
untried in their efforts tu wring money from the people. 

In 1816 a now enemy fell on Khindesh, ITie I'endhfir is, undi 
the guidanco of tho MnsitlniAn Bliilx iif the ea.stern hilts, entere' 
by ihrt Aairgnd paaa, and with no troops to hara^^s them, pluuderci 
at leisupo, causing more misery than «ith(.T Bhils or Arabs. Their 
power was soon broken. In 181 7. as part of l>:)rd ilii.iting.i' 
complete and eucccs^fid mCMurcit ugninst tho Pvndliiiris, Lieutenant 
3)»vic«, with a body of Iha Niziln's lionie, dii*pers(Ml nnii dixjvo th 
from Kh&ndesh. Still the district was in grr^t disi^riler. 1 
fiu^ions in Malh^rlir Holkiir'x conrt, and Ihw mnrdur of the MAlwa 
miniittor, added to the greed and misrule of their Khiiiidctfh ofhconc. 
And in tho west, tho oHCapcd felon Trimbakjiljenglia, with hia 
brother and one IJ^j i Go ]i Al^ ioined^Tv^ Ai^bji 'i u tif Piiiiithiiri«^ 
established thoinsvlvoa in tho hills, and sncceesfolly resisted the 
Pcshwa'it troops. __. 

ant I 




Meanwhile the last grr^it Martitha alliance against the Engli 
was complelod. On the lifth of XoTemlwir 1817. tho Poshi 
declared against the British ; twenty days later th e Hdgpnr chii 
followed his oxnniido ; and after another twenty days, in splto ' 
• tho opiwaition of Tnlshibii, the mother fif Hie yomig iwino", Holkar 
^ief iniiuat«r0 and gcuori))s ntwlved to support tho Feahwa with 
an army of 26,000 men. Tulnhibdi, tht; qnitcu mother, Hn«[)<^<;lcd nf 
treachery, was seized and beheaded on the banks of Ihe Sipra, and 
the insnrgent gcnemls began their southward march. They woro 
mot ttt Mahidpn r by Sir John Malcdm and Sir Thomas Eli.-dop, 
then in jinr-iiiii of the Pondhdri Chhntta, and after a well foaghi 
battle were defeated (21st December 1817). Undin- Uic terms of 
tho treaty iA Mandw ar, made after this defeat, Uolkar ceded to the 
British all his territory sontb of tho SUpudaa, inclnding tho entire 
pcoTinoe of Khindosh. 
Meanwhile, the Pesh wa, _ defenbid. at Kirkeo (5th NoTember 





1817) and again at fah^ g-dfteli FebrQary 1818), and dMpairing 
of aid pitlicr from Ns^hp or Siudia, retired itirougli I^iilnili.'*h 
loWftrdauortliern India, Untlio Ifltii May,iit DltglkotBoar Asii-gad, 
finding; Iho N»rbwdft fords guardcid, ha gtve liimaelf up to Sir Joha 
Mnluulm. Sir Thomas Uislnp , to whom loll llioduly of brtujfctn^ to 
order its bands of Arab ana other mercenarit^n, u ot<;nng Kh Andeali 
f rom SindT a, jjiwiksI tinoppo«cd to Th^iiejr. Ut-re, oa Vung 
(•uinraomd to snrrcnder, the oommaadant^Ril!3iirtim Mfima, refused, 
and thongh wnmod that bo would be treated aa a ndnsl, oonlinucd 
to firs oD tho KHtiNh tniopti. A Hturmin^' part; forced the lirst and 
second of the five ^lewaja. At the third gitt<- Tididiir^m gave 
biuiself ap, and poMin^ la, led tbo party Slrougli the third nod 
fourth gates. At the tiftli gate, a body of Aml»r, after refusing for* 
a time, opened the gate, and when a party of troops had PnU-rod, 
fell on theui, and among others <;iit down Major Gordon and 
CWptain Macgregor of the Koval Scots. Hearing of liiin treachery, 
the re*t of Ibi* U-sicging fwrco niKhvd in, and except one who 
cwajwd iiver the fort wall, put the whole garriiwn of SOO men to 
the aword. The conimAiidiinl , iw the author of the tieaclicry, was 
forthwith hanged (27ib February 1818). 

Prom Tluilncr, Sir Thomit^ HiKlop ruarcbod on ^^aj, and found 
it alw>nd(in«d by ita lirShinaa co^nnuindnut Dnj^uopSI, one of 
Trimbabji Denglia's retainiTS. At IJotarad the f<iri'o divid<^d, the 
Commandvr-in -Chief uianrhing along thf Bori, ond General Doveton 
keeping to the banks of the Uirna. The full of ChAg^o^QifnD, 
and other forts followed soon after, and by the end o^Maro^lSlS, 
e xcoiil .Siiliilniiiir. NaudarhAr. Adiviul- at»l ItAver all Ilolkar's 
posfi-.tHJon^ .'o.iulh ot tfio SAtpiid*!* wSre held by the Bnlisb. In the 
following mnnth <• A )irih. nhdH-itntiin and tbriv other IVshwu diUricta 
wen-, ill llrilish iulerfsts, taken by ilir 

k Lieutenant 

li r Fa«t A4i. Jiighirdir of 

and the cxxnitry round surrenderwd to 

In!e. 1 II the nortb-east, where loTtft; bodiea of Ar abs 

^lara-iM'd the plain ojunlry, MJr FiU-it Ali, supported by a Imtlalion 

of infantry, two field giiu«, and tM horse, pre«Hod forward, and 

clearing lh« country, placed it under the chargt» of Lieutenant 

BodgM the Assistant Poliiieil Aguut. Driven from the east, tho 

. Aral» retii-ed to the west uod nia^ied their triKipi in tho neighbour> 

rbood of Siillilnpur. To bring them to order. Colonel Jtnogregor 

ladvnuced o n Snllanimr and Xundiirbii r, Major Innes moving trom 

rOiUna to support biui. 

A seriouB rerolt among the Arabe at Miilegaon for a timo kepf 
back tiie advanw! St an early stage in tho war Sfr. Elphin-itone 
had allowed Go(>ilr4v Rija BAIiiUlur of Mdlegaon to collect troops 
and wrest the Mdlegnon fort fnmi the Peshwa's officers. No RoODor 
Lad he taken Ihe fort than the liftja found himself n prisoner in the 
bands of IUh Arab oierocnnri es. '1 !»■!«; men, identifying theraselves 
•with a band oOrecbo«>ferH and with the Uuvillitds or Indian bom 
Arabs of the town, plundered the coontr}- ronnd, and undo Malegaon 
one of the chief centres of disorder. On the 10th of llay, 
Lieutenant-Colont-I MacDowell, with not more than lOOO men aild 
2711 pionoent, encampc<l before the town and called on the Arabs, 

Chapter T 



1818 -ISM. 










li Mtorm. On tJio night 
bread) wait tiiado, Ihd 
tlitf (ort, and Aa [Jftoe 
lite sLortniug party 

Thoy refnsed and 
place w6a inrested. For tliriN) dnyt) tbo Arabs made deepe: 
sallicH, but were ix^pobtod at tbo point of tho bayonet. I» on« of 
llic»e stillioi) LieuleaaDt Daviea tue chief engineer was killed, uiA 
Major Andrews, comrnHnding tho European ri-f^mcnti wiu severely 
wounded. On flio 22nd, Die betiieging force watt Atrcngfbencd by 
BOO HinduHtitui Horse, and on the next day by a body of infantry 
of the RnsHell Brif^do, 4!>0 sdrong, undt-r I>iviit«nnnt Ilodf^eaJ 
An thv gun^ wert! mucli damaged and the atnuiunitiun n-as ncarl 
at an end, no time was lo^t iii nlirinpling 
of tho 28th, an npji^ftreutty practicable 
tieTT remaining shells were thrown into 
aesanlted. The iwnior «ngini>er, who led 

afaot dead tlie moment be monoted the breach, uttering as bo 
the word ' impracticablo.' Unjor Grrau Hill, though wounded in 
foot, inotiiitvd the broach and let down a ladder, but it dropped From 
his hands to the bottom of the wall. On this a retreat was sounded, 
and only the town ramainod in Britii^b hunds. This failure was 
followed by a cIobu blockade, and reinforce in on (:• urrivtng from 
General Smith with some mortars and bowitiers, fire was again 
opened. Tho fort nnigazino exploded and mado a clear breach 
thirty feet wide in the iuuer wall, the debria filltng the ditch. On 
the lath of June the CTinwn capitula ted, and the British flag 
was hoUtod on one of the 'bastions ol the inner fort. Next day 
Ifae garrison marched out and laid down their arms. The Arabs 
were well treated and taken to Surat, and from Suiat were «0Dt 
Arabia. ^ 

Daring tin* M^legaon siege, Major Jardine reduced Xaadorb: 
ADd Knkimn unja, anti marching on Taloil a, by rti6"^r!!fKVHi 
of favoura'blo terms, p^ned Taloda an^ ' Xavi^pu r. and opened 
c omm on icu'- li Onjarit. AfkT the fall uf Sldl^gaon, a body 

of troops v/:i I'd at Songir. another at P&n>l a. and a tliird at 

Db^lPingaon. Hy tbu firxtw July (1818), except wmie isolated 
nWtaV the whole district n-as in British baiidH. Such of the 
AratM as failed tu Bud M-rricv in native states, were marched to 
Bombay, and shipped to their native country Hadramat in eas 


Lient'enant H<nlgc», tlie .\.-«itfitant Politinil Agent, was despatched 
j o Naaira Wd, iuid the whole country east o f the Aner and the Buri 
Hfi tar~aB""^n jar, and a lino_drawn from "KujSp to Saigaon on tlie 
OiiTO and a long tho. ?4Bi Itm io fSii hilU, wiw roaae ovcr'lo him 
a sepantte chai^. 

Id the following year (9th April I8I9), the fall of Aairgad put 
an end to the war. Exoopt t jiiidva. Sopgir. Ijaling^ and others onj 
i mportant linea of coinmuiiication , which wore garnaoned by armed 
pouce, most of tJiu hill fbrtaworc distnantlod. The head-quarters 
of l]>o n'gutar troopa were finod a t M&legao n. and Caplaiii I?rigg« 
aa Political Agent took np hta rcaidonce at the central etatioa <^^J 
Dhulia . ■ 

Ab this time, on account of the maintenance of a body of horae,^^ 
Sindia owed die Uritisll » (.ousidcreblv sum. To clear uS the. 






(lobt and meet folare charts, it was arranged that Pfchora, V^val. 
Choptla. aud twolvu ihllagCB in Loliara slioold bo made oveu to (be 
liritisii. Ou U»o transfer of lliii temtoi-y (1820), tlu' (lopnnlutioiiB 
of Sutyijiriv fCimbiilkar who held Ydval with a force of 3000 
Kanidiak soUli^rre, and of the Tfankes, who held tho stronpf town of 
Li'iiur in Chopda and wore clonvly conu<-(rtL*d with t\w Hhils, wore 
at uitce put donu. 

Captain Briggti was now froe to turn his attention to the trnubl«' 
aoino Siitpudii aud SAcnifla Bhi ln. Driven fioin the plains by war 
anil faiiiiiie, the UtiiU liad taken U> th« hills, studding thvm with 
Bett'limeuts, fr')tD a fi>w huts of potty freebo-atera to pfrand euc^mp- 
nii?nts uf powLTfiil chiefs, who, asHUtniu^ th<; stnU- of petty princes, 
Kupporled thiiiiHiitiilti of folhiw(-n*. In the niirtl t, fn^m Kukwrinu nda 
to Itorhaupiir, t he Satpud^ teemed with the disaffected ; in iho 
eoalh, thu SnttnHU and Ajanta Bhils, under thy ^.^wy Ini^d oi^, 
rarrivd lire and itword over gn^at part uf Hw proTinoOi nnd in the 
west, the chief of Peint and Abhona . and Govind a powci'fnl Njiik, 
led the freetK>ot«ra of the Hahy&dri hills. The roads wura 
tmpa«:wblo, and in the very heart uf the prnvini'o villn^-vs were 
daily plundered, and cattle aud people carried off or uiunlun^^d. 
So ntturly nnsafe did they fitd, (hat thu hosLandmon refused seed 
or tillage advances. 

In 1818 very active meaanrea were taken. The troopa, divided 
into email delachments, cat oft the Bhils' enpplios. and allowing 
them no n-sl, hnn(yd itcvrnil of ihoir Kmdctrx to death. Moet (rt 
th« rest des[>airii)g of auocesa accepted the offer of penHionv, and 
agri^ed to keep the peace over certain tracta of country. 

Next year (ISl^) matters were aa had as ever. On all nides the 
Bbilt weni in arms and iilttnderiuj^. Kbaudu aud Rnpaing and two 
brothers [Umii and Uchr^oncc the watclum^ti of Tarkhoda, held 
the wostern hill« ; in tW iwiith, Chi! Ni'iik, thi- head of iho Siltaiala 
Bhilc', sent hitt men plundering to the heart uf the plain couDtiy ; and 
in the ca<it, Mir Khiin and the Mui^lmau Bhils in Adavad, and is 
R&VBT, Kiiniya hol)K>d by Dusrot and Dluinji, chiefs of Ijliiinr, ravaged 
the neb hindx ItelwcTnIhe Tjpti and the Ktttpud^. OetnchmenUi 
aent all over the country met with much success. In Ihe west, R^mji 
and Uchit came in and wore rcKtorod an watchniou of Tnrkhoda ; 
Chil N&ik, Ibct hoad chieftain uf the itouth, was taken and hanged ; 
and iu the east, Mir KhAn, Kaniya, aud DaOTat gave themselves 
np and wcro pardoned. This mkxvsh did not bwt long. The Bhils. 
though promiMxl a living on coming to the plains, would not 
return, Fresb leaders came to the front. In the south, Jandbuia 
and Jukira, holding the HiitmlUa hillM, U> avenge iJieir lost loader 
Chil Naik, fiercely ravaged tho »outItern plains; in the east, joiued 
by Sheikh Dalln the famena Pendhwi, Dasiat went out in 
rovi.dt ; and iu tho west, Uchit, killing the head of his village, fled 
(o the hills, ni" Bhil wal<^h inrni>>a agaiuiit their own villugert, 
and iu one month, fi-om Nandurhdr came the record of a hundred 
robboriee, bouse- breakings, nud murdors. To supply the place of a 
regular pulioe, thv BhilR were offered grain and a monthly money 
payment of ■l». (Ka. 2). Xone would accept these tenns, and aa 
■ 41I-X3 

(%apt«r TU 


1818. IS8D, 


*rBombaj Que 



Tlw B^iti«l^ 





g(iii(}<i mcii»iires liad ^M, tli« mitiUiry worn aguin cnllttd out, 
i^ir a liondred miles, lioldin^ the sktrts of the SfitniAla liilln, forced 
Jaadhula, Jakira, uiiil 1200 folKtwon to ^ve thenntelvos np. Il 
tht? wi'st., Uiv^ugh nr. first iitiKUCvt^^.tful, ihe tmops ppf*sc<I th« rvbeU 
liurd, and before a year was over (1821), Uolui aud ijbeikh Dalld 
wcru rau}fht aiid imprUoned. 

A few montlii* of qiiidt woro (1822) Eullowed by tmotlier ontJ 
break, headed iii the SAtpndfU br the Nahala, nud !u thu SntinAIAi 
by the bmoos Htria . who, dividing his mea into three formidable 
luindx, laifi vrn.-^Ur flit! liob plitins ipf Rhiidgnuti and Krniido), 
When Captain BHrkj U-ft [April 182^), in apile «f all bin effortSj 
Khiiodosh was litill harassed and uasafo. Coloai<l Robinsttn, hie 
siicctMutur, foand Hinn hI l»rgu tii tb« liunth, and io the nurth Ihq 
rich lands near the StttpiidAa wasted by the MithnU. The truHijit 
wore BtrengthuQed, the Iiilla orerrun, the Bhils scattered, and tbeil 
8otllutn(^>iitN duiftroyod. For two years thuw fiwrco rvtri but ions won! 
nn. Hut though many wore ciitight luid Icillvd, fn-fh leitdora wcr^ 
never wantinR, their scatiered followers again drew together, 
quiot and order were as ^r uS as over. 

As forw bid failed, Mr . Elpbinstou e. tb« Governor of Bomi 
det<>rmiiieil to fry giintliT riieusun^. Id 1 825 orders were jjiiven thai 
fresh efforts should he matle to encoura;^ tha n-ild tribi-s to settld 
fts hiiKbnndinen, luid to enliKt luid form <^Bhi^C<>niM. Wilh thes^ 
ohjects Kb^ndpsh was divided into t hKjj^QjJyJ^sSiti ci es , one in tlie 
nt>rlh-yy l including Naiidurhiir, Sultaiipiir, Fiui|iaiui'r, nud thil 
Dftups ; a second, in the north-eaa t. with Chopda, Yaval, Sivdjij 
Emndo), Amalner, and XasiruJuid ; and a third, in tlj^j^y^, incbiding 
J^RiDor, Bha<)guuu, Chnlisgaon, mihI (he dwtricls near tho SAtmala 
range. Kai^lj agency waa placed nuder the eharK? of a resident 
European ofBcer, and to the officer in chnge of the north-vast division 
was given the task of raising a Bhil Corps tinder iiat.ivt' cotninisHioncd 
oHiwiii. Th« dutiiMs of thi' Rfri-ni!* were heavy and varied. (Jaiiga 
still in revolt bad to be reduced and order kept, otfeudera punished 
or committod for trial, disinites settled and complaints redrosiwdi 
and pensions paid and the iwople h^tl to tM.'llle to steady work. Aq 
far as possible, rt' gisters of the diff erent triV'^" 'v'Tf kept [ the chte^ 
wero won by rewnrds aud pensions, their In ■ daitus to gu«rd 

the ))a«*es were carefully reKpeeUMl, and iiU;igf was fosiered hi 
^niDta of land, seed, and onttle. The Bhil Cur[)s was Tory hard tcj 
Mart. Their lihyness, rt-^tlessnesK, iind HUKiiii'ioiin hindered the Bhila 
fivnn onlisring. Bn: Iiietiteninit tjulraiii'w skill and daring aa oi 
tiger-Iiunter, bis freehanded kindness, and his fearlei^ trust in hia 
followors won the Bhits' hearts. Nino men joined him as a body 
ffuard, and gntheriiig rttcruits, \\A his object became known, in a fuv 
months the number rose to sisty. Daring the rest of the season fresh 
recruiin joined, and at its close, when they mtered Miilcgnon 
caiitonuieiil, the tnKip.i w<tl<H)mcd tho HhilH a» felhiw^ttoldiera aud: 
the success of the coips was aesni'ed.* Then i-ecruits came in! 


> The (room (rhi> <li<) thia gmxl Mirriop «m« Um XXIII. RcgioMnt Dombay KatiiW 
InEHiti;. Mm uf llif higlioit oMte viMtad tbo u-jld rccniUaMiilnve tlinnboMnwt, I 
Gnbui'B KUudmh Bliibt, S. 

mimbera, suid in 1827, when inspected by the Brigadier, the corps 
was found highly cffiL-iont. Plodgin^^ himself for (ho f&ithfulnowt of 
hifi nmn, miwiv ptwts [urim^rly hid<l by n-ifiilftr tniii)w werw «iitniM(tid 
to Out.raiu'ft Uliils, and not long after, led a^iuat a h^utd of their 
iwn tribeHm^n, they proved faithful to their tniHl nnfl muted the 
ag. Tlu'ir !«ttn.!Hgth wiim niisiid fr*iKi 'WO U> fiOi* itiid tifu^rwiinlEt 
to 6!J0. The bea d -fj u artera were established at Dbarainga on, and the 
monthly pay o^ tli<; common soldiers was fixed at liia. (Us. b) with 
2a. (Ro. I) moru when on outpost duty. 

While in the north-east Lieutenant Outntm wan rHieiin;r the Bhil 
Corpa, in the south Major OvanH and Lioiiteuaut Graham were 
triufrinfrtho SBtimilnBhils tuformsottlcmetitsuiidongiigo in tillugv, ■ 
mill Ciiplaiu Higby witn qiiibtioff the wilder western ohiefs. Blill 
disturbances were not over. In 1826, Ohadfraon and Sult4npar 
wore plundered, and th o Sindra paijs was clo sed by Dhivsiug aiwl 
Subhiiniit who luid roturnfiil fnnii IninHjMirtHlion. Ditachmnnta were 
aent to dislodjfe the Ithils from Satt^upur, and in tho course of the 
struggle. Dovchand NAik and thirty of his foUowors wcro killiNl. 
On the othiT hiiml, Subhiiriia Niik rupulsed a party of n>)riilari« 
itent a^inat him, woundin;; twonty-two of the foot and some of the 
borso. Ho WHS soon afU'r Ix'tniyed and wnt. to Dhullii jnil whoTO 
he diod. In 1827, after attackin)): and plundering the rilla^ of 
Barv&i, the gant; made ^od ita retreat to the bills. With a small 
dotachtiieni of his corps, Lieutenant Outrnnt diuhtxl after them, and 
ronrhing a riiting ground, he aud his Imud were met by showera of 
arrows and atones. A jamtidur and many recruits were wounded, 
but the men fouf^ht fltc«uiily and the .vnomy wcn^ drireu from thoir 
position. Feigning a retnwl, the enemv followml, and in the omin 
plain were charged and routwl, the spoil recovered, arms and otner 
property eecnrvd, and tho-Miief and many of hix followure slain. 

Mi^i^nwhilo Ihn Bhil.t ormtiiiiied to seltb- in thn plains ; tho Hontb 
ooloiiies prosperefl and many of the wild Bhils in the east of J£mner 
took to agrtculturo. The Kukarmunda Bhit Af^'Dcy was (1827) 
abolished, anil tin- contnil of tho p^^l<ia^^ry chiefs wan made over to 
the second aasistant collector, tlten placed in chargtt of tlie weatera 

The Bhil tribos were now rocluimod. For some yearn there were 
Loccamoiuil uuCbreak.-<, but all were HjHMilily suppn^sMod. In 1828 the 
'Colli.'ctorroiKirted that, for the first time in twenty years, the district ^ 
bad enjoyed abE months rest. In 1830, all the available force of. 
the Bhil Ciir{»t nnd the aaxiliary horse , marc lie< l o n the DiU ign, and 
fiubdned the diiefa. In 18S1 the Tadvi Bhila of Ad^vad were 
pliiiidurin^ in the north-east of the district. I'ho Bhil Corpa 
was sunt n^^inift tliom and 41)9 of tlw riotern were approhended. 
The Mouthei-u ooloniea contiuned to pros|)er, 6il Hhils wore at the 
plough, and 6018 acree (802+ bigha»] were under tillage. In 1832, 
the Bhil Cor]»'waseutrii«ted with the charge of the district trcasnries. 
end Major Ovans was able to re|x>rt ihnt 113 Bhil villagiisi were 
^established in ChilUBgaon, Bhadgaon, and J&mner. 

I n 1837. at t he regneat of the Gwdlior Uesident, the districts of 
Ya val, Ciiopdat t^'hon*, and twoKc Villa^'ea of LohA ra, we ro res tored 

Chapt«r VI 

Til" Kiilt'li 
tStH> IHM). 


ITIm Britiflh. 
'1816- lB6t>. 

Aoinbajr GftutUer. 

t^Sindia. This ('""eatly added to the difficnltieH of kneping ord«_ 
it) Kliiuitli-i«li, ami mt)i<> following yeitr orime aiiddenly increasei 
and tbe Ithilft irnvt: luiu'li trmilile. These diaturbaiici>8 were •soon 
reprOAiwd, and in 18;fit ihit Bbil Corps bad bocotnii no offioion) ihal i fc , 
rvgimiml of the line waa willulninn from KL^iidesh. lu Id-M^^l 
Prwt<i|iwipy. Rajft of ^m li iu Itw- hi.uIU IMutrs, llu-owiug oil h^^ 
allegiance, alluwod bia followers to plunder British riltagv*. 
Advanciag againat liiin by a forced march of tiixty milvi*, tliu Ufa^ 
Agent #uq>riii(-d hi« chtpf KvtlloiiM^nt, aud neiici'd hia braily, floct 
and uriii.4. Nuxl voar (I8i1) a large party of Ahmednagar BliilaT 


who had pluudered the Governmetit treasury at PitnjMrnwr, were 
^plirsnwl by n drtiichmmt nf the Rliil Curpt and m»c»ii"w!. During 
thtt »«me yt-ar Bht'imiiiti N'liik hi-okt- iuln roli^llion aiid attacked a 
Tillage in Snitdnpur. Ue vras met by the Bhi) Agent on the banh 
of the Narlmiln, and n'a« ahot and his followers seized. Next yea 
(I8i2) the Tadvi Bh'l *. plundering 84vdn and Yiivnl under the 
leaders Bekariaand Bagooand, were defeated, and Bekaria was seise 
and Bugchand killed. 

Ill April IHli , in accordance with the treaty of GwiJIior. Ynval, 

in Tival fort. Mr. B«ll the Collector, who had ailvanwd to take 
charge of the dialrict, wbh obliged to retin*. He nt onee Miinitioiie^H 
tnxipn fnmi A.iirgiul and liliilcgaoii, and tin- Bhil Corps under Captai^H 
Monia. Tbelroopa anrivi-d and imcMiii|K-d at Siikli and Bhuhxi on^ 
both sides of Yava), and l^lji SakliarJini, in coii.He(|uenee of a 
messngr fmu> Sttidiu's officer at Bnrhiinpur, delirered up the fort 
(April l@4'l). Similar op]>oiiition was made to the taking 
l x>hAr» and raolm ra. Tlw Rajput p^l of the little village 
V arkbeda fbut bunself in hia fort and r^fusitl In yield. F"i-e« hi 
to be used, and a dotaohnicnt of the line and a couple of ninf 
pomider giinn, with the Bhil Corm under Capmin Morris, were sc 
BgaiiiHl him. After a long and ohnliniit*; i-csislnnce, in which ti 
attacking r->n-o l<>!<t sixteen killed and woundix), an<] the }>'UU 
Man!(/iriiai mas shot dead and his oitly «on mortally wounded, 
tori was captnrrd and dismantled. 

In 1 845, the w este rn BliJl Agency was n^loriv i, and a hnusc fa 
the ii!"!- (i{ Hie Wcsii-rn Bhil Agent was hnilt at Niindurln/ir, 11 
^new Agful found the chiefit siirnmnded with liands of wonhit 
anruly uicrcenaries, Arabs, 8indhis, and MiikniniK, and at once i 
to work to jny thcin off. Iu t84ti, the chief of C'hik hli. Kurar Jira 
VaaAva, dialikiug the Bhil Agent's interfereuee. look t o the woo da. 
and as he refused to listen to offerit of ]sirdon, detachments of tb« 
!M<1egaon Bripnde, the Poonn Irregular H'tm*, and the Bhil Cor 
were sent ngainKt him. Though aui-|irisi-d, he mado a fiei 
rcrtislanci', ami was nut c»pture<l without ItloodKluMl. He 
w-nteuwd to leu ye^rw rigtinm!« iniprisonmeot. His iwm Kiimttii 
was, with his cousin Sonji, sent to Hooua to study. For smrae lit 
l)oth boys did well. But as they grew up, th<'y gate Major Ciyi^ 
(ho I*riuci(<Al of the college, much ti-oublej and finally running awl 




were not found for Revenil luoniba. Wlien he cainc of ago and iwm 
ealnteUs] willt the ui&na)^m«nlo(hisi>et3te. IMiUHiug'ti ojitdurt wua 
far froui sieady. Known l« xlutm in gnng ntbtwms and suHpeoted 
ol mtirdrriiig His wife, he was (1872) Bcix«d and doiKirtcd, and the 
nutnafioiui-ut of bin estate sssunicd liy C!ovL>rriment. 

Siucc I8W, t!XW[il for a i-iir^'oy rjul in I S-'>2 nnd distnrbfinMs 
COnni-oKid with the 1857 niutinios, the iwace of KhAiidiiih ti»x Iirun 
unliroken. Id J84D, an order of the Kcvenne CouiutiHHintir'r, thai 
la wlboldent wliimid provide -tlono tmuudnry m arks, met with strong 
)o);id oii|Huiitiou, Hud ihirt opjiottiliciu whh thuu^^ht to bo the reason 
wliy the order waa afterwards cancelled. Acoortliiigly, wh«n, in 
1852, the revenue i;urvey vrus nbotit to be introduced in S&rda« 
lArer. and Cho)iiIa, iho cullivaUirx dr^tvrmimvl to make another 
de»Kiii^iriition. Sir, Da^dsou, the officer inoluir^ of tho giirvoy, 
had arrived with his party and pitched his tents at yi^-al. Thu nown 
spread, and shortly Mime two nr threr thousand nien ^hered and 
eurronmU'd hi.t louts. They said they could find no stones for 
boundary marks and could not itapply the laboarera neoded by Ihe 
Burvey p»rty. NeJtt day chey canie in sitiil j^ator numbers, and 
thronU'ued to pull down tho tt-nU if tbe stu-vey ofHoerit did not at 
oncf leave. Sir. Dsvids^u sent an exprt-.** (o the Collector at 
Dbulin, antl to Major Aturris the commanding ofllvor of the Bbil 
Corps M Uhitraiipaon. The Collwtor Mr. Klnhioaton deputed his 
first and second iisHiHinnlet, Mr. Hnvolook and Mr. Boswell, to Viival, 
and Major lilorri^ accompanied thniii with a dotachment of the 
Bhil Corpei and the Poona iione. Mr. Hnveloi^k told the people that 
the BUrvey opemtions would bo stoppe<t till a nliilcmoiit of the 
cir<n)ni Stan cos ^H>uld Im- mado to (lororunient. On thin the pooplo 
diHjx^rnitl, and shortly afierwards Mr. Havoliwk, Major Morris, Mr. 
ItoHwell, and the siiriey party retired across the Ti^iti. Tho survey 
ofticere eniTimiH-d near iCnivid on the TApt.i nnd the othur ofEiconi 
ruttiriicd l<i heaJ-<jiiarters, After a few davH Mr. Davidson resolved 
t<i move his camp lo Riin)^>ii, a liltle village on tliii Tapti abont 
five miles from .Siivda, hut findiii}^ thai .Mr. Jtoll the Civil RnffinviT 
was at SAvfhi, he joined him with the Kurvoy officers, Mr. Waildinff. 
ton An<l Mr. Baker. This movement waa a sigual for the Siv^ 
cnltivators apain to aswmihlo. They jjathered in Iar;go nnmbom at 
Paixpnr nnd Siivda, aiid sent n depnlntJon to the surrey ofBcvrs* 
tent8, demanding a wriiten asiiumnce that Uio wurvey should be 
abandoned. This tiw siirvi-y officers refused to give. In Iimss than an* 
honr n mob aurn>unded the ttfnl.-*, and tmixed the teut ropes, shouting 
Din ! Din ! and ' No Surrey.' So violent did they become tliat the 
surrey oflicers moimt/t^l their horses and Hed. Ilie mob then 
attacked the miiiTdalditr and the mahillkari, who tried to dixporse 
thorn. The m^iulntd^r nas severely hun and the nitdt^lkari 8av«d 
bimwelf only by flij;ht. Tho Collector Mr. Maiiitfield, who had 
Bceceeiled Mr. Wphiii.iton, was al Diumntjaou when tlio news of 
this onlmfj:*' arrived. Ho issued a pro4;I«Hinlion declaring tluit the 
ordrra nf (ipvemuK-nt rouet be obeved, and at th« Knme time called 
in the aid of the miUlMry frrtm Mitlegaon and of Major Morrin with 
thp Bhil (Jorps from Dharaneann. About the same timo ihe people 
of Kraudol refuited to lend their carta for the public wrrice, and 


Tbv Britlkl 
1816- IttM 

ffvrKpy BM 



[fiombay 0««tt«er,j 


bo tlritUh, 
m»- IHHO. 

rny tt'tal. 


a^iillptl tlif> mfimtnldfiT's tnccscmgore. Thereupon tlie mAmlatd^r 
ACked tlie riuRleiMlon* i»ml iwm to Hk; Collector at UharnuKaon for 
lisaistunct?. The .Subbf-dar Major was deispatched to Eritn<lol with 
fifty iiipn lift lie Bbil Corps and iliirty horse, but the pcwploMM-tobled 
to the nuiiilnir of cvvuml ihoufniidK, ghiil tlin g»U.'», surrounded the 
partj", and refused to let them leave the town. The bows of this 
riot reached Uharsag;non at 10, and within an boor Major 
lilurris, with 300 m<;ti of thu lltli and 10th Itvfiimvntx of Native 
Infnntrv, two ouuijinnids of the Ithil CoriMt, and lifty inou of the 
Poona Uoreo, set out for Braudol. The Collector ncfompauiod tJio . 
force. The gittes of tho ton-n were iKcupJeil, and tho tUnh^iiuhh*, ' 

^tfAixiiM^i'', and pn^i'if 'were a«ixod and kept in cnatodj. This put 
SD end to tho distni-baace in Eraadol. In S^vcU and Fuizpur tho 
|MKiplu Ktill continncd to wsomblv. The ordorit of the mnnilntdar { 
and othor (roveniineiit oorvants were tt«t at deGunce. They refused 
to pay their revenue, and the leaders, forming themselvps into ft] 
committee, i>ar^chiyat, took tb« reins of goTommeut into their] 
haiiilt, and pnuinhc^ orfcndor*. 

On tho 15lh of December, Captain Wingate and tho Collector 
joined the force under UajorMome, and the troops reached Faiapur 
on Uie ICth an hour hcforo dnybreak. Tho Bhil Corps surroanaed 
the town, and the gutea were j^nurded by the men of the lino. Thej 
people were tnkon by surprise and tho ringleaders seized. Th< 
force then marchoil U> Siivdii, when? the |ht»<hi» who had inndol 
thnin»elv&4 most conspicuous were apprehended, and a proclumiitioii* 
wasiiMiued in thcnumo of Goveniuicnt, conininnding the ciiltivatom 
to reiuni to their homett. Thia, order was sullonly obt;yc<], and two^y 
dayn after Mr. Mansfield he!d a dor^ir at Sdvda in which lie (iilly^| 
explained the object of the survey and doclai-cd llint the work must^^ 
go on. The cultivnturH, seeing that rcsiittuncc wim nsoless, offered 

_no further opjio^ition. 

In 18^7, the year of tlie mntini es, in the S^tni&loa under Bhifgojd 
N4ik, and in the SAtpud&s under Knjarsing Naik, Uie Bhiis onofti 
more became trouhlesioiiie. The rising uiidcrBh4goji_Niik broke ont 
in the Ahmeduagar district, and continued, till, in 1869, making » 
bol d raid ioty~ChAliBgaon . ho was sorprise'l by a body of th«] 
AhrDedougar polioe under Mr., now Sir Prtink, Soutcr. In the 
Silpudiis, Kajanting, who on several oocaaioiis had been ti^todl 
^wilh the utmost kindness b^ ilr. Manstiold the Collector, labouring 
jiuder some imaginary gnovance, went into rebellion, plundered 
villages below thu bills, and shut the Sindva pans. A largo amount 
of trtuumre, on its way from Indor to Bombay, fell into tiia hand*. 
Iliring Arab inerconarios, he mnnagod to hold out for several] 
moiithii, and in an ougagoment ut Ainb&piini, twusud vomo loss t< 
tho troops sent against liira. Though driven from hill to hill ant 
deserted by moxt of his followors, he eluded his pursuere for tw( 
years, when he was kilU^l by tljo Irewchery of on» of his men, who 
for the sake of the reward, cut oS his head while he watt aKleop. 

During these troubles considerable alarm was felt by the apgtroacli, 
to the very bordorA (;f Khnndi'sh, of tho nibol troops under TAtya 
Topi. Ou the ^rd of November 185ii, news curae that Tiitya hflid 


crossed Uie XnrbaJa niid wiis uiarcliiug on KhiodoBh. Troops w^tb 
at once moved into ihe dUlrici, and a regiment of Native Infantry, 
with detacliments of tlio IStJi Royal Trisli mid wf Artilk-rj supported 
by tli» Pixinii Irn'^iilar Horm), jtmtdcleii Aitirgud luid llurliiuipur, 
labile a ning of tbe 2:ird Native Infantry and a detachiueaG 
of European Artillery- and In&uitry, with a squadron of Dragoons, 
teU Ajatitn. The Bhil t'orpcs luid a strong body of Poonft Horao woro 
stationed a t Itodvad . The inteUigetOca proved true, and Tatya 'f'o pi 
n-itli his foreeH pas§ed within thirty milee of Bhur&np nr, roarcbipg 
Tfost. Onf»t alnmi was ft'Tl~for iav BaFety ol KhJitKl<.-sli and troops 
'ere rapidly tnanliing on Oiopdn, as it was ex pt>ct^id tlinl' Tiitya 
would attempt to enter b y tlie IJhaulibdrt pa ea. Oh the Z'drA^ 
Tdtya p]\ indered K'argnnd , a village thirty mitea from Siudva, and 
on iho following day tlio rebcla robbed tno poat and destroyed the 
telegraph wiro on JiiiLjilEft-J?''"'- Sir Hugh H oim;, now Lord 
Strsthnairn, arriTed ~al; Hh ir p nron the a^vae day Co take the ctxniuand 
of the foroes Jn Rhdndeali. Nevrs next came that the rebels planned 
ft rolrciit northwiml, and 8ir Uugh resolved at once to preSB on 
their rear with all hia available force. Mr. Mnii^fitrld <>l>ji>«l«d to his 
district bcin;; left esposed, but as there could uo longer he any 
d'ltibt that llie rul>eU intended to ru-oross tbo Nurbadaand make for 
Malwa, Ujain, or tinjartlt, Si r Hugh atarted throogb tlw .Sind va 
paaa. Finding tJiat Brigadier Farke bad &lre«dy gaiueTon tfie 
ri'bols frooi the north and tanted tbom west, troops were hurried 
to Shiiliiiihi, and tliii forcw at Dhulia wiw i«lriingtliciiwl by the 
AhuK'dimgtir Flying C^jluinn. But (he rebels oontrived trt force tliejr 
way ihrongh BliaviiDi and reached ^C hhota Udejiur, where ou the 
18 tb Decembe r they Wra overtakon by Brigadier Parke and routed. 
it waH iirnn fesrod that thoy would n;-cruft.<t (hti Narl>ada and 
attempt to enter Khiudeah through Akr&ni. Troops were sent to 
Sultdupur and Taloda, but the alarm subsided M it became known 
that, tie rebels, haifled in their attempt to re-croiis tbe Narbada, 
weri> nipidly movi ng eiunt towardfl Kl iitndva. Before tJto end of 
the yfiar the u(X!d~ror further military diKpmsitions in Kh&udesh had 
cenaed. In lS5y. the town and fort of Parol », which belongwl to a 
member of the J bausi fimnlj, werv coiil>»c itte<' by Oovernmwiit and 
the fort dismiuitled. 

Sin(« 18.*!!* the peiieeof tie district has been unbroken. During 
this period, the only importnnt changes luive biH-n, in return for the 
ces-sionof territory near Jbiinsi in ('antral India, the acquisition^ 
iu I SiiO, of the Vartngaeu and the Erandol petty diviiuons, and iu 
186d, the transfer to if&Aik of M&logaon and Bdgldin. 




Tb" BritiHli, 







The rcTcniio ndininii'trntion of the distript is entrusted to u 
ofticfi- siyli'd Collcdor, on a. yixirly \)ay of £2790 (Rs. 27,900). TOi 
olBccr, who iH also I'olitipJi! Afjeut, cliiof inngistrate, and ezflcntirt 
hi'iiil of tlicdi^trict, in l]i-][i('d in his work of general supervision bft 
Htiiff of MIS HssisUiiits, of whom four nro covenanted and two nnoorfr 
iiuntod fici'viiiitsof (■oveniiiii.'iit. 'I'ho sanctioned yearly salaries of tht 
nivouantcd aKwisitniitw rnii((« fi-oni £8 W to£1200(Ra. 8400 -Hs. 12,000), 
anil those uf the uncuvenanted assistants from £360 to t0> 

(Hs. aijuo-its. i-aiKi). 

Ftir fisciil rind other fidministrative pnrposos the lands nnder tbfl 
f'lilleitor'H charj^' iiiu diMtribnlfd among sixteen sub-divisio&S. Of 
Ihisc, fiHirtccn ur<} generally entniwtcd to the covenanted assisUot 
rolh'i-li'i'H, and two lo tlie nntoveniiated npsistant or district depotj 
rollcclor. Am a rnk' no sulj-diwis-ion is kejit by the Collector under 
Iiin own diri'ct MiipiTvisiou. Tlie head -quarter, or huznrj deputy 
roll I'ct 111- JM ciiynsted with the charge of the treasury. These 

' 'I'lii' I'liii'f i'iiritril'>iiii>Mi- t<i tlio AilmiiiiKti'ntivo HiHt<>ry of KhAsdeih are a pttperhj 
Mr. W . UiiiiiKiiy, ( '.>'.. iiiiil iii'ii-t iljilK>nil« ami coniiilete rniney t.Bl)lKa dntwa op m 
Mr. \Vliiti'Niii)H-<jf Uit' lti'V<'tiiii'Siii'vi:y. The I'ljicf other rEpurtafiiiiii which nutcziab 
liiivr< Ih'i-ii liikvii iii<'liMli-l'ii]iiaiiiHri|^'I!i')iiirt, Mh Outulier I Sit'. Kb&D<l«ali Collector'* 
Kill'. I.Vi. 1M1H-ISJ4 (Mi>tiHtit'ii);Mr.'l'-ll'liiiiHti<ii<.''Ai(L'|iort,*.!iithOcto1>erI819, on I hi 
loi'iitnrii'n I'liii'iiK'i'iil Irciiii Ilii> IVhIiimi (KiI. IMT'JI ; ('fl)itBi>i Brigga' Report, Slat 
(li'iiilii'r IKHI, llimiliiiv <Mivi'Mi>iiiMit lErvi'iiui; lti'V[>ril 5U of IH22 ; Captain Briwi* 

Itr|Hirl., MHh I iiiluT IM-Jl. .M.S. ^i.k-Liii.iK I,"i7, ISSl-lPiB ; Mr. CbapHn'a 

llf[...ri, ■-■iUli .AiiKimt IM'JJ (Ivil. 18771 : liii^t lii.iiii raperB. IV. (Kil. 1S26) ; Captain 
l'"KK" l("|">i'l''> "<'<l1i -^>']iti-iiilir.r I^^J Hiiil l.'illi tVbriiHry lH:i!3. Bombay Goveniiiient 
•([•'v.-iiii.- 1I..'.>i'il 7'J 'if IM-.M: .Mr. l!o1>L'nBon'i> Dcpiirts, .trd Fobruary 1834 aod 
ri;ilb IIi'IoIht ISL'l, Koiiiluiy i:»v<'riiiiii-iitlti.'vi;iitie Ito^urd I<5 o( IS'J4 ; Mr. Oiberne'a 
|[-'|»>i'l, Inl Aiiuiixl IN'JK, It.iiiliay CovtnmieiLt KuVKiiue itecunl aOSof 1828; Mr. 
(Ii1"Tii'''b I(i'|h.iI I l.iUi<it;ii»]ilii>il|, IlltJi Ntivtmlier 182H, on tbe Bystem of revenuo 
iiiuiiii^i'iiit'iit ; roliPTii-l Sykcx' Hi'|Hirt l!IK21t) mi tlie feciNin, (Lithos,Tftiihed Papers, 152, 
ni-i'l.ii.iiK .'i-li'l; <'ri|'ljiiti IIihIl-im' l!i']>oitH, Slstiuxl ;tlitt Jauuury and SSth March 1629, 
Kiiiiibny li-iviTiiiiiiiiil l(«vi-iiiiiT llci'iii'i] M'i of 1M2'.I ; Mr. Duiilop, SlKli Novemlier 1831, 
Ihinili'iy I iovi-i'iiiiiiial t[ovi-iiiic> licc-onl -tOti uf IKK; Kevcren<t .Tamca Mitchell, 
.liitiiinry ln;)7, Orii'iital Cbrwtinii WjiuclMlor, Vlli. ; Bomlwy (Jovemmont Kevenue 

Itit'iird 7t>ll lit IN:I7 ; Mr. Vlliart'x lU-i>oi-t, on the Uomlmy Preaiilency 311, 24tlL 
AixU-nli I'ollcutor'H Vile 43.'>, 1X18- 1842 (BUrvey); Mr. Inverai 

" .f 1846 ; Mr, I 

lepvti. SSth i/ 

DFt lOth May 1856, 

KuiHirt, 3nl Outulier 1844, ItiMiilmy (invvriitnent Ki'voiitie Kocord 8 ci{ 
l((-jKirt, llith Novcmlier 1H44 (ililto) ; <'ii])tnii< W'ingnU's Survey lie 

18.12, lionibuy (!ov«mniciil Ntloctioiiii Old ScricH 1. ; Ccllectoi'a Repot ._, , 

Ibmibuy (iovuriimontKoveiiiio Kvucird rJurtSriU, pnrl 3; Annual B«porti, 1844- 18S0; 
Wuathor 1tc|i«rt« (bidco 18(iO) ; .Survcv Roporta, 18f>4-isa6, Bom. Gov, SeL New Se»iea 
XCllI., LX.Vil.aiidXCVII. 


also magiKtraton, tmd thoao wlio hftve revcutin cliarge of 
the district, bave, under the preeideucy of (he C<t}lector, 
mBnngeinont uf the different administmtive bodies, local 
d manicipal comiiiittv«:f, witbiii the limilit of their rovonue 

• iho superrision of the Collector and his aiutiBtaot and 
oliectorn.thorc-vviiue cbar;^ ofmch fiscal divii^ion, taluka, 
d in tlie hand!) of an officwr tilyled m-im/nlilar. Tbeiis 
aries, who are also entrusted with nmgiatorial poners, hare 
fttariea varyiujf fr«ra ,£180 (R». l«O0) to £300 (11:.. 3000). 
the fiscal dtvisioiui contain a petty division, peta mahit, 
ndcr the charge of an ofHc-er styled maitnlkari, who, except 
ha» no trenaury to !iupiM-int«iid nave in the potty diriaiona of 
and Y&val, exercises the revenae and ma^sterial powers 
f sntrnstcd to a mamlaiebii; The yearly pay of tb« 
ITM variea from £72 to £96 (R*. 720- lU. 9«0). 

'enueandpoliceraatters. the charge of the t(^77i Government 

i» (iiitruftfid to 4.S43 hanlmi>n, pnliU, of whom 509 aro 

iry and i'3^ hereditary. Two of the stipendiary and 2029 

orcditary bedflmon perform revennu ditties otdy ; one of 

er and I -t-t of the lattor attend to malturtt of police only ; 

Stipendiary and 2162 hereditary headmen are entruatod 

h rcvenno and police ch^i^K. The headman's yearly 

nfs depend on the village rcv<-imo. Tbev yirv from 6d. to 

-lU. l»0),and average about £1 19». 4\tf (iJs. ISJ o*. 11). 

villages, besides the headman, members of bis family ar9 

t of K<at« tand-granta reprewnting a yearly sum of £169 

0). Of tOhSS (Rs. 95,380), the total yearly charge oa 

of tho headmoD of villagiM and thoir bnitlics, £6899 

,990) are paid in cash aod £630 (Rs. 689D) by grants of 

^tlio village acooimta, draw up statistics, and help the 
len, there ia a body of 897 hermlitary and 237 
'Tillage accountants, kutkarntA. Every village accountant 
Iver^o charge of three villages, containing about 900 
Inta, and viclding nn avcmgo yejtrly revenue of £25$ 
flO). Their'yeaHy pay amounia to £13247 (Ba. 1,32,470), of 
) (Rs, 28,700) are drawn by the etipendiary accountants 
the rc«t by the horeilitary accountants, £10,3">7 
S70) in cash and £20 (Rs. 200) in land. The icnikamis' < 
ky varies from Gd. to 1:30 {astnas 4-Bb. 300), and averages 
11 13*. 7K(Rs.ll6a«. 13). 

tho headlI^eu and aceountants are the village servants, 

I'total strength of 9451. These men are liable both for 

I and potiee duties. They arc either Musalmlins, or Hindns 

^bil, koli, and >fhilr castas. I'ha total vearly grant for tho 

}fthts establixhnient amounts to £12',998 (Ks. 1,29,960), 

T». Gil. CRs. 13 a*. 12) to each man, or a cost to each village 

1. 3j({. (fU. 89-10-6) ; of this cbargv £12,668 (Ks. l,26,CaO) 

Itj grants of land and £330 (R«. 3300) ara paid in ca«lt. 







.ptw^Vin. ^ The average yoai-ly ooHt of Tillage e«t«blisfaitie]its may be th 



EummariHed : 

£MWaA nUofrt StaUiamaiU. 

Wir'y Hinttvt, 

The Mofhah. 




TMs] ... 




Ha, 3(0 




TbU isfiqoal to a chai^ of £10 18*. (R». 109) a village, or t^ 
per oeDl of die whole dutrict land rerenue.' 


Of the reveiine fl^stem in Khande^h andor tlio early Hiniiu 
nilorx no certain information in arniluble. At the be^^inDin^ of 
Uritish rule, the common belief waa that in early Hindu times the 
land w»» hiOiI by U-nniil proprictorSj mirdaitiim, and tlmt ti-uanta- 
at-will, uyrif, were introdiicisd na the old proprietors sank ander 
Mnhammadan tyraany. This opinion vraa supported by the fact 
that most of the fields cultivatea by lenantH-at-wiU were entered in 
the Tillage boukit lut belonj^ing to absent proprietors. This, in Mr. 
EJpbinstone'a opinion, when <-oinb)ned with virvumetADooM obKort'od 
in other parts of India and with the high land-ljix autboi-ifled by 
Unna, afforded u strung preauinption that the Kindu revenue 
aystem, if they had an nniform systi;m, wad founded on private 

Eroporty in the soiL' Of the system in force under the Vdruki 
ing» (1370- 160(>)noii)forii)atjon has been obtained. Under Akbar" 
(1601 •1605), the landa were surveyed and to a certain extent 
daaeified, and asseaaments, to ran for fixed periods, were 
imposed, based upon the natural qualities of the soil and the kind 
of produce it waa able tn yield. The land revenue was lightly 
BsaeBsed and levied with justice and moderation. At the sanie time 
the theory wii« ihiit the land was solely the propert.y of the 
State. Permanent alienations of the soil were almost uukuown, 
Bud by periodic rvvision of assessment*, no fixed tenant-rights wc 
ajjowetl to spring up. A few year.-* later (llilO-IOSO), in aoi: 
parta of Khfindesh, Akbar'a or To dar ilal'a rercnne system wai 
m odified by MaJiJt Am bar iho famous Alune^agar minister.* Whil 

^ * Tlie lofMiDation U givai for the your ISTS-TT- T)i«i« ora uuinul vniiatiou* j 
tba fliftrsM at wihiigt wtabliBlmeut*, ■• m«ne>- or laiiii ^tnntfl ntn frmti tinin < _ 
tim* mudc to nnw nnd ■ddition>l Mnricn iniinu/iirt. Whcrr Xtn'iv i> no <'iiltit>ti«n~ 
fo a viUim;*, ths gnat pertaiDing to it u witlidiawQ ; vhern • di-tertwl vitlacs u 
r«-pMT|>|i<d.a[iowsruic uuKgced t«it- Id wmc villftgoii an Bdiliiiouul nlabtUhnient 
M eutvrUiiii'd «iriiiK ti) SdcTmuc to po|iaUtJon or ollm c&nitca. but such vHriatioiM 
nrt rare, 'thr Riiur«* girou in tho text laitly ropreMOt tlM aronge iiauibcr i 
fif viUas* Mlabli^uicnti. 

• Hr. EljibiiMtoiiu'* KopoTt, 2Mh October ISID tEd. ISTS). IT-IS. 
■Captain Btiu,-* (Ifi21) uijri llio reoords ftniaid to d*t« fro«n > «trr«7 

Akbu ■ Uniu iindcT lUi* T»du MkI, wbcu KftadarUiT and RiUUUipDr were ncarar 
with iba iliilii gas. Rt»t India Papon, IV. SS9i Compare Glodvin » Aiu-i-Akbari, T 

* Jarvb<K<>i>liaii, ^Imi** Malik Amliarvil^ndod TikIu- Ual'a imttletncDt tliniu^ 
KUndetk. Sot m«atut KhJuidcah had bmi aurreycd be(«ra. SooOladwin'a 4i<>->- 

Akbtfi, n. S3a 



maintaining tlio nctiwl rat«8 of assiO««tn«nt protty mach on the 
foundatioD3 Imd by Akbar, Malik Ambar aecnifl to h&vu wiloptvd 
totatly diffvront pHociplea in denling with tbe cultivating clasaeB. 
Instead of Icdepiii)^ ilie stnto sole liuidowiier, h<- songliL to etrungtheii 
the govorament by giving the people a doSoite iiiterest in the Hoil 
they tilled. Ho mado a conHidenblo portion of tbo Innd prirate 
property ; the landit of the village wore couaidered tlte joint proporty 
of the towDship ; tho fallow Innd wim tho common for the pasture 
of the oattlfl ; and the ploughed land woa either lh« property of 
indirtduals, or it waa tilled by t«nanta who received a portion of the 
cropti. It appears to have been a principle of hit winu Eulminigtrotion 
to enoonrage tbe nosseasion of privato landed property aa a means of , 
aitaching the cultirators to the huiI, and making over in perpetuity 
to them what is uHeful to goremmeut only so long as cultivators 
continue to till ie.' 

AVhtttover revenue changes were introduced either by Musalm&D 
or Hindu conqiiorors, thu inlcniai foaiureo of vilhige aad duttrict 
admioistratioa aeem to have exiatod in the main unchanged from 
vary oarly times. Ai tho bend of each villngv community was the 
pdtit or faoadman, witli the httkami or village scribe to kiwp his 
Mcounta. The Hubordinatu vilUtgo duties n^iro performed by oflioera, 
nominally twelve iu uunibor and termed the hilra batvlo, who 
wcrt> paid by gifta of grain from the hosbaadmen. Above tbo 
village were the sub-divisional, parijaaOf officers, the deahmukh 
or superintondout isorreapomliiig to the ptitit, the Ufskpaiida or 
accoimtiLnt corrceponding to the htUkarni, and sometimes a diiitriot 
officer, termed aar hinuiKjo,* wna appointed by tbe Muhnmmadans. 
Abovo thooQ hereditarv office bearers was a aeries of stipendiary 
offiiTiulii, Hiioh aa kamdvf^'i'im nr m-imUilddrt, tubkdt and tat aubhas. 
Malik Ambar sooma to have left these officers much ait^ey were from 
ttuciout times. In his day tbe (Mscssmont was fixed by payment, 
tanlcka, and by area, rakba, that \a a ourtaia fixed payment was 
distributed over a certain area, tbe mode of collection and tlio 
proportion to bo loviu<l from difforent individuals being left to 
be setclod by the people and thoir patiU, the pdltU being hold 
rosponsible for the punctual payment of the government doea. 

In theory Malik Amber's system combined thetwogro^ merits of 
a moderate and permanent taJi aud the possession by the cuHivators 
oE nn iiitcroHl in the soil. It was greatly owing to these wiite 
provisiona that in spite of oocaaional faminea and of very frequent * 
distnrbanoes aud disoi-dera, Khfiodeah remained on the whole lairly * 




< CApUuiBTf|>;«<|<Mt»ilby Ur. RMiiMr- AcondiasioGmit D«ff(Hanliha HMorv, 
4Sj. MiUik AmW ■boliihaJ Nvmsa annin^ mm ootaiaitted tbe muuctnunt to 
Brthmaa ifMita under HnkMuniadMi Mp«rineiidaiiico. H« rMttorml wteti p*Tt of 
tit* rillua HtobUllilMnt M lud hlten into iIbo^, aad be rerlvod a isod* of mmmiin 
Ui« MiM bj eoltocttoig » moJ sirt * pfoportteo at tLu totual wodnoc ialtlnd, wMch, 
aft«r th« uxiioricuee <d Mrtnl winn». wat 116141 ooniuiatwl lor > paymoot in inoMay 
■eMJod ■uiiiull^ koMtding to tba ouUir«tioa. Hb aww n aont «r«« uid Ur ba 
two'dftlu kiut lit! noaey oonmitatioD ono.tliinl of tlio produn. 

■ Thoro mu >Uo ut oflwar caltw) tar btaanga in Kliimlnti, wbofs ofB'.-c probtbly 
«(«Taapaodtd vilh tlwl of mr lUdiaiiub, Hr. RIphinsloiM'a B«|iort, 3Mb Octobti 
181«1BcI.I87S) 19, and Eaat India Fap«n, IV. IGt 




a>t«r Till. 




WOAMToot. At the sumo t\mp, tlie uttl«ii»«ol wits entirelj 
bead oi tli« villa^ not with the caltivaCon, and therv is littii Lhv husbandmen euficrcd much oppruMum at tht^ band* • 
immediate •nporiont.' Kvva ta thw iniddld of thu seve 
ix'ntttry (ItrOO), when Mogha) rule was best and Htningi^t, 
r<iuiul the laud tilled odIt br tbroe and ounncqiii'uMv very il 
much uf it spoiled and ruined, there beioK n^iu; to kt*ep up i 
ADd water di&nnels sod do one to b«iild or n-piur koi 
workinnn who itiado the fiuo MtiffH wa» not held in honoorl 
oerer came Co anything. Nothing but necessity or iha cudgcL| 
him work. H» nergr grew rich. It was no small matter *" 
, he had wherewith to Rre and clothe himacdf narrowly.* Am 
pow«r failod {1710-1700), matters grew vionui, and nodor' 
Mar^ thia (ITfiO- 181 8), many freah bonJena were laid on tfaBj 

Th(t Mftratha!) first (1670) appear as freobootvrj withont anyl 
dominion. Their curlifstdumund coiutUtcd of the one^fourthi ci 
of tholandreyenuo due to the esiatinggovcmmoiit.' A« their] 
hocsnte consolidated (1760), Uanltha exactions inomued, nod 
assignnit-nts of ixivvnue were made to individual chiefe Hnd either* fctl 
whom it was politic to make proriaiou.* B«Biiiv«: ibetw grant* ei 
ceo-tain portions of the revenne many propriotors h«ld aaxd collict«'| 
the rertmoea of I'arious cHtatos. 1'ho whole system vas 
ooniplicat«d and ccmfuMed. From uncertainty as to the amonnt 
rerenoe due and the porsone to whom it Khould be pnid. and 
d)8pnt«a among the chieti, the people oonatantly anfferod. 
rereane sub-dtrision had at iu head a tudmla^ar, or aa bo 
■ometimcM called n tiniiidvmlir^ and he ha3 nnfW him a 
ataS of subordinate officers, "^e mamUUddn reoeiTod fixed : 
but thvy had also various indirect means of making money and I 
government pifilntbly (-onnivcil tit the iiYst«in. So Ion}; aa Iho revf 
was fully and piinotiially paid, no questions were avkvtl i>ud n>iiiphuii 
Were dutcoiirngod. Tbt* rniimlaUUir wiw furnished by the oeub 
govomment with a statement showing the various itoma h^ 
expected to collect. He tbou moved about his district and made I 

» Tb« tiMdaun and buMktion* orvnttibuto but ILiHb in proportku to tho Uod 
bold. Ckptain Briggk 1821 -'22; >U*t l»du Fapoi*. IV.eOS 

* Bomior'a Lott«n (Btun. Bd.), JH. 71.72. 
» AtlMT the d«e«r •* Mo^J nil* H 720) . tie 5IaTithi« levied the fmaih, rJtmiA 

' from niMnor holdoi*, iiginUtn, a Until from the ragau. t»A othir oium cofaiiwiB 
■ all to tbiny-fivt prr cent, uid ia ^inuitic* to sbout anv-haU of wb*t tbs HMdMh 
«oU«<it«l, It w»j u lime of tniieh tnmble to th« cultirfttora wlio h(ui two cwllMiOT* 
toapptnao. thi- tuminiidr mid ths plark. vandiCa. of the mr JrrinaiA. Tberv wtm 
alao loll colUvton wh.i lovird h««ty oaoM. KUa Khiln'i BluuUkLabul Lu)>4b in 
Elliots UUtiiry of India, VIL tt7. 

* !%• Uniia idrnr, nuAdaa. aniuOra, idUi. «ar AmtimuUil, mod mp jUkhmm an 
OMd lorpoitinna d llMrr«vpniuialieii4t«d to offiuon and nobUo. Th» prapaTtMo Uwt 
Umm iham, omaU, bw* t« tho wbol* vilUtt* pw«ou« «mriod in difcrait > iUan* 
Thq prooMUMi of oadi to ttM <[riiol« distnd wvunue ■»«. irtj^r. 75 i ik^wt. rtj , 
•dAo*r«.liW*(i,<Hi«i'jto*«»WJ. l2Ji«r4d«.ii9o. 1. ttoMnoiiBt «t •.ioli\jt^ 
wa« HI tho lint place flMd by aovenunoot. Tlio ttuirn mn nuJ atior OodDetios 
aUoxpcmn and eanst oxtM fevlML Clmt, Brlfwat Rul Indi» l^pon, IV KjiC 
Acuonlin^ to the Munaknln writar Khifi KhAa tho Mv.lthn GovonuuMit iii aoKw 
OMsadivKUd til* wbol«pro>lu«eititothrMahuM.tba hntbantlmuiV. tba luii ' 
jd^nhlr-*. and thalr own. BUwt'i Hirtotr. VII. «a >. «• i«i 



^^btUemeot toe each villngo with «Aoh pHii, based ii|>oi] tbo colloctiqpe 
ot (uniier ;ear.t,aad in coDsJcleration of the total amo(iitt.'ex]>c«t<-<l fnim 
the district. Aft«r tho lump villa^ )»it(1«nii!iit iriis iniido, Ike fniiU 

^ud to ili^tril)utu the Kiun over ike holding of each cuIuvaUir iw Ito 
Ik'sI could. At the closo of iko year each vuintlatda r httd to siihuiit 
111- aceoauts rouckvd for by tk« diatrict oflloera. A3 a gunvral mle, 
niiiMliUdirii wei-e expected to make pood any dcGcisncy in the 
ruvoQue for nrhick thoj conld iint givo a pnip«r ac<!utint. The patUs 
likewise were held respoDsible for ibetr villa^it. Hut there wm 
much laxity, and it was alwny* pos^Jblv to kcc-p tho ^overumeat 
in the diirk 5d to tke refti iiuiount of the coIleclioDx. Much 
dflpooded on the exertious of tkt> particfllar mdmlatddr. Thej^ 
worn «x|>cct«d to k«ep muTiug about the district vncunraging 
oultivatora to take up waste landB, and for this purpose ikey mule 
advances out of Ikoir owd pockets for which ikuy charged a 
reaaoiiiJjle iateruHt. 

About the end of the yoar, when the harvest was nearly ready, 
the iHamlalddr, utLvDd<.t] }>y the keadiiieii nnd tbtiir accoontontB, 
moved itito hut dtatricts.' By tho intiuiHte koowledgo of potty 
divisional officers or thukh-lurt, the m-imJalddr was able to 
judgi! of tho accuracy of the ieiiliMrnis' slatemcutM of former 
payutunts, and bo proi.'<.-cdl>d to sirttlu l.ha rvvouuo of the eiuiuiDg 
Kusuii ou a con sill e ration of the amouul paid id former years, 
combined with a upward to I he ad^uil stale of things. 'l'h» patil 
nprewnt«d any ground there wan for relaxntiun of the terms, and 
in this be expected the support of the Jenbututiik nnd d'-*hpdn'le 
and of the principal vill»gc<r«. Those discussions geuenilly 
ended >u a second more particnlai^ a^-eemenl in which the jiiitit 
intorf baogod with the mdmlaUldr nn eng>if^''Uiont lixinf; the rxtvuuno. 
"When the jhHU continued obstinately to reject the V-rms offered by 
the mtimlatdiir, a npocial uflicor was tient to the spot to exainino the 
fields, and if tiu olht^r niuaun iiuc<«eded, the nvimlutddr would offer 
to rocur to what seems to hare been the original priuciplu in all 
aoltlenients, namely for govomincut to take half and leave halt to 
the cultivator. 

In addition to the origioni rent, ait iaraa . another regular soarce 
of rovontio, Ii'vii'd jwrtly from the eulliv»l'ir» and partly fnim the 
other inbabilanis, were ibo ex tra cesaea. jin nit. I'hpv varied 
extremely in difforant «ub-divi»ionit and evt^-n in different villngfrs. 
Thechief of them were: exchange, biilta;8(ig»r-niill,(/urAdJ;payniear 
instead of mhar't sorTiccs, biihiiHli rabla wthar ; a grain ilomanif 
originally for the |wtty divisional officer, /lAiib*; a tax on the hold^ra 
of alienated land, uuiin palH; n tax on ooocealed reaonrcev, ehaukaahi ; 
achargeou betel luMvi-H,;"'" ttkka; a dcfif iency i-css, ftacnr/alohncco 
t»x,jartt tambiiiM ; an offering from the |.<tck-bultockt>, kholi dheli ; 
and a tax on miras land, niu<';'a(^i.' All these collections wet« 
made by the patU in amall villages ; in towns there waa a separate 
ofiicer to le\'y thotMi nut couaocted with the land. 




*Mt. SIpUiMtoae'* Rspart (Ed. t8;2>. Zt 

■^. J. >UcL«od, fitti AmL CuUoctu. l$21-23 -. Em* Indu P>panv IV. «t4. 



fflooitwr Oa»t 




a Uesidea the oeaaeR mentioned aborc, ^orvrnment had other 
of revenue incladed in the extra collcctioiut. The ohiof of 
were : tiim* mid forfoitnrvfl kamdvU gitnheydri, escheata bail 
deposits and temporary sequeHtratiutui anamat, ntttlu graxiug feof 
vanehirdi, grass cutting fees yhaa kdiarni, and similar Ifivios. Ow 
importADl Uix, Itiiijwii an hanildiiri, leviod in some places in kind sii4 
in other plooee in mooer, went to paj a granarv-wxU'Ui^r who kept 
people fn>m carrying off Iboir crop« from the Tillage thra&biiig-|]oor 
before Hecurity was found fnr the payment of the rcvunae. Thiil 
Wfts s( Gret an extra cess, bnt afterwarde became a regular part of 
the gorenimoDt demand. In many pluoM; the tax and the (Hfii^ 
,were pnblicly sold tJ the highcsi bidder.' In addition t;o ~' 
the«o exacliunK, there wore occa»ionnl impositions on extraordi: 
emergenctea which were called jdgti patli niid eJemli pattt. If 
happened to bo omtiiniud for several years, they ceased 
ouiiHidered occasional impositions, aod hocamo regnlar extra 

Towards the close of the Peshwa's rule (about 1 80i) the hurtful 
was taken of changing the mamlntdiiit from gorommcnt Ecrvautt* il 
yearly ntvwiue fanner*.* Thin changt,- watt an aggravation of foriner 
erils rather than an innovation. The ullice of mimfaliliir, instead 
of heiug conferred as a favour on a person of experience and 
probity, who could bv pimtKlifd by nrnioval if hi:* oonduct. did noG 
give aatisfaotion, was put to auction among the Peshwa's atteudiuits, 
who were encoumgoa to bid high, and were sometimon di 
if they showed reluctanw to enter on this sort of apeoal 
Kext year the aame operation was repented, and the district 
generally made orer to a higher bidder. A mrinilalMr no (■hi>!«.-n 
no time for inquiry and no motive for fnrbcarauce. lie let his dis 
at uii eiiliiuicird rule to under-faruier^ whu rcpiutteil the oitcra: 
until the sub-lclting came to the patil, H a jnUil farmed his 
village, he became absolute master of every one in it. No compla 
were listened to, and the mamlatddr, who was formerly a check 
on the }Mlil, now afforded him un excuse for tyranny. If the pdtii 
refneed to farm t-be village, the caae wok jHirfaaps wor*e, a« the | 
wkiBi/oiJur'* own officers undertook to levy the sum i'e<imred, withj 
less knowledge itnd U-».-> mercy t ban the ptitit. In cither citse the | 
frtato of the cultivator was entirely disregarded. A man's "'-aatll 
of payment, not his land, fixed the scale on which he was aesesaed. 
No moderation wau sliowii in levying the sum fixed. Kvery 
^pretext for fine and forfeiture, and ever}' means of rigour anct 
vunfiscation were emf^oyed to saueexe the atmost out of the people 
before the day when the fniimlatitar had to give up his uuirge. 
Amidst all thiit violence a regular account was prepared, as it the 
settlement had been made m the most deliberate manner. This 
account wtt« fictilioiis. The colleclioiiH wore alwaya nndorrated 

> Ckptiun Brign. 30th Dec lf«2h MS. Snl. 1ST. 1831.1829. 

■ Rvety TcM- Uio nait«f at ■ul>-nDt«r wnt hi* ngcnl who aimde w guod » I „ _^ 

M Im coiUii with tbe riUkgo iMadmai sod dutricl offioen. mnunitdrv. The bar^ua i 
WM r<>uB(l*>I nn tbe BMMinti ot th» pMt yrmi and th« >in>a of prcMnl lllli 
Hit rvvmiBB Iwann, th« dutrict offiocn, uM Iha villus hMdmint. wviv in(^«■ 
tr}'ing I« ovatnsclt Mch olfacir. CMptain Briggs . Eul rn<ib fApon, IV. 6E>7. 


1 enabled the pdlil to impoae od the next mamlaUliir, nnd enal)I^ 
niamluid^r to dccciro gorernmcDt and his fellows.* The next 
Mttiloldiir, pretending to he docoivod, agreed to Ihv motit nio«U^r«ta 
tormii, and gnre every etK^nraf^ment to the §pi-cad o{ tillage.* 
When tho crops w«re in tlii: urouud, nr vrht^u the end of hh t«nn ^rew 
near, ho thniw oS tlie masK and plundered like hia predefiesKir. 
If tliK coUeclioiis foil uliort, he poitioiHsl out tho Imlunc^&moD^ 
the exhansted villapeB, imposed an extra ceaa, xadarturi patli, to 
pay if, »ud liifllIio/»i(i7« to extort tho nnioimt by whatever means 
and on whatever pretence thoy tbouglit proper. 

niieii the fcime cwno for the villagers to Mty, a body of irregular 
troops, ghihan'Iis, viae sent by the pvtty divigionat uihcer, tiekhddr,* 
to help the palil. Tlie tnhdr (-Jillc<) tho cultiviiioni, who pwtd tboir 
rents to the p<iHI in the presence of the assayer. polddr, who etamped 
the muui-y, and of tho act-ountant who tfmiiled a n-ceipt. Wnon 
all wn» collected, dm tuitit ttttnt it by (he mhar with a letter to tlio 
deahviukh, and another, under charge of his assistant, to the 
jtamfli'isrf'if. and received the httmivigiidr^t rcoeipt. If a cutlivstor 
refused, or was unable to pay his rent, the miliiia pressed him lor 
it, confined hini in the vj^ngl^ lock-up, f»t bim in the eun, pat 
a heavy stone on bis head, and prevented his eating or drinking 
until be paid. If in spite of thiti bo did not pay, ho was carriod to the 
m4m/a((/<ir, wcm sold, nnd biniHcIf thniwn intopriAou or into 
irons. Such rigurons i reatmeut was seldom necessary for the regular 
revenne. It was more often employed in levying extraordinary 
tnsoH ; and nndoi- the fiu-ming i*yHluui, the pniclico of it watt freqtient 
and severe. If a whole viTlago resisted, it was the pdtil who was 
tortured, but before so extreme a step was takon, a hor«>nian was 
billctv<l on the village, or a fini; levied to induce it to sulmiit. The 
payments were by three instalments, correspond infj ^th tlie barvesta 
of the cold, hot, and rainy weather croiw, and Iht^re was frequently 
another at. the end of the year to n^cover extraordinary balances.' 
Besides the government demands, ooder tho head of village oxpcnsoa, 
gdoH khareh, the people ba<I to pay very heavy «uins. Tfai« wn« the 
ffrand source of (-niolumont to district aud village ofHcers. It seldom 
amounted to less than balf of, and waaoften double and oven treble 
tho acknowledged state demand.* 



Admin Utr at] 


> ConpM«O*pt*inBTi«i,-^a0tliDM.I8!l: U8.8«l. ICT. I83l-I$m. Tli*M>ta*iniiint. 
•tyM iht r#gul«r, am, uneunn«nt wu mul* at ibout onv-hMI ol wlial Ilia 
KDvmunent a^«t inlendtd to rauM. Tho poaplo w«k dvotivMl lij tb« idu tliAt 
«v«rrttilt<)[ pant beyond thkt wu ■ tcmponrir uiaclion- 

* kumtinmidrt w«te at Ulwrty to oilvaaM what tli*y cheat. On iMinit mnorcd, 
tlM iMiUnn trai paid to tbom cither by th« nuw inrndriflMr nr by gonrnmeat^ 
The naunl tiitvimrl ma 3S per cent, inyahio iHthiri Dik ynar nf xvoiint at whutairtr 
time uf th* ft»i il waa advanocd. Ttie Hcunty •Ivixnili'l t>n cirniiiiniuicn, hut it 
«■• iwiully advaiicad tlmogh the aiioiicy of thu villauu iMa^Maii aud dittrict olUotra. 
Capt. Itrwc* <lB3t-33l: Etat India Papen. IV. 706. 

■Mr, KIphinrtUM'a Report, lath October 1619 {K-i 1S7S),S(i-SB. 

•CipWn ling^. 30th T>cc. IS21: US. Set 157, 1S3I.I929L 'IIm* villag* Mp«MW 
wen (or the payoMnc of chariUhlo granta and vitta,;? liiruhing-lloar gnaraiana. 
AMdUdnc and far free NtEgitiea tamiahod t« m4»l«Ul4rt and uUiurt. lit Hhait for all 
nddoital eharftta ta wludh the Tflhgr vm expoatd. Under tho heal nattra 
goTcninisnt it anunintedtoSS^ and under tooaw Govemmeul to frcnSOto lOOfrotnt 
M thS whole B'Wtnmont doodad. Ditto and l^at Iudi> I'apen, IV. ICI. 

(tomUtj OMrttMr, 





• Aa to nil theee esactionii were added the lossra canf«cl by Bh3 
And PcDdhari rnids, tbo niin tbat foil un Klinndt'eih duriugr thu \a^ 
twenty yuan of Uvi^ha rule cao cause do surpme. 



TlmBritidu Asre^rds land ivdminist ration, tbe sixljr-tbnM) yeorii (1818-1 

of BntJKh iiiHiiii)i;i-iiH!ri(. full iiiidtfr two nearly equal diviaions, befon 
■tod'iiiiiLv the inlrodudton of the revenue survey in 1852. The first 
divi.sion include* Iwo pt'riixbt, ivforo und iiftor ibtj IS:t2>33 (omiap, 
lliD firet on the whole a time of stagnation and the second of 
prvjUesB. Tb« mtttblifehinent of ord«r, togvlbvr with the romoTiJ 

*of ahases and the high price of produce, canned in IBIS osA 
1819 a rapid increase hotb in tillage and in revenue. This wn 
followed by about twelve years of wry litiU' priign-ss, the tliistrict 
suffering in tbe first six years from a series of bad barrosts, and in 
thcni^xttiix from the ruinous cbeapness of grain due to bam; 
harvests, pntall local demand, and no means of export. Tbe 
was, in tbe twelre yemrs ending 1831-32, an advance of 
U,233 %A/m' intillagp and a fall of £27,188 {H«. 2.7I.,880) 
revenne. The second half of this division, tbe nineteen yeara 

the 1832-33 famine, was on tbe whole a tinjo of ntcndy [>Pot, 

the tillagit ar«a riKiiig fi-om 888,7^7 to 1,430,035 hUjhdt, and the ni 
collectionBfix>m tl^I,*tJ3 (Rs. 12.U,C30)to£l7S.804(R8. 17,88,010). 
In 1H18, tbi! llrili»h found KbAmU-itU ovorgrowu with forest and 
brnshwood, tbe towns in ruins, the villages destroyed, ibo soil 
though fi^rtilo nud woll watered untillcd, the roads cut up, the 
country enip*y of ]>(>«plo, and the rv-venne collM^ted with grvat 
difficulty and generally with the help of a military force.* Of the 
whole nroa (1821) forty-five per cent was uuar able, forty-three per 
cent tv&s arable wastt% and only twelve per txni was under tillage.* 
There were in all 4(XJ2 villages, but »o empty were they tbat the 
nnmlx-rgBve no idea of tbe ptmo of the country. f>omc in ibw plainA 
' yielded a revenue of 1 100 (Its. lOOO) or even tlOOO (Rs. lO.uoO) ; 
oLbon among ibn bills yicliUd au little a» 12, £1, or lO*. (Rn. 20, 
Es. 10, or Rs. 5). All villages were surniundvd with walls a&d 
prot»>cl<!d by a f<irt, their only security against wild bei 
marauders, and robbers. Many liuil ImmlolA, vudit ormajrat, attacl 
The boundaries of all inhabited riliagefl wero well marked 
tlieir limiUt wonderfully wvll known. In ihe misfortunes that 

^twenty yeara (1798-1818) bat! Ixicn raining Khdudeah, nunilu-rs 
villages had been deserted, and of some even the names were lost.* 
Of the total of -ill32 villages, 540 were alienated, and of (be 3492 
GoTemmenL villagii*, 413 were uninhabitod but part tilled, 1 
woro deserted, and of uinoty-soven, even the sitea wero unl 

' nmA^ufixctl ty thB«*Tl>- Brititlioffi(<tr>«H (qiiBl totliT«o-i|n(rttnD(Rn 
* HuniIl4Hi'« Ussorii'tidn of HinrluiUii. U. M. HuniltOD tncludM uoiUr KlOi 
th»«iili.divUJon« olGAlDk. KliAndeib proper, Uojwilr. Baiiftz, pHaimtr, Mid Bj 
Sia MtiJuaie of poirabtion » 3.000.(>UU. appamolly k vary ummIv* Mtunkta, 
183S, Bltm- lir|!« niiaibtn bxl come buk ■ml til!u« tuwl kn*»T opfnul. the rtrl 
•bowDd ft lut«I of only 332,370 aonii. * r«pt. UiW*, Km* . Imlia Pu>en>. TV. 

' CuUiu Briggi, 9th OetolMr 1BI»: KhudMh ^<jbatar'a Ftb m, » 




only 1836 woro mhubiUitK* Somo partA of tbe distn'ct wwc 
(1819) ill ft liigb slaut nf tilU^, and others, rceently ahiwdoDtxi, 
showed traces of former ric)iiic«» and pro«perity. But thouf^li 
tha bnlk of thu ilistrk-l w»» vxceedingly fcrtilo iiini woll wiiU-red, 
the greater part of it was covered with thick brushwood and forest, 
full of ti^irs und other wild bvn»(--<, and ^nittcrc-d with tho nitns of 
former villaget>. Tho lundH north of the Tiipti, onco very txipuloua 
and fielding a largo revenue, were lui almost nmnhabited *J|fl|^ ' 
Id do part of tho district, vxcopL whero thoy honlorc-d on rara^ 
were fields enclosed either by waits or hedges.^ The plouglis were 
•■mall and IJ^t, seldom passing moro than fjur or Svo inches into 
the groiind Hod druwn hy only oue pair of bullock.-'. Kolhiug ix>ut(i 
exceed the slovenliness of the tillage. The Gelds were seldom 
ploughed in tho hut months, imd oft«io, ovou »t the timo of sowing, 
were only ho<nl. Tho long gro^H souietimeii eiilirelv choked tho crop. 
Kach plough and pair of bullocks was, as a niio, the property of 
twctOT wen threo husbandmon.* 1'ho bulk of the pouplo, broken 
bjr opprewiinii, wero iuduslrious wichcjut energy, inert, dlow and 
nn enterprising. Though orderly and inoffensive, they were 
»ti5pi('iiiiiH, without tniKl in Ihfir sujxiriors, and pron« lo faWbood 
and deceit. The disti-iot and village officers oppresiied ih© trader* 
and landholders, and they in turn tyrannisod over all bi-low them. 
In so unceasing n strngglo for cxi»trucc thu common people had 
leiaore neilher to be religions nor to be viciuuB.* 

As soon as military operations came to an end and peace waa 
etitabl i.ihed KliJindesh was formed into u district well mnrkod by 
natural limits, on the north the S&tpudi(s, on theetiat Ileritr and the 
Niz&m's country, on the south the Salmila or Ch^ndor range, and 
on the woitt |mrtly the Hahy&ln bilLt and partli- the (jiiikwiir*» 
territories. Thus Kli^ndesh remained, till, in 1868-6!), three of its 
eooth-woKtem sub-divisions were handed over to the now district of 

Especially under the fanning system, the SlwrAtlui sub- divisions had 
been wry irregular, their limiu varying from time to time. New snb- 
dirisions were chosen, kooping as mr as possible to tlw sub-divisions 
to which hereditary oHicvrn wem nltuched, and nrrftnging thorn with 
a view to oompoctnesa, uniformity, and genaral convenience.' The 
leading principles laid down in settling the district were, that ruvoone 
farming was to l>o aboliiihed; that (ho land revenue waa to ly 
collectoil according to actual cultivation ; tbat> except whero thqy 
were unjnst or opprcitsivc, the old tnxoit were to bo mainlninvd, and 
no now form of taxation introduced ; and that the aaseasments were 
to be baaed on post collections and levied with care and moderation. 

Tho first great want was an efficient staff of stipendiary officers. 

> CnptMia Britt* IIMI): BMt IndU Pftmrs, IT. SSfi. 
* Mr. FJpbiiuUauh SStli Octoba I81!i : Kul India Pt 

Pkponi. IT. 141. 




£»!> OotaUr I8t«t EMt Indu l1iiM.n,IV. HS; CkpUto BriiUB (1821), fiut ladi> 
Ptlorf. IV. 708. « Mr. WrEMii»y7c.8. 

■ 411-35 



lumbar Ouet 



,ptw VTIL 




In«Uio ifflttor veiirii ol llit> Pt!«!iw»'i» 'rviU', the tar mhheddr and t 
tnatnliildar had be*n allowid lo lit^wiun- itliini^it ttbsolutu ; Uioy 
even llic rii^'ht of intlictinf; capica) piiiii aliment. Tbey bad BxD 
sularii-N, iini) tiu^ »ar n'llihtyli'tr of Kliiuidi-sli was allovretl to spenj 
from £500 lo £10O0(Ua.$O0O-K3. 10,(K)0) » yeftr fur niiitinf^m 
aod mo«t of his ospenses were iucluded in vUlage cbura<iMt, ydn) 
kAarch.' The old ufficipr:* wcix' known tol)o corrupt, and frosh 
iitt«d for ih6 work were hard to find. In 1821, «oreiiUK;ii of tb 
eighteciQ mdmlaltldrt wore Dcmx^u Br&hmans.' For the moat nnrt 
thpy vrerv, tm far n.-* oiijwctty went, lolumhly well siiikid for their 
officer. Their i:hiof failjn^ vaa want of euargy in juilicitd dutii>B,^ ., 

• One of the chief changos introduced by the British GoTitnimont 
was tho withdrawal of powfir from th« district herpditary otficera. 
During the ^vemment of N^a Fitdnariit (1763-1800) tLa 
katadvi^Jiin held no coinmuaication with the peopI« exceiit throng 
the wwiwtd'lM, that is tho ilrshmakh anil dtukpatule, 'Ihe^e men 
wt-ro nftvn thii ri;id exuciitivo dii*lrift nDifi'M, tnipri'inti' ! 

puiii»Iiiiifl;j>eoplewithont reference to the kani'ifisdant.* Willi 
unlimited powers, they had been the aeonl« of vxtoriion, the toob of 
the leaden and plunderers, who, in tho twenty years Wfore BrittNh 
nilo, had laid the country wa«te. On llioftO occasions they actnd the 
donhio nart of representatives of the people andagentB of (he opji : 
perauaaiii); the people thnt they wvro sheltering thom front ex 
and perxiuiilintf tho freebooters tlud by their help ihp l«*t farLhiuu 
bad i>ivu wniDp from the ^x-ople.' In these district officers' hand^ 
were all tho rHVoniio nic!ordn to tho most minute it^-m. Their 
omoluniontii were either in free-hnld land^, in villa^u caidi allowanoca 
or in both, and they had, besides, certain privitegres and rights to 
receive a few shtstrcs of grain from eatii fipid at harrest, and one© 
a year to bo presented by government wirh a Tv\tv vr a sum of 
money. Uniier the fanning system, aa no accounts were accepted 
at Poona without their siijnature, their power was little short of 
absolute. While pn'lendiu),' th<* grcutesl wal to govenimeut, they 
wero in league with the chief villa^'e officers, and at the espenso of 
goromment, ntilis*'id for th«nuolvoa as large sums as could be 

Erocured. Captain Brigga wa» satisfied that the influonce of the 
ereditiiry district officers was a source of ojtpreHDiou. Under the 
now arrangements Iheir eerricc-s were of no use. Orders wimt 
^irect from the miimtaldiir to th.i village officers. Their rccisterfd 
emoluments were not touched, but nil who levieil uiiaulhorised 
Slim* from the people were punished and the amounts restored. 
"Within a few years their power disappeared.* 

I CnM. Brigg* (iaSl-92| : Rait ladU Vtpen. IV. TOO. 

*CuA.Briggi.Politi«ii1A«cnt. SOth Dcccmhor 1S2I. M.<1. M. 187, IffiMSM. la 
1831 ln*t« nre ^glbtcca mtttnlatdiirt with Mlorlc* el Irtaa K*. 10(1 In K*. lAO «ach { 
thirty* 1 hrue •A'n>*''™ir> no R>. nOk mnutbcoch; oi|^t]''f-i|thti;i<ii>HlrMtou Ri. IOcmiIl 
ud 181 lArVtMr* m Ri. in tuch. ' Ilitiv, <ti(to. 

•fnpl. t!ri)OTt(tl«1l1K21 ; Yjai lodiii P«p«r». IV. TftT, 

• C«pl. Bnaipi. aoth Di>«mbi;r 1*21, US'. .Sb), 1.^7. ISai-lWD. 

•Mr. Klphmitono. 2IHh Oft. IS19. VjM luili> Psucn, IV. 161-103 ;C»nt 
iXm\), Eul ladii Paptn, IV. TOti-TOT iCitpt Brian. Wth Dot ISZI, M& StI. 
(1631-1629) ; Capt. BrJtrp, 91*t Oct. WHt, Bom Got. Bev. U«c. GO of I6SI, Ul.l«>; 



There were Bfteen village officers, the hondman, the occonntalit, 
the mAiiV, the car|)ot)U'r, thi.' k'ather-workt-r, tint hiiivk»mith, tho 
ui.t.tfr, I.Ih! harhor, rhu vnuthi'miiiii, thv mung, the Uinclu priesl, the 
Musfolm^a prieat, th« guldsmitb, the wutc-hniun, nod the tratci-Diaii. 

The hetiilman, piilil, wasfoDuil iii every villt^fc. Ete was the chief 
actor is all its tranBaciions, the agent of 6oTeniiiiout for tho 
encourogonivnt of agrionlhiro and thu colloctioa of the reveaae, and 
tho agtiut of th<> j)<H>|iIo la rcpreiteuL to (}ovorDiaeal thvir wanU and 
f^ievances. Without any defined power he had a prcstcriptivi; right 
-ov«r tilt tnolvc scrvniita, biirti balut':, and ov«j the viuagers in general. 
Tlti-y hi^lti a. birjfe area (lOS.OOll Ki^hiit) iif in-v- ii»n<i, rcpn-scntinjf 
abaui four per cent of (he district laud revenue, and had cluitn.t to 
ouc imd a Itiilf per cent of tho vilhi^^ produce and to a share of the 
Ibvctiue kuowi) a.t tacAuri or mtwhiihira. Tbu iiverago proportion 
of the whole was about uine per cent of the gross revenue. But io 
soxnis villa^s this mu so divided, that mnnj: a managing hoadmao 
wiut It^rt with » uiiTo triHi.-. The at.'counlaiit, kitlkami, was found 
iu every village. The headman's assistant, and in uianr caseH his 
superior iu pow«r, he wu* piiUt hy n-ut-fn^w I»nd, a share of tho 
reveiiiio (-JiUcd mewlnira, and a share of the eioi» nillerl t^iiiwla. The 
percentage of tjie accountant's emoluments on the village revenuo 
varied from threw lo eleven, and avemgvd uhout four and a half. 
'I'hv ineii«euger, m/idr, was found in almost cret^' village. He watched 
the gate, attended the headman, performed menial village ofBces, 
nhowud travellers the way, and ciirried loads. Thoy hold large 
(iiO,&34 f/iijliii^) land grants, repre^ntiua^ au aa^ignnii^ut of about 
one per cent uf iho whole revenue, and had tho same grain claim 
as the accountant. The curjM-ntur, ruhir, niudo and repaired 
wwidcn tools. Thoy hi'ld very Hltle (221 liig%U) freo land, 
and liad a quarter less grain claim tlian the mhar. The leather- 
workor, chnmbhar, found only in (b« larger villag«9, made and 
niMtirird all U-ather work used in the fields. They held nlmi;9t no 
(14 liiytuis) rent-free land, and bad tho samo grain claim as tho 
carpenter. Tho blatrk.^tuilh, hhar, was found in nut more than 
onv-third of tb« viJlag<ta. He repnired all iron field tools, Tlicy held 
no free landii, and had the same gi-ain claim as the carpenter. Tlie 

Sjtter, kiiuthk'ir, found in nbout half the villages, supplied 
istrict' ofiim>nt and village headmen regularly, and tho olher 
Tillagcra once a year, with earthen vc8s«'Is. Thoy had almost no (6<^ 
bighag) free land, and their right to grain wa.t une-lifth Ivmm than thtf 
ciwiwn tor's. Tho barber, MAtii-i, found in every village, shaved tho 
cultivatora, lighted tho headman's pipe, idiampooed his feet, went 
with his daughter to hor fiitin-r- in -law's hoasi-, and acted as tho 
villago nurgoon. They held a tittle (lOO fciVjAiw) free laud, liad tho 
samo groin claim as the potter, luid roceivwl a menl from every 
person thoy shaved. The ivitNhennan, dhubi, found in about half tho 
villagOR, waftbod the clothca of tho male members of the villago 
ofBcera' and beroditanr landholders' families, and at weddings 
Bopplied wbit« fkwr-ot'ittM. They hi^h] do land, but hod the samu grain 
claiiiiH as tho barber, and at weddings wei-u fed the whole time and 
gota turbanai the end. The tanner, nm'iijr, found in about ouv-(iuartcT 



Hm BhukIi. 

TiUa-jt Slqg, 

lais. ■ 

(Bgnbay Oi 







orilie viUagee/ removed dead bodies, and on gejtinfr the matt^rj 
nifido ropcHUMilstntiiff i"ol«. Th<-y hold iki frt'cltiiid, Iml. lind a t%\ 
to tbu xltinB of dead soiumU and a claim to one>fiftb less grain t] 
Uie pott«r. I'hey maintained thomselvea br makinff boaketa. 
asiroloper, jonhi, found in irvcry villiigo, vrf-nt til»>iil ou tho 
and <0<iv<--atii of c^cli half of the montb> telling lucky and unlac 
Iiourii and oSiciatiDff nt marrtaj^ for which he was mrparatcly 
paid. They held iai^ granU (Ofi&9 bighiU) of free bind, nnd had 
tb« xamo grain claim aa the vtdng. The MuBalinin prieat, niu//d 
fiouDd in a fow %-iliiigeH only, wwrificcd sheep at religious festivi^ 
They buld a coDiiicIecablo amount [1200 lii^hdit) of free Innd, 
liad tlie same prain claim aa the oatirologer. The poldsmiib, 
fonnd in ono-foiirib iif the villaffm, ezunioed the cointt paid , 
htuitwndmen to Qoreroment and by ehopkc«pera to hDabandoiri 
Tbey held no land, and their grain claim wna the same aa 
fiumc^M. ITje watclunan, jdgtia or hhS, who guarded tho )?ate : 
caught or tracked thiores to the next village, held larffe (3^ 
bigndg) grants of rcnt-friH! land, or in some villagea Mnuill i 
moaey, and the same grain claim a^ the vuhuj. The watort 
koli, found in aboat one.third of the villagea, brought travollj 
water and worked as a servnnt to the disthct ofiici-rs and Tillage 
hcadmcnf Hweeping their %'arda, fetching water, and cleaning thair 
brass and copper veswlfl. They supplied water at all rilbiga 
ceremonioa, and whenever a villager run iiway front Oovermnent 
persecution, the itoU found btm out and gave bim daily food. 
At rivers they made raftJi nud bonis. ITiey hold a consid' > 
(lt>,807 tii/Aiin) amount of land, ;uid had tlie inmic gruin chtim 

Of the villa^ stafF the most important were the headi 
the BOcountnnt) and the mkdr. Under the former gevemnicnt 
headmen and aceountanta were tbe agents between tbe villag 
and the distrift officers, dcffimukh* and Jfshp^nttfs, trying 
the one hand to make the dixtrict oRiivrn* believe that Ibev 
extracting the very hichest poeaible amount from tho vil 
and on the other hand telling the people that the (er 

been settled only by the help of a nrivale present to the _^ 

officers. Aa the whole work of distributing tbe demand aninB 
tbe vitlagei:^ was in their hands, Ihoy had great power, and beaid 
^exempting their own lands from a share of the burdens, were 
,«blo to levy spcciid cesses for tbeir private advantage. Under 
British system, tliough they were no longer n-spoiisible for 
village revenue, tho he-^dmnn and accouniant reniained tJie naf 
important of the villngi^t officers toth in matters of rorcnne 
of police. Many of them received very scanty pnyment from 
Government, and when tjieir irregular exactions were stopped, 
it wan fonud necessary to wld to tbeir regular omolnmetits. An 
important change in viUage management was reducing the anov 
of village expunsi>:«, jfi/^n t'^ai-M, and making over the managei 
of the fund nvm the headman to tbe mamlatdar. From tliu ' 



^dittrict and Tillage officers bad receired large sumn. Undw 
^;gDverDmoQt8 tVio villaf^ clLarfrcB were never le«a than 
iwenty-fivo por cent ; l.bov wero i>tU-xi lut mucli as fifty pi-r ocnt, and 
in uxtrcmc cases were double or treble tlie guvernuiiiat demand.^ 

As the headmen were well acquaintod with the area and character 
of thoir tillage, the citltiriitora wfro Meldont aUft to gain mticb hy 
ooncealuieol. Their plan was to borrow money from the villago 
hanWer or headman, [iixmii^ing to n-pay it iu grain. Then, nnluw 
land wax granted them on easy t«nna, they refuKed to cultivate.* . 
BctiiileR the o wners of alienated w tatea, landholders belonged Co ' 
two lending claiweg, hen^tiit ary boTder^ or yroprigtog , votaintdrt 
or miroMiian i, and leoanU-at^willj u pria. Qt propnecors tl>ero*t 
were very few, not onu in atx, ancT almost all were district and 
Tillngc offiei-nt.* Except ofBccnt, wlio might diwposo of their 
Inndrt and offices by sale, the Kh^ndesb m»m«i/ar could only 
tnortgagv his lands. Ti-nnntd-at-will, uprin, though in theory 
without any proprietary right, wore never ousted mi long as Uii-y 
paid their ehnre of the Govuniuiuitt demand.. The same rates 
were IcWcd frxm the mir<ij(({ar as from the tonant'iit-will, the chief 
point of differonco being, that if an uprt gave up hia field lie 
liad no claim to tnlce it again, while no length of dmo was a 
bar to the vaUiiuldr'* claim. Under the former government the 
two leading (orms of puttlemcnt were t he nloUjgb tenu re, atit 
bandi, and the field leuurc . (Ai'iv handi* Umier the new Ayjttom 
the settlement was made wit h the cultivator an d not with the 
headman. Eru-h cultivator tilled a certain quantity of land on 
lu« prirtile account. The area and Qharacter of such man's holding 
was ascerlaiued through the hcodmnu, and the aasessmont waa 
fixed by the Collector. When (In; settlement ,wns over, each 
cultivator waa given a paper, jriiHa, stating the rale of assessment 
and the sum he had to pay. When he made any payment, a 
rooi-ipt wa* pasftifd.* 

Inquiry into the land revenue settlement of the district showed 
that thongh they had substituted a lump tMaeaam enl. munddbandi,* 
for tho Mawlmia acre-rata, t'inkha, tite Mwat^MU had no rvcords. 




■ C*pt Urigs*. Mh OctnlM IB10 : Khinaaih OoUNtoi^Filel»iaM.l,1SIft-lMii 
Dtttcv aotti Uccr. 1S3I.MS. RctMUooa 157 ttSSI-ISnu Ditto (1831-13), Ort ladm 
Fkpcn.tV. 701-108. UduI IMi, t]|« CoHeoiDrnrhuMnMaMtoaiod loan^bwd* to* 
Ike vitUgc KfTiiit* fnititt, bulkami; toU .iiiJ Mil wktuluiivn, Dwl mMrt, wlMrcT*^ 
(•qiiitwi. noMTiliiig l« s ^iii>hu(l«d «nlu liiwl In 1S3T i'y *h« Annatant CollMtor 
Ca(>t. K<Klg«)i. lu ISi7. Mr. Voiint; III* L'<>ll«-:(<>r <lcail>l«i1 Hm la|plily <J ttiCM 
•liciulioo* »nA tiio tirnctko wu gir«n u|>. Hoib. (iov, lUv. B«c. 17 <<( 1893, 

> i:»i.t. Bni:K<i. M(k Doer. 18ZI : HA. $tl. lr.7. l$:i-tSS9. 

■ Almidt tliii onlf nhtittlin tihit vi«nt iio4 aUn <rfn<ani mm HtlM in BAgtia. 
C«pt KriKi : tlMl Iii'lia Puiwra. IV. (KU. In CapL Krin>' o|)inko> Kliltv. eW) the 
orertkrov of M |>rvi|>«i-ty in th» •oil i>»l plko* uiidvr HnEunrnMan iKiTtniBiBat. 

• Cuit. Btiju*: I'^t lii^tiA I>*pm. IV. GUO. 

> i;ai.t. UriggK 9Ui Ocl. 1819 : Kliun.loili CoUtclor^ PUo (SUtlitkiil ISIS-ISM [ 
Ditto, aoili Txccmhcr lt.-SI : US. Set. tA?, 182l-t»fll) Ditto 1823: Ea*t India 
Piwrn. IV. 6U4-l»6^7Al. 

''Ttift »<><l« n( anawtn^in tb« tniBp wiwleploti ol lud at • fix*i1 luin, witlioal 
aa« rtoATrl of th* extant, la mora obmaiaaia Kbindsah tlian ia otbar pravtnow.' 
Mr. Cba^in, aoih AuflOit 1S32 (Rd. 18771,23, 29. 


[Bombay < 








aftil wpnl entirely by the old MuiuUniAn (Ktpcirs.' The old MiihiI 
jsajK-rft ftiaro very hard to get. ThedinCrtct i-ffici-rs llm<ti' uv 
obstacle in tbo wny of coflocting iiifomiatioii. I'liey not 
witlihcM tlicir own njconla, bul urjfi'tl llio villiigo oQlcvra 
ooDoeol tlicira. So complete papers showing the area nnd atate 
the land vrero forthc-otning. Hiicb aa nere produced n-erv found 
mcasHrvuivnt to be fulw, aud it wa» ixinfoi'scfl lliiK for vi-wr" 
Iiu)d.n bitd iii-itlier boeo measured nor assessed.' Tkeru w.i 
land menauromcnt imd no mcognisotl etnntlanl of a- 
Two villugCH close to iMiob other, and nppitrAiiily of the ttitnic 
were assessed differenUv.* Homo rilln^e, ibe pi-oitei-ly of u 
•of influence or of n friend of tho f»nn«r, cnjoyod a low rxin tal, 
had b^u niQch ouHched by the iuflux of people from 
iwigbboaring over-asseesed landB.* 

Though tncasun-inents wi^rv fiitiliy unci rates iinovoa, Uipy poi 
not bo ill iiiiio put right. It was not jxtsiHiblo Miiddnnly to iutrodi 
a new standard of meaHuremoiit. Tho old ciiatomsry liiiika, t 
it varied iu dilTervnt Hub-<)ivi:<ion!< iiiid wius by no means uniform 
all the villages of one sub-division, waa aoc«pl«iI, and tho wi 
caltirated land moaaiiPBd. No now rates of asscsHmeut could 
framc<d, so in each holding, afti^r a (X>mpari«on of the aruu 
lillaj^! and the kind of crop, the rental was Gxe<\ on tbe uve 
payments of the ton previous years. This rental iiirliided 
pnymcnlo thitt (Muld be diitcovered, aud frmn it tho nllowaQooa 
to tho district and village officers wore taken. The only 
demand waa a ce«9 formrriy lovivd to pay the watchmen, hnrdt 
of tho village thrashing tloors.^ Aa the exactiomi hml bitterly 
steadily increasing, the rentnl founded on a ten years' nvemg« wu 
in must cases Utta than tho pr«ri<>n«yo.»r'6 demand. At tht' 8a.iBe 
time, the piipiivnbt for cnnciealed tillage broiighl to lig'ht by the fresfc 
measaremeitts, and the lowering of village charges, left to the cnidil 
of Government a revenue L'y2,m (Its. 5,27,260) iu exoes.i of t 
piX!viou.-« yew's est i mates.* 

In 1821, after three years' experience, a standard of measiireine 
and atanilard rates of asseupient weru ititrodnced. The Ktandard 
measure, a rod of nine leot,' took tlie phico of tliu vari-iblo 
customary hig^a^ Inrjuiry into the nssessment showed that there 
were threo eliw»e.H of rates, on dry land jimi/at, on well-wi»torod 
Jond mofiutkat, and on canal-watered laud jHilatlhal. Tho ratea on 



' Tli« micidDt ivoonls of the Uodid gi^eroin«iit, niodiiudit wcro beld tti« 

kutheellti lliAl (rjald liu pnidiicnt. Thi><r vtre dtlicr in the liiuiila of mb-dtvUoinal 
officcraor witli tltf uliii'dliftrift anvniiilKiA.ittr lamm-io, in iiiviJB I Captain RrtB 
aotii Dec. I»l : M.S. HkI. Ial,\»2l-I829t. AU tnoa of oorrmttiKMBnU fori 
ImC iWDitly-flvu r«an ««rv tu>t |l79>)-IS'.'0'l,iuid the actnal BUtn of thv Uad 
•ometimci uiikcuiwu avcD to tli* cullivatvnt. I)«ui. Gov. Rrr. Koc. SO vt 1822: IS 

* CtapL BnuB, aoth Dec. 1831 : *|S, SoU 157. lS21-18a». 
■Bom. ( la'i'l.ya. 
*Hr. Bliiluiwt<me'iiIt«^K, INni(K.L 1H72|,S6. 

* Capt. BriKgi, SOtti IVo. ItCI. Ms. SaU IG7, 1831 -1839 i EmI India Papon, 
703 : Capt. tlodgDa, SMh Harch 1S31P : Ekun. Ouv. K«v. iUv. 3G3 of 1833. 

' Capt. BKflg>. .tut Oct liR2U ; Bom. Oov. Kirv. K«c. fiO of 163% 13»-12e : 
India PaiwrClV. 341. 
' Mr. Gibcni«'« EUport, 1Mb Nov. l828:C>pl Brifga, SaM India PaiWn. IV. < 



Iry nnd woll-wntcred land dcnondMl aol(>ly on tlio qnitlity ai\t1 
kXtentof llie laud; Lho ratON nil tJiooliimiuil-n-Hterfic) land dependitd 
Ntrtly on th« Innd and partly on the kind of cropa grown. In dry land 
here woi-o 122, mid in wwU-wnlorod laod thvr« vrvrat KJxty-pight 
rarieties of aBfte^smeut. Iln-sfl vai-ictios deTOodod almoftt eutin^ly «n 
iiffcront nays of mcraanring the Innd. In tW chnniiol-wittci-i'd lands 
th© hirjka ratoa v>rH>d from .>*. io £7 (Rs. 2J-Rs. 70) iwijonling 
b> the crops (fr«wu. The result of these extreme variations was 
tliat thn Government offii?«rs tried to forco tho landholders to 
gmv the ricboKt, while tbu hindholdunt, an far m» ttury eould, 
fTow the poorest ci-opa only. Until a reTenne survey was introduced, 
no pcrnmm-nt setllcmont of rates was poKsihlt. Tho chiuigo) mndo^ 
(18IC-1821) by CiiplniD Brlffgs wure, by the help of an nuifonn 
Btandard of moa^^urenieut, to reduce tho varietios of dry land rates 
bo olfviin and of nt' II- watered rates t-o d§^ht, In the nuso of chimncl- 
waterud lniid.-s I'rop ntU'-<> wt^n.^ iiljoli»liix], tmd cbe rate ohnrgix! on iiU 
land nnder eacli ohannel was made mtiforro.' In liiiO, to fix Uia 
Itandunl acre rates on dry and wut^vrvd land, CaplAiu Bribes 
collected cimfidouliikl produce lixlit frftm differont parts of tho 
district, and from them struck an average of tho bestv middle, and 
worHt cropN, iiiid from these tbn'o cla*»-iivfr>)rt"' fixvil <»iio t^noral 
average.* Tho details wore, iu dry landu, on the best from Ks. 2 to 
Bs. 3j, on the middle from Ite. 1 to Its. 2, on tj)e worst from anaaa 4 
to Ro. I, and on (ioS.OliO hiijkiis, an uvcrafie of H». 1-9-fi ; in well- 
mttered lauds, on llm host from R». Ij to Us. 7, UR tho middle from 
Ra. 3 to Ha. 5, on tho worst from Re, 1 to Us. 3, and on 37,000 hVjUdt, 
EUiaTorugo of Rs. 3-I-; in clinnnBl>wiitf>rod land, on the best from 
lis. 21 lo Bs. 70, on the middbi frunVRH. 6 to K.i. 21, on tb« wurvl 
from Re. 1 to lis. 8. and on It bightx*. an average of lis. 1-13'G.* 

When tho rates were fixed, thii d^k-ctiir publicly, bofore such of 
the villatfeni a» choHO to bo |fre»<>nt, settled with the puiil what 
Bach cnltirator was^o pay.. The ac«o»niant jifare oaeh man a note 
of tbo anionnt dnc,\nd tho wttlemrml was "[wnly reoil aloud at 
the viltag^olllce.* If Iho ponph- eiimplaiiied of lods of crops from 
drought or blight, the m;im!aidiir or a confidential clerk went to 
tli0 #pot, and exominod tho slato of tjlingi;.* \V1itm tho demand 
from each oultivutur wiu* sotlted, a register was drawn up 
ahowin^, for each tield ia each riUage, its number moaeuremeDt, 


TU ItritiMb. 


< Bom. 0«v. Kvi-. Reo. 60ol 1832, IM. I36-1S3. • 

*C»pt. !• "mi. OoT. lie*. Koo, 50 «r 1922, 130. 0! the pr«tu<». cort. »nd 

tiTodt ol'i :-y, u-rll-nUTed, >nd diiWntl'WiiUrcil lubli. f'ai'tniii RrwtW 

lBtttb«fi.: "matm. tn itry Inail * cultivate villi «it(ht bulliwkji Riobriiig 

100 hi^L^i i,l ill, Ud'I unJcT tilUi^i aod raiw ■ itiMM iitihIuoc wottli K*. G7S. On tliii 
tbo coat of (i11.t«:v wmilil bo Ra. 3&i, KUr niiiLtl Itn. 9Xi, nml tiui tiuit^ia i)l profit 
Ha. -JX Iu wcll-valurwi Unit, oae ai«a nitfa tnttiit bullocltR «*ii till 13 U/AiLi, m<1 
r«W ■ f[rtMM iiraJuo) wurth Rb. S38. On this Uio (Xitt el HOtge n<.iiM l>iRj(.40S, 
Uio Tcnul Ka. T3, aul the nnl {iroAt K& 48. In <th*Bn«l-w>Uivil Uiid *^lil ^uIt4c3t< 
can tJlt 2fi tri}'^*. viiil<.Ii(>)C * groB pnniQcv of IU. Il'i4. On tlitt tlM omt «t tUb«« 
wiwM bfi EU 577, tfann'nial lit. 3M,uuJ tb« naivinof prollt Km. A3. Capteta Brigga, 
BaU InituL l>ajwrv, IV. 691-Gti3. 

> Caut. Bninn. Eiul la-la Paptm, IV. GOS-CIM ; Bom. €ov. fUr. B«e. 71 of IS23. 

•<.'«pt. Brigga,!MiOo(.l8IfliKhiiidwliC(>ll«ctor'aFii«l»(9tattetic«), )818-1«U. 

* Oipt. Brigg*, SOtli Dm. ISSl : MS. 60. 197, 1831 .l8Sil. 

f Bombay O&utlMT, 



jterVin. oJitfJi otsoit, andrste ofasseasmput.' Utnliir ihe revemio 
■~~. BTstom- thp contrucUn- commfnilif pniil t-hu rental in ailvaoae. 

iuirtration. allowance beiog giren for iniprest, Wban thv crops riiM-ot-il, J 
_yj^^ were gathered into the tbmshiog-Roor, and u waieliuuku, htttdt 
* was set oTcr tbcm. MtTcHnnlii and bankera than became Bnr 

ftiienad tb»t tbftctilttvatora would pay tbeirrenU.aud tbv gniin wiw " — ' 

UtJ, to be taken away and sold. Rent was gcnittally due be' 

crops wvru e'>ld, and in cun.siM|ueiiCQ tha cnkivatora were t^ 
sol] their grain and somelin]e« to tnortjfd);^- tbi-ir CTopx at 
prices, andsofforcd iinposili'>n»of iii! miris.* Under t bo ue" 
the watcbnuMi were a^liahed, aiid tbe cuUiratorH allowed 
*roHli»e tbe vaino of tbcir crops boforo thu n^nl wiut ckUm 
Tho rent was lunjilly takon in money. When reut in kinil" 
oonimut<.-d for a luuuev payment, theamotint vm» H-tnally fixed at 1 
valne of the produce in the prowding year. But the syntvm vann 
much in dilTurcnt |»ri« o( tlio district.* An affreonient was 
from tbe headman on Iwbalf of the rilbge to make good all ca^ 
defalcatioDfl on account of deaths, desertions, or faittirc?.* 
moDOywas colWti^^l by tbo hnKlmnn orni'Ociuutant direct '. 
cultiTatoTs, and paid by him to the stipendiary officer, shti-- 
mdmlalddr,and from tnem it catufl direct into the tfeatnxTj,* 

In the early years of Britiih riilo an attempt wati made- to 
tho old ityntitm of luaM-hoUI eullivatton. L'udor tbia syntf 
according to tbe posiiion aodcbRmcterof the binds, terms were 
and the property leased to a Tilla^^ headman or common culliratn 
During the Si-M year the land tviin ntut-free, during th« second 
pudafoartb, during the third a half, and so on tilt in tha " 
year it was liable (or tho fall amount'. This 8yHl«u of loasoa did i 
work. On thg ono hand, without any special inducetucut of i 
tind, tbe maiui«naDce of order fostered the spread of til Inge, and i 
tho other tbe people now enjoyed fixity of tcnim> witlnmt a Ic 
and the memory of forinvrabuaof made them uanilling to uudcrta 
tbe responsibility of a leaaoi.' 

Among ihc i>arlie.-<i mottsnrcs to ensure a bettor knowledge 
tbe country was a survey. The work wiw begun in ltil8 and w« 

simply. t< 
of a£ U 


continued till February 1827' At first it was 
but it aftenvard» included the clftsxiiication 
garden, and waste* 

• With the settlement of the land revenue, tho no 
•. impurfjint question of revcnno alivnatious was taken up. 'j'^ 

) C^pt. Brigsi. m>th Doc- 1821 : M..S. SoL IST. ISSl-tSSA 
*OuA. BriwK 1H::|.23. Rom Imlin Papon, IV. (!!». 
.* Bwt ladu PaMn, IV. em. 
«0*pe. Bfiggi, aut Iu.lia Pftp*r», IV. 697. 

• Capl. Mggt. Oth Oct. 1819 ; Kliindfuth CoUcctnrV Ti\» 1M, 1918- 1844. 
■ Ctpt- BngX^ Kut Iniiin Paj»>ni. IV. tyj~. 'Thn iiyitt«iD of Immo wu Mtt eif 

aptill 11B7.' Mr, W. lUmwy f..S. ' 

' (hivimunciit Letter to Mr. Praul* th« Siirwy Officer, 0th F«bruwT laST. 

• Mr. Kli>hia>ioiu> to tho Collsctor, 6Ui DttOenibw 1S18 i KUadoih Cu 
Survey File 435, I$I8-IS42. 

• Ocdtoutor'a Loiter to the ConnnlMioDw, 9th Jam) KKH : Kliinitcati Co 
Survey Ifilt 430, t8)8-iS42. 



ond^T (ho MnrnDui ffoveniiiti^'ut, bad increased cii»ni)<iU!<ly, aitd 4d 
tbe Iat<;r and more uiBtiirbed yeare, force aud fraud had joinc>d to 
Swell lh(> roll of unaiithon»«di fdiouaiionM. LUtn of all vluiiiiH to 
exoiri[>tii>ii vifrif pM^jiiintd. Em'A* cmi'. wax HifUt<l, nod if Uw 
authority was found valid and tbo fjrant was ia accordance with che 
rocofirTiiHed nilcH of tho Pushnra'H govurDnivDt^ it was conlintiod. 
Whou ao valid title wiw found, th« grant wait itlrucic off the roll!i> 

ThoOffh it was abolifihed as rtigards the land, the ferniiug aystcui 

Traa maintained in other bi-anchox of revenue. The cuatums were 

' ft*rnii?d, and ihrn;' vriw at first much coniiH^tition with a ronrlct-d 

Ljucrcosii of revenue. Bui in 1821 the ^met^ loat heavily and the 

eltom.4 were sTwatly reduced.* The chief item of miscellaneoiw* 

ifenne was the license tax, mohtarja. This cess was either levied 

Froiti the iudiviiiim) or a lump sum was recovcrt^d from the bead of 

body of craftsmen, and he waa left to distribnte the amounts as he 

shosu. Theineideneeuf tlie tas waa mofit aneqnal. Insoin^! towns 

^t wail opj>re«five, in olhers it wait little mon; tmiii iirnntnnl. Other 

uscellaneons taxes, yielding a total revenue of ii'uOH (lis. 2(W0), 

•vre in ltt20, on Captain Bnggs' rocominenilation, aboliahod.* 

The nrttult of these cbana^a was on the whole aatisfaettiry. Tho 
ivstem of aettlinf,' with inuividual cultivators was at first onpoi*ed. 
iiiit it became poputiir «" suon as the Wlliijrers understood ihiit it freed 
thcin from the dtHtrict nflicerii' denioiiilfl.* fii 1818, though rholcm 
iwept off thousands and severely crippled the whole body of tho 
loople, the season was on the whole faronrable. Grain prices mled 
ligh, nml of fllD.Wil (Ks. II,!K>,8I0), the iimonnt fur colloction^ 
lU but XiiSti {R«, 38r>0) were realiaeJ. The people were very poor, 
loused in hovels, and scantily clothed. Ktill the security of person 
knd priipcrty, together with blieral lilhii^i atlviin^M, and Ichmm 
fiant«-d on most easy terms, made ilieni industrious. The powers of 
be labouring classes were strained to their utmo«t. Numbers of 
iay lalionreni wore netliug up lui landholder.-*, aud except with the 
freatest ditGcuIty, neither cattle nor men conid be hired.' Next 
roar (1819-20), though the district again enffered severely from 
;holen», the tillage area rose by 98,539 l'lt^h'i», bjkI the collvvtionif, 
mth only isn <lt=.. fiftIO) i.f remissions, by £14,715 (Rs. 1,47,150). 
['rices again ruteTl high, and in spite of a considerable rise in the 
■ates, tho rovcuoc was rcalirted withonl pres-Min-, iw the jx-oph' 
urere relieviMl (rfHU vexatiouc iniiuitiition and could sell their graiu* 
o llie beat advantage and pay their rents without mortgaging* 
heir Crops to asurious monvylimdurs." lu 1820 a time of very 

■ Mr. W. Ruu«y, CA 

' i:a|>t. Briaipi. VMi Hmt. IHS3 : Bom. Oar. Rev. Bee '3 □( IE2S, 101 ■ 102. Tiie 

nne leM^tiRi £T1IM IIU.T4.U40) in IlitT to £17.061 (Ri. I.TO.SIO] in 1820 (Rev. 

. 90 of 1832, l&D). At dnt Uia Uixl cuntomi nta mvo oxtremulf baniuuHitiw. 

iChoplawul thciruMof IfaodwtrictUicn; wcrcsix tfllli, whtcb, oii niMbultocfc- 

to poundii ('2 nutiw) «t iiiili|ri>. Icviirt I'l Hi. M. (Rm. I4-II-4)i Minute, May 

1 <jo%-cnii»cnt LettoT. I2tli ^Uv \fri». iu Ooiu. Got. Rcr. Itcc. iSi a( 18». 

Gov. Rov. Roe. SO of IS2-i. lb ISO. 
.. BrisH, aOth Dcctunbo 1S2I, MS. SoU 1S7. IS21-1SS9: Hr. EtpyiwtuMl* 

ct«b«rlSl!i(E.l. 1872). 28. 
I^Bmu. Oor. Rav. Rue JMlol ltK!2, lU-IM. 

n 41 1— 3a 

■Ditto Mot 1822; 130-ISl. 



The Britinli. 



[bomba; OassttMr, 



Chftpter Tin 


The BritiBh. 

1818- 18M8. 

great presauro set in. The rains failed, and large remiBsionB, £9535 
(Rs. 95,1}50), hud to he pi-smted. At the same time, as the tilli^ 
area had ineroased hy 84,800 hlghdit, in spite of the failure of crops, 
the price of grnin gradually fell. The revenue was recovered, bat 
some of the later iiiMtalmontswere paid slowly and grudgingly.' Next 
year (1821) matters grew worse. Thtf early crops aoffbred from 
want of rain and the late cropn were di-stroyed DJ^- hli^tit," andlfl 
the time, in spite of a slight fall of lti,52U hvjhna in the tillage amC 
from the niovcmcntH to other distriftn of many of the couBuming 
military classes, grain kept falling.- Pritcs were now fi-om fifteen 
to twenty jwr ct-nt loifcr than they had been for thirty years. A 
t reduction of rents wiia urgently rc!f[uirt'd.^ Many of the new land- 
holders, with<uit capital to support them, were ruined, and thougli 
£1-2,975 (Us. 1,29,75U) were remitted, Itmd yielding a revcnae o1 
£21,934 (lis. 2,19,31.0) was thrown up.* To meet the distress 
Govornment ordered the Collector to abandun the regular assesB' 
ment and make such change in the (iiovcruiuent demand as scemM 
to him necessary.' The nest season (1822-2-J) was again trying 
The early crops were partly ."poiliJ Ijy too much rain, and the colt 
weather luirvcst was almost entirely destroyed by blights anc 
thunderstorms.* In sjjite of a fui'tber fall of 100,776 bighdn iB thi 
tillage area, grain still continued cheap, and Captain Briggs edvi8e« 
a further rent reduction of twenty-five per cent,' ITie diatric 
was still covered with almost endless forests, ' a den of tigera ani 
wild animals'.* At the same time, compared with 1818, largi 
numbers of settlers had come from BerSr, Sindia's territary 
and GiijarAt. 284,870 biti/Ubf had been redeemed for tillage 
155 villages re-peopled, and some of the lands of 105 other 
reclaimed." Tlio following year (1823-21) began with an iQcreap 
of 24,2(14 highttH in the tiltape area. The season was unfavourahlE 
But a rise in (irices to their old ( 1 819) level helped the husbandmei 
and though £4318 (Rs. 43,180) were remitted, tlie net collection 
rose by £10,004 (Its. 1,00,040). In 1821-25 the tillage ara 
incresisod by 1 (i,070 In'^h'is. It was a season of almost ntt«r £ailiir 
of crojis. £04,843 (Hs. 6,48,430) or nearly half of the revena 
was remitted, leaving a net collection nfoidy £09,044 (Es. 6,90,440] 
the smallest revenue on rociird. Next year (1825-20), heliied by thea 

> Capt. Brig;,ii. Sfith September 1822: ti.,m. Uov. llev. Reo, 72 of 1S23, 99. 
' Capt. BriyL'a, 2jtli Septtinber 1S?2: Hcmi. Guv. Kev. Eec. 72 of 1823, 99. 
•Cnpt. Hri-UB, 2.)Ui SopletiibtT 1822; Bern. Gov. Itav. Roc 72 of 1823, ltX}-10I. 

• (' Gov. Ilov. Ilea. 72iif lS2;t, W.IU. 

■ L'apt, Briggs, Bf.iD. Gov. lU:v. lice. 72 of 1823, 08. ResidcB from the miafortmi 
Dotvil 111 tlio tt-:ct, KhHiiileah siiifcruil from thu attacks uf HUils imil the nvagaat 
tigers. (Mr. L'linplin, 2()th Auguat \&i-2, [htrx 'il). Thuit: was also a great fiood t 
Soptenibtr wlicii GTi villngus were eiitiroiy nml .W were ^rtly swojit aw*y with ■ 
estimateil Ioab of £-^\IKH}. L'npl. Itriggx, 0th Decuuilwr 1H22 and ISUi Fabcmac 
1823 : ll"'in. Gov. Ituv. lice. 72 of 182.1. 106. 

• IVini. Gov. Rev. Kec. 72 of 182,1. lOB. ' Ditto ditto, 105-106. 

■ Mr. Cliaplin, 20th August 1S22 ; l-:aat Imlia Pajiers, IV. 515. So alu Cft 
BHifSS (Slat Uotobtir 18^) writes ; ' A vaatt^itunt of jungle remains in tho luu 
of Kndnclcsb. nearly i>nt-halCof tliu rilliLgea uf tlic interior are deacrtALl uid- glTC 
to wild beasts. ' Bom. Gov. Itcv. Rcc 50 of 1622, 157. • 

• Capt. Brigga, Efut India Papers, IV. 6»7 ; Mr. GhaiiUn, ditto 615. 





Tbo Britutk 

liberal remiaBJona and by Id^ gram prices, the tillagi) iux>« Otaptirr T 

d by 1 13,801 biglidn. The soason wae a^D unfavourable, 
iUIJDO (fo. 1,07,9110) were rx^milK-^l. In 1820-27 the 
itinued bi^b jirodiioo prioea caosed a furtlitr spread of lOM bigh'i^ 
"ilnjfo. The -season w«B uiifavotiraljlo, and £20,5 13 (Ub. 2,05, 4.'W) 
Id U? mniilU-d. Tbo bigh priwm pi-uvvnUrd dt^lrvxH, and next 
(18tf7-'J)4) (hero wan a fuHber rise iu tillage uf 2t!,0'>2 hi-/fni$, 
m sptto ^ lar^ romiEsions, £12,845 ^tft. l,23,4oU), the 
«Tcuuf ruHv by £1 1,017 {lUf. 1,10,170). 

la 1828, tie Collector Mr. Oibeme' fumisbed (invenitnent 
rith the following detailed account of the revenue system then in 
irce. Pom'Vtfnurpiiq>i>»CHtbedii!tpict wnsdiutribul^ over fifttxm ' 
iab*dirisi(iiiH, liilukim, with, in I'acU, eight tu sixlveu petty diyi»iou», 
arafa or tappn*, of four to fifty villa^s. For revenue purposeR 
toch villiif^t hiid two chief officers, the headiuiin, pntil, aiiu tbo 
lO^uiitiuit, kulktirni. Kiii'h pclly division wax uiidKr a nht-khdar, 
knd each sub.dirision under a manilatdar. The village headman 
mcoiiruged tbo iniltivator to taku tip fnwh land, hi-lpcd bini with 
idvice, aiid stood aeourityfor bia paymonl of udvnnceo. AIkmiI Ihu 
le^iuuiQ? of Oclobur, with the petty di\'i»i»na1 ottic«r the sub- 
liviifiomd herfililiiry ofliour ail J ih" villap- afciitiiilaiit, the bcadtnan 
Helped in the yearly aurvoy of the viltage laud and cnMW, aiding and 
nporiD lending the measurement of the cnltivated lands. The 
■coouiilnnt otiiiuitcd the sum oxpectt-d to Iw rcaJii«;d from each 
andbolder, and forwardotl it. to tbo Hub-divinJonal oiliivi', tognUior 
itb a rough register of laud tbravm tUjb of exchangea and of increase 
d docroaNc in tillage with tho caus^^ssigned in each C4uc. From 
liesn esttiuateH, tlif dub-div.tiiioniil nflicitr fi)riiii.H] ii guuernl oatiuiale, 
ind forwarded it to tJio district head-nuarters. At the time of the 
renrly wirvoy tbo nocouulantnot cd tfie proceeding* of the Survey, 
ksd froin tho tuoasiin^uutnt-t nuide u iiJ-;/i'('?ni'j((iT/ showing, witb 
unmbers attached, the lields held by each cultivator, andast^cond 
)latum<.-»t, knlgha<ini Jar, of tlie nmotmt dtiu on each Iniflii 
iccionbog to the mt»s iu forco in lh4> former yeitr. Krom these 
ndividnal accxinta, be compiled a genera) village statement, 
}whvar<i, giving etwh cultivator's name and tbo size o£ his holding 
uid ^howiug any drcriMute or incr<HMie with it« cauMo- 

Tbo petty divisional officer, »/i<iA'A</(ir, with a charge nelding from 
tiiOOto £1500(K8, oOOO-Ra. I5,(H)y), moved from village to village, • 
overlooking the village oHiwrs iknd stirring up the beadmen. A« a • 
check on the village otHrerM, he kept an acoonni of receiptor, test*-d tbo 
entries by comparing tbom with cultivators' papers, and fnrwarih-d 
A monthly atatemvut to the «Hb-divi»ioiial offiour. The sub-di\i&ionid 
officer, mamJatti'ir, at the fiwiiig s<?ri.'U)mi, moved about the petty 
division!* under his charge encouraging I he people. At another jwrifid 
of the year ho wout nn cii-cuit lo distribute thu landholders' settlo- 
luent papers, kut pattds. In this settlement was entered thoitroa of 
oud huld, tbo bigha rate due, the village expenses, and the total 

ftopoM ul Itllb Kuvumlxir tKS. 

fBomlMy GuoHmt, 

284- ' 



f,ft»fVlil. tMim (0 bo paid. On H('1ivt>ring tlita deed, tho m&mlatditr eot 
j^^ miiiiilely mto the landiiDtder'a account, ctimpared bi.iHriiloiiiont witli 

the vilLii^' at-conn tan t'H etati^'incDl, and noccivin^ tho act:tiunl»ul'ii 
incinonindA of [lavnicntw, ctidorswi tho Hiatlvmont pajKT iriiK 
iht' Riim paid and didiv^red it. The m&tulMii&r uiiwlo nilvuDnu, 
lak'iri, in Ma; and June for tho osriy, and in Angnst and Septet 
ttss. forth*) hitv crops. Ho i^.^ut to tliv ht-nil-()unrti!rM ndi-tailed mc 

wciJtint of rc<?eipt« uid ditiburHementa ; forwarded weolcty ^'tnt 
of treaanry balances ; and on tho first of tho month Bent Ibo >atii 
to the hend-quartvr tn-ii.->iinr'. At tho cio«« of the ycnr a cleikji 
karkun, attended itt )ii'ii<l-i|uar1er8 with the whole of Uio iicconnl^i 
ffheii tiioy wore compared and balancdd. \\Tieu the aiik-dtviisioial 
iind villi»g(t uflk-ers' yearly niwistm'nu'ut of tillod landi; was iioarlf 
oompleltxl, the CVdleetor and bis aAalitants, travidlin^ throujffa 
the diatrict, with the ngaa] c«tablishtnent«, the petty divitionnl, tb« 
horvtiitary snb^divistonid, and the villsgo ofRu^ns, complotud for (mcIi 
Tillage it» yonriy fiitt tleuiont. I1te gonoral village stAlt^iiioiil , ^oghvdra, 
was examined liy the European officer and nececsary chnii}^-^ wvif 
made. From this wa« fornicdtho ri)l»^NettIcinentdced,Maniebii)ui| 
Hht'win^ tho ob»iif^r< from Lhs hi>r yiriu' h MOttloniriit luid the rcn<tnii3 
of the chaugi^. The rales of flBsessment were fixed on tJie ' 
old customary, wfintFii, rate«. An attempt luaile in Ib2l, by i. _ :_^ 
tho soil to fix thi! ram ncoordinsrJ)^ t^i'* intrinsic value <>( tne bwd, 
had, from tho want of asufficient^scientiScHystem, proved unKatiii- 
factory and been altandouod. Until a jiist and accurate anpvey (\)nlil 
be tnado, tbct .■ietlliMnciil oiriri-r.-* l'^onton(l^d ihcmselroB with oqoaliaiitg 
tfaeratoa whenever an inequality ina&sesHmeni caino to light. As tha 
rates weroadmiltedly fixed on uo (.'ortain basis, and a» nothiii}^ waa 
Icuuwii OS to the nmrf^iti uf pi-ofil thoy left to the landholder, ibe 
f^iiiit, of ivnu)(:<i<>nn •Kum n part of the HViitoiii. ^\'1ll.■n crops failed 
either partially or wholly, the aub-dirisional and district otRcent madCj 
carefulinquiries as to the extent of the loss and fixed correspondhig 
n-Tuiiuiiiiis. Wlien IIm- croiw were cut and the ^r^in uroaghf 
into the villnf^ stack-yard, it had t^o be watched tmtil security wat 
ifiven for tho paymout of the Goveniuiewt dues. The timoc pn-HcribeJ 
for the cultivHtor's [uiymi?nt« were from OcloWr to Juiiuiiry for th^ 
oarly, and fmia Jimimry to April for the late crops.' The iK^dinat 
helped in roalisinR the rL'reimo and furnii«hvd tho aulln'rilii-i^ wjtli 
iho MHtiu-;t of dofHolr<-i:ei. The aceoiiutant kept a record, tahrit, q| 
ach laiiaholder'd payments, and at the close of the year fanti:the<i 
>teinent of actual wK-eipts. 

Abixi^lhe &nu)e time (1829?), Colonel Sykea, from an inquiry inn 
the Kb&ndofih returns, showed that it wns the most heavdy taxod 
of the nfciiin district*. Thisi waa pet'hi4]i« ptirfty due to tho spccialU 
large are» of ^rdeii land. But eveo without the garden land, if 
ecemed that the higha rate avomgod from 2*. to 18«. 3d. (tt«. li 

m ■ ^ _^_^^^^_ 


> lu pmcticc Ilia fvItB mliOBt iniMliD«Dli vere not Inllnweit Uy to I8A2 lliaii 
iiTiit* WFT* Dftyi ra«i>T«n>it tnint tho tioom luKlholdan in oar lunp miiii Mom ihah 
<;t«i^ UT(« <Ill|K«^ e(. boiii. tiny. Rev. Kcc.-JUof ItUt, lart II. 3239-3241. * 

*^ac ti 





9 tut. 2) or from fifty to one liimdred per cent higher tium Ao Chaptar 


I rate in other districtis.* 

Tho district which Tor isome MMOiut had huITcixkI from failnre of 
ei'<^)]K<, hiitl lion- five years (1828-1832) of most abuwhiut harre«t«. 
But th^rp iv'iis ucither a lt>v»] Dor u» unlinido domaDd for the graiu, 
and ihf innrkols wun! speedily jfluttod, Indian millt-t, j'rdri, felling 
to lITi )«iund.i in l^^^andlU iu 182U. This fall nmlo thv moucy 
iit»<)!»iueat ruinously hvavy and cuused the most widespread 
distr(.'&<j. The asttoNMuviitH rvpraiwntcd w larj^ a share of the crops 
tlmt thvir pnytnvnt and the expeuseii of tmrneduiu* «ul>)iii>tvDco, 
nearly, if not quite, absorbed . tbo cultiv^r'a produce, l(^aviag; 
him no mar^D for iniprorvinont.* Many hod to give up ngnculture 
and »(vk othiT iiiniiiri of earning a living.' Bctweim 1827-28 
and Ii<2'J-;iO, the tilta^ aiva fell by 67,7(it) liujha*. Only by a 
gunentl lowerinf^ of assoMsiiifnt <.'i)uld prosperity be maintained. 
Goroniintnt wure wilislied* that tho genvrul statu of partu of 
Kh^indiMh waa worse tban the othor Deccan districts. To amend 
oiattera, one wiy impurtaut object wa» (o unvonmgo irrigation and 
gardon tilliigo, and viilb tbis objajri^Tery great nxbictions in iiw 
ralfH on well-n-ntored land wer^^jnactiuned, and the offer of 
advances for ijuilding wolU oncoiimgod. lU-dnctions wore also 
ordcnvl in dry crop lands whtterer imjuirv shevred i^xceitsivo riit^w. 
Kmm live to ten yeora' toaserOn favouraf)lp terms, both of small 
holdings and of rillagoo, won- granlud, and rcmi^rtions amounting to 
£20,8 W (lU. 2,98,-l«0} fMnctioned.* Those rttduclioui* and spocinl 
moasuroa did niucb to relieve the distreaa. Next year (1830-31) 
the tillage area roso by 38,0G3 fiigltag, and remissions fell bo £7dt41 
(B«. "«,8m). Mr. Ihiniop (November 1831) found tlio p<XH)lo 
in MiMi-b hotter circnimrtanceB, comfortable, and ^jnteuted." Tho 
W^ area of wa-'l^t garo ample nn>m for gnucing catlto, and moat 
of IIk« onltivatoni kept cows enough to increase- tht-ir tiUH-k juid 
oocaaionally bad some animals t'> Hrfl. Their buffalo milk, besides 
supporting the fiimilv, enablwithem lo make conaidi-niblo quantitius 
of c'larifiod bnttvr. fbe sales yielded good profits. On the whole, 
Mr. Donlop thoiif^bl tlm puoplu of Kbimdosh much better off than 
most othvrM.' Bui again there came a frv^h full of prio'i*. Indian 
millet, J niri, going aa low as 144 pounds, with a shrinking of 20,033 
bightiit in the tillage area and n rtMo of £3608 (Rs. 30,0^0) in 
rvnits^ioni;. Iliiit was followt^d by a year (1832-33) of alnioitt tutnl 
failure of crona in which ihe tillago arua wae fortner reducgd hf 
■W,358 biifM«. Very liberal remiasiona, £34,298 (H«. 3,42^80) 
were grant4.<d, and tbe rise in Indian millet prices t»4lbity-80Ten 


TEiu Hril. 

Col. 8yk«« in Lith»i:nii>liT<I riprn, 

iav ISW. ou KLand 

Guv. Brv. lUv. -262 "I \fl29. 

•Mitiiite dauil May 


IS21I, ou KLatidnili MwnrMnt JU|>1 Biiveinie Rt^rta.'Bou, 
•Cnpt. Hu>lx<». 3r<«)> UmHi IK9!)t R««. Otni. Rov. Rec. MS«J 180. 




' I82P. 

Mr. UaiOofK, :; 

*> SftU Not. 1831, Uuok [jot. iUv, Uva WO ur tSao, 14. 

M^HaSt >3 1i 

idombMj SuftUtr, 




piAiidii helped tbe iiieople to tide over their distreas witboot any loM ' 
i>f muurros. 

For mtvi-iiiI yvnTs (IS33-18S7) {iricefl oontinaml ttigli I'.i 

wo* a Hprtmil in llii> tillage area from 8S!S,7&7 {itghii* iu i : i" 

l,20l,I&7 ('Ujliiii in I837-38, and a com^spnndiDg rise in ' 
collwlions !rom £121,463 luflSl.-i-i? (Ka.ljfcl 1,030 -R*. 13,1 i... ■,. 
Tb<> lt«>v. Mr. AIil<-Ui,'Il, who passed throng Khaixk-ili iu Janiuuy 
IS37, rioricod that tliou^h many villaj^ wen.' pnrtU- or ' '.^ 

dL<sorlud mill Inr^n Inds of land lay UQltlluiI iin<! <«- i-.h 

brushwooi], Giivtmmcal was (loinjj; much ti^ npeu welLi tiu<l n\tuf 
piinilti and dnms, arfd tke people, tliuiieh wry pwr, were obligiog 
k(l itiilush-iuus, N»whi<ro wcrru ihu blr-oningii of Hngltsli ruin to 
vviih'iil.aiiiltiowheivlutil he seen those blrasing^so much apnntotatod. 
lutho Konkanand Doccau were constant mnrmurings ; in Kh^ndaah 
lit' lii'iinl not a singlu oxpirsiiittn of discontunl, bat manj of 

In 1838-39 canwanotherTearnfextreime scarcity, with a fall in Ute 
tillagD arm of 3!>,]27 hi^haa and in iho not oolluctiona of £4<v'j73 
(IU ■1,03, 7;10). Thorisoin pricva caused amnrkedincreaaein Iti:i{M1> 
of ria.On? hui'tai in tilla^i and of £62,311 (IU. G,28,1I<)) iu net 
mllpct ioDs. Vhis, frftm n sudden d^jpin pricos, was again followed by 
ahc'ovy fall. And iu IaH-42, in spite of ii rise of 33,3-if> '•■;/'>''*'< and 
£(i:ti):{ (Kn. (>:i,(i;:tO) of rerenno, Mr. Vihart the Reruuito 0<>uimis.'<iiiiM» 
fi>uDd th^aast<8inn<>ntsuiiKiuiMfa<''ury, Hi' knew that on accouut of its' 
COMtlitiotn, II rvgiilar wiirvi-y couKl tii>l In* iiitrodaoocl. Still he thought 
■nuohnii^ht be done Ijy carefnl rensionaon the part of the Collector 
and hiH ofiHistants. The mdudatd^'s charges were too large,* 
and thuir itubordinntcA wore uudurpnid and badly supDrvi&cd, 
Hail it not bvAi fur ita iiatuml ricliitrMK and the large ar«t of 
waste loDd, the faulty management of RbilndeHh would liare foi-cmd 
itwlf into noya|. At the same time, especially in the south-west, 
the n^jnir oflHi*, and in chjuinol-waleriHl Iiiuds, tbe iutiN^dnction 
of a friV'tn instead of a crop rate luid done much good.' Id lSl;^t-M 
tlient was a drop iu the tillage area of 7<tJ(i bi^hdr, and iu t! 
collodions of leOo (Ra. 96fi0). The q^t season (I844-(5) was ver 
unfavonrable. The rains began well. Hat, except a few hen 
local showers in S^^'pteiiiber, (hey ceased with the first downpour!^ 
Thi- result was a tall in the tillage ar<m of 3<>,2o3 bighd*, and in the 
pet coUec'tiona of .€31,385 (Rs. 3,13,850}. 'Writing towards tbe 
vl(^ of 'he year (3rd October) Mr, Inverarity coiu])]iiined thai in 
the easte^ ^tricls, Siivdi*, Jiininer, Nasirabad. and Krnndol, the 
upper eltAwiiad greatly decayed. In Sikvda, River, and Krandul, 
were niany^ansions, once rich and handsome, now oither ruined oP 
only part iulinbili,Hi. The common ]H>oplo of J^mner, Ni».-<irubad, 
una> part of Krandol were fairly well off ; in Sdrda and the rest of 
Erandol they wore extremely poor burdened by a hopelot^ly heavy 
Jand tax. Though Uioy varied u> a certain extent, the pmiple weca 

■ Orfantal CbriatUn Spwitator, VIII. ll^I), )<m-l97, 

iJIt. Bolt, Collator, six Juuut7 IMS: Run. tiuv. Rov. lUc. IG vf 1&)7, 48.' 



r • m 








. i 



PK the wbolo 


and lazy, Asd r<onV 


little tranblo in 


Cbftpt«r V^l 

h of tlifir LTopH.' 

Thf next iwoxou (Ifi'i5-tfi)mw niniin intwt nn&roiiniblc. Tho 
early miufnll wa» Hufiioicut »U(1 tinidy, ami tho Mtvrin^ nf tJw early 
ta^ps was, atkout the middle of AiiRHst, completed under Eairprcwpiic'lB 
of a )f >xid n'liim . Rut >4Mu> th>- niin tx'iuod. The t-nrly harvest failed 
nu iiuiiaiiaI extt-nt, lUH the lata pnipft were ullerly di'stroyed by 
ling' SDB and wnni' of dew, Every eRort was made co spread 
lion. Frcv ri'Sf)rt was alldwod to wolls that had not beeii nsed 
r Gv<! yearsi; nil rhmyert on temporary daiiw nud vriiU'rcoiirws 
were remitted ; imd £1000 {Ita. ItS/JW) weroapent in repairiiijf iind 
d«(!|iet)ing wells. Thiwe mi-ajgnrwf went saccvssfnl and emiffratioii* 
prermiU'd. Iii tho early \mrt of tho iteattou grntu pricvii roiw 
bi^h, and in tlie hope of raising them atiil fnrtber, the dt-alem 
::Hed to open their storciJ. Amin(jemeiil« woro bein^ made for 
nging iti (iiirvmrnvnt ^liii, but lar^ private iin|K)rlntii>ii! bv 
Central India speculators did away with the need of auch a uioaaure. 
Cholera of an Bi'gr»vnt*'d tvp(? (i^-ntly tniirwised the distrt^a. To 
'-feliovf it JE'lS.iVfts (K«. tj,:i'i;,880) wero i-emitted, 'ITie r.;.iiiU wa» 
t the bulk of the people passed throngh this second fuilure of 
ps withont their n-^oiiiXJisi being' .■Hiriondly cripplod. The follow- 
ip year (18-16-47) showed a riwe in the tillage area of 100,783 
t./^^* and in the net collections of £,7G,'yil {Ba.'",Uy,3lO), by much 
-ho hiffhcMt fij^irvH that had evur biMsn known in Khiindcsh. The 
next si^u^on (i847-tS) witM itguiu, on (he wboK^, favourable- In 
certain places the early harvest was Blijjhtly damapcd. But 
fnvoun^d by abundant late rains, titu cold weather crops yielded 
riehly. Al. Itiirvest time, enpei^ially in tJie <«»>1 of the diwlriirt, Inrjro 
uumberH of lield rats attacked the grain. Uut they wten diMappean^l 
vilhont catieing serions hHm. Tho retnms ifhowed n ri«4> in 
tho lillngo urvKi of lift,'>7Q hifflu'^ and in oolleetiooa of £i2R2 
(Ks. Vi/tlH). In thia year much progress was ma^^^ ropairinff 
dams and watercoiirsfd, iind along th<* Boml)ay-Agm roail, 
ri-il'hou.fO.'* wore built and wella Hnnlc.' The nitxt fu^aiu^iu 
(l6'l^-49) was again less fovoumble. The latter rains failed and 
csnsed some damage to Ihif enrtv and much injury tu rhc late 
bnrvesl.i KvmigitionH niM! from £2'8;i> (Ita. 23,7!>Ci) in 18^17-1^ to 
£15,76S (Ka- 1,A7,6;W) in ISW-iW, and the net collections foil 
from £170,428 {Ub. 17,94,280) to £164,100 (Rb. lt>,4+,900). The^ 
next «caiwn (I84it>50) was a year of very heavy and couataiit rido- 
fall. Many hnUrtt-s Wct© thrown down and a targe area of stjtndlSg 
cry t>s wns desti»y«l. At the name time the ntult- of I h^AiArif-t was, 
on the wlmle, »ati* factory. The people were willing add iible to 
increase tillage, and would have done ao had not the incesiiam raiu 
hindered thom from (towing. In the »>iith-wej!t of tho dii^tri^,* 
except in tbe uuheolthy ttmcts near the l>^ng foreotd where they 

>Mr. G. tDverHnty.3nl(M<-UrlB44iBtai.O0T. B«v. Rn-- » "t IMO, UI-ISL 
'Mr. Elphiiistiw. Collator. Bur. B«i.S3«r 1861. S2-». (!:i. 6;.«9. i 

•Jt.-nt B8». Eoc IBot IS52,I89-1M. 
< t.'litlu0Kin, MAkzMD, BigUn, tail PinpaliMr. 

Land , 


Tli<> uniwh. 
/&(£- isss. 

fbomlaj BtKtt 

288 _■ 



ipUrVin. w^ro in till- Inwtst state of poverty, the people wpre lol«ntbl]' 
prospcriKicaad iliori? wero dotvvi^duo oat standi d its. The n-pMirinir 
of daniB oaA poBik nm) ihti niukiii^ \A vrirllx bn<i ^rrxwitly improved 
tboir cunditiou.' Aft^f this year of heavv rainfall oatno » oc-JUHin 
(1650-M) of drought. Bxccpt in July, thp Wtitr partof Aiigu'ttjand 
a few light and purtutl Kbowcnt in Octobor, rain entirely failed. 
When pro«|M!Ot« hegnu to look tbreatoniug, al^l^c^tul waXvr oosbh 
l>i;twr(H-n l)i« Ut May and :jl8t October were rehittcdr uid l&l<»r no, 
as tbo failure provi'il mortt mtvcns this t'oacoMtiou wuh oontiuned tiU 
April 18^1. In addiii<m ti> (bis special measure, ri'iniuiious t'O tbo 
Rinount of £iy,t'78 (Rj. J, Si', 760) were granted, 'nuwi' n.<tiiii»iiion« 
•varied from 20'8j p«r cent in SultiiiijHir to 0J>6 in Jimut-r, and 
amounted U* 7"87 per cent of the district land revi-niip. Except in 
Anialoer and Pimpalncr, hkrgur n-ini«Ki(inH were required in (he 
parts of tliv ilitdrict that cbietly depended on thoir late hnrveiit. In 
spito of the deameBa of food, which in October roae U> famine 
prices, and of epidemics of dnib-ro and htuuII-jiox which carri&d ti^\ 
bundittdx of p<'"))Io, th(«e mfa!mn.'9succecd«?d in Ht'ippingi-mit^racion, 
and left tho Htate of the people so little reduced that they wt^nt itlilo >< 
10 ]My eveiy rupct" of rtmlnl.* In ihc nt-xl year (1851-52) tbef 
rainfall ns agitin unfnvoarable. During tbe tintt tbrtm wvnk^ the 
early cro)M Mufl^red from want of tsin, and again, al>ont the middle 
of the »«>aaon, the rains ontirvly bvld off, and tbo weather growing 
loo Boon dry, pmTCntod the sowing of the full lu-t^a of laCv > - [ - 
Tho M«aon wa»i nIao unhealthy, cholera causing great m\ . 
RttmiKMouH wen' granted, \-arying from IS'OS per cent in Sulijuijnir 
to l>2't per cent in Jjimner, apd iinuninling to 4'88 per cent of the 
district land rownnc. In spile of the bad »onHun the rt-sults wero 
faiToomblo.* TUlage spread by 7'.),227 highds, and the net collections 
roso by £l.').!76{Rfl. 1,51,760). 

Tliisbrinjis ton clow? (be first period of Kb^ndeshlnndndminislni' 
tion. During tlie flntt fifteen years, in com«c)nenco of (hi^ giiwL fall 
in pixxliice prices, the rates provod ho burdcuHome thai they had 
to be grvstly reduced. The reault was that though V-lwcvn 1816 
and 1832 ibe tilbigo nrva had spread ftpm 60S,m2 liifhiit to 7GO.20I 
&ijAri*,tho revenue for colloclion fell from JEliy,081 (We. ll,lto,-'lo' 
to£I18,953 (Ra. ll,89,o3li) and the net coltectionarrom £11 
(Rb. Il,86,9(i0) to £84,360 (Rs. 8,43,600). From 1888, «.tJi 
^moderate rents and on the whole dearer gmtn, tho progitms of tlie 
^district wa*, *xc<'pt in the bad yeara of 1S38 and IS15, almost 
nnchocktil, the tillage an-a rising from S88,757 /*r^y«w iu I8:itU(-l 
to l,486,0;I5 in 185I-.52 and the net collections from £^1,M3 
(Rb. 12,14,030) to £!78,80-» (Rs. 17,88,040). 

I'he increase of population, aft«r tho firat influE of settlers during 
(be early years of »ettled Uovemment, had for some time been vei; 


■ Ur. HBTdook, 2^d Feb. ISSI, Rcr.Roc. ITof I3&2. IT?-178i Mr. Elphautoa, 
laOiFA. l«S;Dttt*«.«, 48-411. 
' Mr. ElpldMlaD, Stfa UutJi 18^2 : Bind. Gov. Roy. Rm. H <A ISM. ITS.ISI, : 

■Bm Gov. It«f. Rm. ISoilSH^put^ 1310-1321, IX!4. 




gradaal. Botween 1824 and 1 839 there wns nnlya rise from 332,370 
to 353,674 or an aremge yearly increase uf barely half a per cent. 
From ISSSprogreaabecnrae more rapid. In 1840 the total nad risen 
to 685,619, and in 1851 to 778,112. No complete detaila of the 
eorrespondiiig development of the agricultural stock and water 
nipply are available. Betnms show that in the five years 
endiDg 1851, housashad increased from 170,5(34 to 178,040, cattle 
from S87,2&8 to 926,281, ploughs from 67,072 to 68,506, carta 
from36,600 to42,787, wells from 27.412 to28,250, ponds from 103 
to 111, dams from 149 to 162, and watercourses from 159 to 220.' 

The following statement' shows the pric*i of ludian millet, the 
tillage area, the land revenue, the rcuiissions, the net collections, • 
and an far as it is available, the population during tlio thirty-four 
years ending 1851-52 : 

KhdndrA Land AdmlniilTrUiiM, lStS-lS5:i. 

Chapter Tl 


The Britisl 



\A PdubiJi 
Ih( Rupee. 












i « 












1 i.w.iai 








U.7rt •:»» 




4n, vn 



lin-H ... 




1^,1 Hi 




















1 i.N.isn 












ii.;a ine 








U1»JI _. ... 





a. li.Ti") 





13.47, (oa 




















IBIB-M .,. 

















la, 14,. 171 




I.% Ii-.,1I70 






1. VII ,0^2 










Vifi'. .IH'i 


























10^], ICO 








































In 18.52 the first stejM were taken to introduce the revenue survey 
into Kh^ndesh. One of the largest revenue diviHinns of the 
Presidency, Khdndesh iuclndud wi»te vnrieties of natural features, 
of climate, and of population. Thoiiph its material prosperity had 
greatly increased, it was on the whole very backward, with a sparse 
population and immense tracts of arable waste. The Deccan 
districts into which the sui'\'cy was first introduced were in many 
respects very different, and it was felt that Kb&ndcsh would recjnira 




• Bo&. Got. Ser. B«c. M of 1856, 214-21<i. 

' Bom. Gov. Eev. &ec. 23 ol 1851, 62. 

B >ll tff 




IV Brilbb. 

Cafl. WinffaU't 



itpecinl trMitmOTit. tinder these circiiin«h>n<:pit, the lato Sir 
then Captain, WinpriUt wiw (k'lwied (o visit KUAndt-sli and r^purl 
the iwsl niT.»ug*'meuts for introduciDfi tht- nivt^niio survey. Aff 
tour ihrongh tho duitnci, Qiiptaio Wiuitate aubmitled a 
(2{>rb Mitrcli ISbi) OS the etate of the dulrict and tho muHt Ruii 
plan of aorvey. 

Bxcppt Sirda and T^vnl in the north-east, and Xasirabad, Braa 
and Anialner further south, too whole district Huuuiod tu Ik- Inl 
reclaimod from a slate of nkiure. Of the aHliniat«d arable 
only fourteen per cent were ander tilla^. Tbo pcrct-ntago 
(freatly in diSoront (IIikok. In tint niitl and centre the percem 
of tilli^e w«j« aa high aa thirty-six in Savda, thirty-foii 
Kaeirat^d, and thirly-lwo in Erundol. In the north iitiil w< 
WM a» low aa lun in Chopda, nino in Naiidurb^, seren in ISulcani 
and Gre in Pimpoluor and Thalncr. North uf the Tapii itnd in 
vn%l DQitr tho Diings wem htrtp) tract-'', cither utterly empty 
or with a few unsettled iiiole. In th« plains wern strct- 
thorii- cove red waste with pttt«:hc« of tillitgtt, and villager «ii 
wholly or pai'lly deserted. Even in the healthiest and 
peopled parts wcvo many miles of waste, without a.^in^lcpji 
tillago. Of ^897 vilUgi-», 1079 were deoerted and 5S7 had less 
fifty iahahitants. Tiio area of arable wusto was not lei's than 0,31)0, 
acres'. 'ni'>ugh mi l>uckward, KhtimleKh liada richer soil than piti 
the Deccan or the Sonihrrn Mnr^tha districts. Conijiared with 
auri-(-y ruleM laii'ly introduced into the Uec-cnn iind the Kouthem 
Ma ratba districts, the KbandeshasBeasmetit was high. In dryland 
04 mui'h aa 7*. (K». ;i<ic. 8) «n «in>5 wiis c)I■l^g<^d in Thalner 
Sultanptir, and in S^vda, Cho))daand Sult&npur the arera^e wax 
2d. (lis. 2-9-'l)h These ntlcs could not hare been puid in other 
of the Deccan or in the Soulheru Mar&tlia districts. Be.iiili^H the 
grcnli-r richness of the soil, tho Kbllndesh cnltirtitor was helped by 
till-- fact that almoxt nil tbv jiriKiuce wua ouiiod fur export and could M 
en-siiy converted into moiicy, and becausetheyoajoyediLeprivili-^i 
fr<-effr.-utiu»over vaat wa'>t<**, la xoiiic parts, ti» in ('hojxla, theh< 
ai>Kesxrn<'ut\-)d hampered the people and reduoedtlieirhiildingii.Thi 
witlieiisier rates, tillage would quickly spread. But inmost placea 
groat dilficulty was the want of people. Able to suppm-t iu comfoi 
population of Iwoor three millions, the district ha<l only 7<J5,oyO 
or anavorage density of xixty-tbrce to the i^}Hiireniil«. ForucKMitoi 
ut Imist thci^i wns iio prospect that tho population would be eDoni 
to occujiv tht> wliiilit of the district. \s a class the cultivators wer* 
woil-to-ao. Their ctrcumstancea were much easier than those of 
the people of olhirr pivrls of the Deccan, They had numbers 
caltio, wiiich from the abundance of free grnning cost them nothi 
H^tfiepl. neiir tho T4pti, for working' weBs they seldom had to 
bullocks. Light two-bullock c»rl* were found in numben in all 
every villape, and the pleasure carta and fast trotting LnllocI 
rich huslruudiiion iiiid traders were constantly met on alt the hi 
roads. The protite of the carrying trade to the Kimkan ports addd 
much to lh(.'ir eamingH. Ml laUior, field a^ well aa town, was 
io L-Bsh. 

viand < 




The following Btatflmeat shows the chief popnlatioa, tillage, aai. CluptaT VIU. 
Msessment details aa they stood in 1851'&2, shortly before the ImA 

begiiuuag o£ surrey operations : Adminiitratiom 

Shdndeih Sab-dimnotuU DetaiU, 18B2. 






IBSa. (a) 


























• e! 













SulUopar ... 

Niihlda ud TUod* ... 

















119 , fin 














nuidaTbir ... 

Njufdarbir ... 















BbadgftOQ ... 

























PlupiklDer ... 








Niilk Diatriot 








loUl ... 

Hfaik DIiUIbC ,„ 











■ ^ ' 


Abu hi BQctii Hilm. 

CuiiTiTArion a 1880. 







R«ren lie for 

























ThMnar _ 







'^utUbjpar ... ... 



















. »a,M9 

















































PfaDpAlllflT ... .. 

















Tout ... 







1413 S3;u i 33US 





Iforw. — ThM0flpvrqde>not Inoliidec-lthAralienAU'dor ptnTinh-nite, avtbandi, lAodt. 

(b). Tberekn? now rSSl]) lixtveii AiltMllt-leLuitB ^To iitQin Hr.-glT«h Id tlLta Dulumn nnd thA rstnHln]r|| 
kwouc Vlnle: auds out at Hu>dDri>Ar ud UbuUiLkiul BbuUlriil. Diadsout at Vuuuud, Nulnbad, 

(*]. ThU loUl fa 18,011 Ins thu the total ordlurily «lTsn forth* 1851 muiu. Ho eipUnUtnn of 
lb* diSmDM bH bsen trufd. 

(e\ A.Mahaia KlitDdeihcoatAint laOOaquuefiLrdiiindli tbareforaalmonexMUjtbree-fanrttu o< 
■a Hv. CipMB WlBgKU In B«m. Gov. Ml. 1. 1351, Old Bnim, pwm. 17. 

[iBoiBtMty OiMtlie- j 

kpter vm. 


riia Bntult. 










1 taiwm 





Pnar WtilB 






ffl'lKbl lUMB 

ii^au nMm, 





. 1 

U. ■■ P 

Ra. & p. 


bo. ». 

b ft. |t 

SiL. p. 

a> . 

' 1 


* » » 

I g 

1 U U 

a a 

> * 





S « 

V ( D 


1 1 t 

• U a a » a 

9U ■ 

« ' 


1 • 
• Ml) 


w ■ 

4 • 
4 10 


BaUaBur .. 

) M 

• u 


a 1 

• « n 

> * 


f • • 

1 a 

• 11 

tu » 




« 4 

a 1 u 

1 14 a 

'— *— 


Anatatr .. 

9 10 

« I 

14 1 

a 1 u 

• » 

• V 



* 1 « 


1 » 1 ; s J 

a » a 

« • 


JlaiMT .. 

1 « 

« T a 

• la (14 a 




VimagKUt .. 

> a 9 

• TO 

• II a • 

a 10 B ' J M 



* « 

• 1 a 

> E 

* to a ' a 

lU I 

a lo 1. 

f »i 



1 T 

• 10 a : a 

10 a 

• t 1 


t»«fllT .. 

1 7 • 

« > 

• U I 


11 u 

1 1 1 



1 « » 

a t i 

I) * » 

• T 11 

» • t 

t) It t 

10 4 

1 B 

U >• 1 . 

11 » 11 

• •Hi 

In revinwinff Captnin Wm^tn'o re}x>rt, Gorernniciit dcvidcJ 
that in ft tlisti-ict »o thinly pcoplod and with no iarge an nrna <J 
nuovcapittd foreet and biut!) land, un ultenipt lo niakb a ci^impleto 
field aorvoy would load to hopeletia ditUcnll.ivM. It vrun Ut-tfli'l 
that no attotnpt should lie raado to iwrvvy Uie aix nutlriD}^ tJw:t.i 
of PAI in STivda, Dhauli in Chopda, Amba in Tb^Uner, Akriiui and 
Havoli in SiilUnpiir, KavApiir'nnd Viirai in Pimpalui'r, and certain 
ploDph.rat«d, Ri(//Mini'<, vilia^a of lldgl&n now in ^^ik. 

In thv cnM> of Inr)^ tracts of waifto in other parta of the difftriirt, 
where it would bo iinpotwible to set up or rep&ir boundary markM, it 
was propu«V4l that: I, MoiMuremoitt.t and diviviong into fields 
with marked bouudarif-a iiliould be eontined to the actuiil culiiTnifit 
land round tlio villagtt xitv, und U) a t^vrlnin [xirtion of arablo vrnne 
near it, enHicii'iit to meet the probable requiromonta i.if scv, r il 
ypiir*. 2, All B*t''nial village bunndiuien wore lo bo siirvej-rd ,i I 
fixed by peniiaDuut marks. 3, The area of all laiidfi not. inciu J i 
in tho lirst i.-Iilh.4 was lo tw i-itlrnUtt-d in the lump, i, Only tlio iir. ;i 
that wild divided into fields was to be clactnified and as»i>HM..|. 
' 5, The assessment of all undivided land was to be caleulated oa 
wi average n( the taudn adjoiuiug. And 6, no field E«urvoy was to 
be made of rillagee lying totally waate. 

The ubjeot aimed at was that the land actually under tillaf^ ahoold 
bo duly aseessed, and that erory holder should know how hr 8toH>d. 
Aa regards ^eith tillage, each villuev would luivo aesigned to it an 
area of arable waste euMcieut for the retiuireiuenta of 8um» ytvirs, 
and all of it asse^iflt-d nt uiki uniform rate <^tU'utatod on the ra(< 
of the adjoining land. Every ninn taking up new land would km 
beforehand whut be would Imvn to imy, ami fntnd and trickei 
DO tho port of the villiigi! und distnct oHicers would lie nroid< 
When po aaa63»ed arable waste leiuaiuod, thu utuwsesaed 



»to waa, lui roquirei], to b« brokvn into nunibops. As t% «p«*il 
I esse il was, ro^;»mless of the quality of tlio soil, given at an uuiform 
Bn:u- niivtii In. {8 niiHtu). One {mint {iriDvipIv of Iho now mirvej' wa« 
tliKt i-very field was to be paid for a§ a whole. Accordiug U> the 
cxistiog sy»t«m, a yairly innumntmonl of tht* lictiml iirwi under 
ttll:ig« had been laatla and the holder charged uccordingly. Waato 
patchi'B of Itwd in a tield puid no iLS«OH)(tuc-iit. Under the tivw eyst«m 
each field wa« a cuiniuiAt whole, with well marked boimdarioH and a 
fixed rental. In driving hi^ plough, the Kh&ndeidi hnsbandman 
had a habit of jmMiiing' over ]Kior patoh(.!!< and ohodHing tlio 
boet. Crery field was nioro or leas stragKlii^frr iuclading lar^ 
piilchi.^rf of wunUj fur which unthiug vns paid. Such a KynUMn wau 
incompatible with any permanent improvemeiit of the land, and 
thu new ttiirvvy put n sU>u tt> iti, »» all land invlndvd in a nuinbur 
bad to bo paid for, whether tilled or wa^Ce. One of Che most 
difficult points for si^-ttlemcnt was the assessment of watered lands. 
Watered laudn were of two clasitOM, well-watvred, tncUietlMl, and 
channel -watered, piitaglhiit. Ail land near wells, except mined or 
loiitt dinnned wells, wnn Kulijuvt t<i a itptK'ial aKHpHKinvnt which was 
levied whether or not the well was used. In channel -watered laud 
the existing sywtcui was %'«ry Irrviguiar. Sntnutami's iho wjiti'r ralo 
WS8 levied whenever the land wa:^ cnltivatod, even though no water 
was uwjii, lo other pbicvH tho into was Itviwl only wht-u the land 
waa irrigated. Tho rates, too, aeem to have greatly varied in 
diScront pliices. Tho qrivstion of the best modu of n-alii>ing 
the revenuo due for the uso nf <!aiuil water if ct^mplicatetl. The 
diflicultius have never be«n wholly surmounted. In Kh&ndceh 
no uniform oyfltem waft atU.-U)ple<^; luoal (-ustom wait to a (freat 
extent followed. A^ there was so larg» an arcA of arablo waste, 
from which a grnii tucrimHe of ruvimue might ho expected, and 
as the ratos had hitherto been higher than tfuise In forcu in the 
Deccsn and Soulhi'ni Miiriliha districts, ic waa determined very 
greatly to reduce the afiHcssmonlfi. 

Though the object of the survey was to lighten the Imrden of the 
(txirtting Hfi)>cN'>mcnt, the first operations in Steda, in Novem1>cr 
1S&2, mot with the rao«t active and widet>[a«w|fonpojiition. II10 
Murrijl hiKtiLiry of tho affair has novcr boon thoroughly known. But 
there ia tittle doubt that the dintrict hereditary otnoom and some 
olhom, who felt thnt their influence and means of making 
illicit gains would l>e curtailed, ounapir&d to sow distmat in thfe 
mindit of the people. The moat absurd stories of the object an<l 
aima of the survey wore circtiUited. The privacy of their hoiuccfl waa 
to he ioviMlvd, and thoy wore to fto worried and harassed on all 
sides. The scheme succeeded. The people of S&vda rose in a Uxly 
<>u tli4? survey officers, and rofniMrd to liiilvn to any oxplauaiion. 
The military had to be called in, the leaders were smrprist-d 'nnd 
8ei)U!<l, I lie afiair passed over without bloodshed, and from tliut time 
the work of the survey proceeded without chuok. 

The work of surveying and Kottling the district occupied oight««n 
3rear8, from 1^52 to 1^70. In 18r(2 racasaremeuts were begun in 
Chopda and Sdvda ; iu 18&3, in Musu^had, iithahndn, Taloda, and 



Till) BfitiBh. 


Order fd, 









Kriii 'U, 


ia 1664, ia Anmlnor, EnniLil. nnd XiuidiirUr ; is IS 

'ti, Jamnrr, Mill i 

in iocM, 

oral ill Iti'ifi, in 

ID IJ>.)9, in PinifwIiKTiitnd mlt!(j_,M, i-..iL.iAviil. 

wore finiiibMl' 111 Sffvda, in iBfuj ; iii Chcptlu, in 1 

in It^iiO ; in Shiqinr, in Xi'Ath ; in Anuilni*r ami Vii j:;I, :a i.~.i 

in BliuAAVal, C(iAIis)f»iin, Dbulia, KranJoI, JAiuucr, Saa 

Pt&chora, Pimpolncr, Shabibla, simI Taloday in 1870. 

Tliv foflnwinfr Btaloment aliowfi tlio progress ia Um 
Bub-tlivisiouB bs at pivsont cvn»tilutv(l : 

JTiteM Ainry Pntgnm. JSSt'lffTO. 




PtM. [ WJ1 



^^rVL ^lauj 



PtAtn ... 

l*»**4 I ISH.S7 I«J^ li L*« 

ChUvH ... 

UW^-: u>U 


nnrtavliHr -, 



Utt4^ .u tU*.K 


1« - ..^^ 








1^ ■■-. . ufl 


ttUHI i|iat« lUfrW |I)M».)I> TtioA* 

IVO 1.1 tMIl i^H 

KHtforUf ~ 

UMOi-IIMwIlsifriW JMvra 1 Vinbl 

tlUM jIBWi. JH 

Si»«' tli« in 1 rod uc Lion of the revenuo i>urrey Rud sett 
Kfafludpsh hns miido tbo most marked advance Ixilli in (b« 
under tillatre und iti ibi!iimiiiiiiL<>r land r<-v<.-nM«. Tukiit;^ tliclitriu 
{or tlie 2t>tfil) Government Titlaj^s,^ the relurna for tbi- VL4r» 
which tbtf Kiirvoy wiitlwiittnl wns iulnMimi-d, ^how, coinpan.-^i wili 
thA BTPruifO id tiiie ten previous ymrs « 6ill in the Wiutto of 4ol,(l 
ftcrea, and in the remtssions of £od3l (K*. 59,3)0} ; and nn inc 
ic Uio occnipif^ arcs of 1,042,1)1 1 acr^s, and iu the oolli- 
£86,805 ((18.8.68,650) or 47-;t ocr oont. lucludmjt reven 
nnaraldu iitnd, plou^rli-mle nnd des«rled villti^e«, and llie Umis iu^-1^ 
over to CoTcranictit hy bolder* of nliennlod villntros, the fiUl 
collections show an inerwiMP of 190,5P1 (Ha, 9,0.'i,i»l't) op 4fi-Q n*r 
oont, ComiMre^ with the uvcm;^! of the ten yeara before fhu 
Borvcy. the Bgwre* (or 1877-78 show a decroBiiu in the vm^tfi of 
731,9iifi wirea and in the remiiaionit of £Il,.-}87 (Rs. 1,13.870) ; 
an incrc-ase in the occupied areia of l,3IS,;t>t4 ncn-s, and in t| 
collections of £I10.24:i (Rs. 11.02.430) or m per c<>nL Inrlndtoi 
revenue fmm unarahle land, jdoug-b-rotc, and dcwrtod villa^a, 
tLe lauds mada over to Governmeot bj holders of aliunated rillages^ 

"Skt tAUol pTORTWH vu M r<illnw« ; 130 noT«nisiODt vittuiBtn ISU-Sn, 74 
in ISU-K 1S3 in )»5U&-. S4U iii IH&7-»l. 239 ia IHJW-Sfl, 12$ in ISAO-OO; M la 
lM0-SI,1B3ia 1^1-1(3, iS: in I8i».4L-). SMh in 1M3-S4, S\t U \6M-ei, 329 la 
lSCS-6«. Sin I866-in,e9ia i8«7'68. 81 iii I8tis-<I9. SO in iHl».7<X 14 la 16'<MI. 1 in 
187273. uiJ 1 in 1873-74: t.itiJ U<]rr«nii>miii villAftw S7(iTl. Of dicMl^ viltiuut. 
S ill ISd&ST, 4 in IWS-ta, IS la 1804-19, 1 In l»6C-6». M in ISSS-W, I in IS^o: 
and a in 1870-71 ; tool olieaMed riUi^ni. »} ; total vilUgw 27S1. 

* For 18 O0T«nuM«t and 9t Bli«Htt«d villitca. Ml r*Ml]r dotaili ua not anO- 





total colIectionB show an increase of £113,304 (Rs. 11,33,0^0) 
K)"8 per cent. Taking the figures for the fifty alienated villages 

wbich details are available, the returns for the years in which 

survey settlement was introduced ehow, compared with the 
rage of the ten previous years, an increase in the occupied area 

9,047 acres, in the waste of 5917 acres,^ in the remissions of 
13 (Bs. 1330), and in the collections of £1769 {Rs. 17,690} or 
) per cent. Including revenue front unarable landf the total 
ections show an increase of £1710 (Rs. 17,100) or 70'8 percent. 
npared with the average of the ten years before the survey, the 
ires for 1877-78 show an increase in the ijcctipied area of 22,882 
ys, in the waste of 3389 acres,' in the remiesiyis of £33 (Rs. 330)) 
in the collections of £2081 (Rs. 20,810) or 91'6 per cent, 
lading revenue froui unarable land, the total collections show an 
•ease of £1948 (Rs. 19,480) or 807 per cent. 

"he following statement shows for the Government villages 
iach sub-division the chief changes in tillage area, remissions, 
ections, and outstandings, since the iuti-oduction of the reveuae 
rey : 

KhdmleA Sumty Renilf, 1866-1878. 

















Tm jfui Man Surrey 












i-ni ... 

Thrm jwrwbcrnr*! Snrvtj 





10 1, 101 

IB7M1 :, 






tt^aa ... 

Ttn yeflrt beroro Surtw 


IE J 7 

(ti 11i2 

8 ,»2B 









"IVd yi>Lra before Sgn'«y 

at .308 












Tun y«»tf OcroruSHTTaf 






li>7;.78 ... 





141, 44) 

doi .„ 

Ttn j'PMrfl bi'forp Siirrpy 


07,7 1'S 



i8T;-;a ... 






Ti'n yc^n brforo Surrey 












lorUr ... 

'IVn JeiTB bflfuroSun'fy 


10,7 l7 




187J-7B ... 



101 '.SM 



ti»t ... 

1 'J^'n yi"ira Wlorp BurToy 


12,1 M 




1HTT-7S , 

IS 1.467 



17,0 J! 



Trn .iearj> beforr Sorvpy 


10, HIT 

IB?, Br" 



1«7 7M 






■Ian' - 

'IVn yenri bvtonr Sumy 













Ttn Ji-nn btfTure Siirtoy , , 




1127 ,S^G 


li-:7-:a , 




It. 1191 


Ua ... 

T.-Q y.'ftrB Ijefore Sarvej 





38, £80 

lBJJ-78 ... 







Ten vimM bfiEora Snirey 







87. 1 H 






Ten j'Smbufore Surrey 












Ten yitrs before Surray 





Its. 104 


Ten reari bofora SuiToy 






Isbil ... j 









2,716, lU 



Chapter Vm 





> A ' Tbi* UM:reM« u aomiiwl, Me foot boM 1 on ptgt 2M 

K&ANDESH. ' 297 

hv as information in avnilnblo, during the Iltirty>fiaiir yeara 

Lxig 1879-80, population bas iorj^aaed from *>9o,CA9 to 

«3,03I or 80-71 porojnt: housw from 170,504 to 270,740 or 

'33 p<^r cent ; carta from 38,(300 to 79,687 or 117-72 per cent ; 

. t^h-r from 07,072 to 124,737 or 85i)7 per cout; oatLlo from 

I-'. u> I,08j,l72 or 2R-42 por cent; and wells from 27,112 to 

r lit'04 per cent. In tK-^t! jtuirti ttio litlai^e area has 

I from l,2iJ3,6iS to 3,d64,U37 aci-ea or 180'9!J par cant, 

tho bmrl r«?«nue from £102.116 to 13tW,274 (Ra. 1,021,160- 

a,(Ht2,T40) or 12503 per L-ent Eigliteeu mnnipipttlitie«, two 

'V>>tals, serott ditpiinisnriM, and 275 ecboolaJiave been flxtabliidied. 

e'kIo;* I2r{ mil<Ki> of rail, uiid sovtirnl nnntodo ro^ds fit for bir* 

ktber traffic, 105 milos of oompletfly bridged road and 194 mtloa 

•id for tmtiic in nil mcmodm, oxcept tAnes of dood, hare bnen 


XTfae following; atateoiont' showa tUeae resulta in labulur form : 





'- l« 

«U.m0 IID.m 



















ua>,tn u,iM ^w,Bn mm,iu 








one who know Kiiftndc!*b twontjr jtMn ago, writes Mr. 
nraiuty (187?^), the cliangn .sc-^m^ wondorfu). At tlmt tune a vaat 
of (foiid attil, covered with a tangled growth of babkut or pattu 
a, atrclcbed for miles from th<! SAlpuda hills imnth towards the 
tl. I» almost uvi>ry aitb-divinioo were wide alrotcbea of buab 
id broken by isolated patches of tillage. Now, save in parts of 
itiliitgnon on tho borders of th« Ni/JimV ttirritory, no tracts of 
go<'il hind he wiiKte. Scrab jungle ibere Hlill in, but thia itt 
coiillnej to rocky lines of hilt or rolling stony ground that will yield 
no crop save grnss. CnUiviitiun has bM;ii pushed alnn>at to tho 
very »loj>e!i of tho 8iiipiida bdU, and even in the woat where the' 
climate ia bad and population scanty, tliv ariM of arable wnsto has 
an immensely curt((ite<l. Thirty yeora ago wild beaata wer« found 
.__ overj- i>ub-divii<ion. 11»e fear of them kept whole villagea empty 
and nch plaiux antilled. Xow tig^-rs are couiinud to a fyn 
fiiv'.'iirito ix'tn>als in tbo 8Atpuda hlllH, or to the dense fon^tta on 
th.^ I'KHti^rn anil wesu-rn frontiers. Ouoe panthers infeated every 

• Um pofmhtic* anil hwmi fiywM aalMsd i^iiiiat 1S79-1M AN Ukca Tram ifc» 

\a. ) 11ia«e tignrM aia tot the proMcit KliimUtih >inlv. 

tM lli«H Hgan«JUDla')«UioNtirik«ulMlivalDMnlMll«gM>D, KAiidaMu. BdiiUn, 
•nd Ifalvnti, irbkh ia ISW fofniwl f*n ut KUndoik. 

IBenbiky Guett 




RpMr Vm 


Tiling find lurked in every sugarcane field. Noir they are fo| 
only ill tlie liilta or in a few of thu ixr'Icv ruTtricui tlint intersect 
|jliiiii!!i. Herds of wild hogs once lordod over the pUioa, nililiin^ ] 
the huhbaiiduicn of gnat part of tbcir harvest. Now Iho wild ' 
w compturativelv scarce. Duo quarter of A Denlurr ha* at 
what, in Captain Wingat«'f opinion, would prove toe work 
least a Itundrt-d veara. 

This great aniJ rapid change, though helped by the lighter 
more won survey mW», is not entirely duo to them, lu llJS 
after four years of vt-rv Inw pricirs, grain roue, and with 
rxc-entionfi, has since niloa high. The openiDg of the raUway, 
the American war t>ctwecn I8(>l nnd 1805, poun^d gn-nt wi-nlth 
tho district. And thoogb after the clooe of the war the collapttiil 
pricoH and Hcvend yvhra of scanty or nnHoanonnhlo rainfall caused 
much toss to tbo district, itK pn)duce and trade have coutiDiiodgri.?ater 
ihnn before that time of exceptional prosperity, and of late huvo^ 
again begun itteodily to incrcace. 



»oa Bepnrt*. Tlie following is a summary of tht; chief ax-ailalilo factx rogsrdiny 

. the state of tin: di^itnctj during the last twenty-eight years : 

ms-ss. In 1852-53 the rainEall at Dhulia wait 10-o9 inches. The season 

was upon tho whole ^ronrable. The tillage area rose from 
I,077,u2*>to 1,171,^37 aciT's,' and tho land revenue for collection 
from £178,841 to eiM.OSl (Rb. 17.88,410- Rs. lfl,69,310); £134* 
(Rs. ia,44()) were remitted ; ^nd £10 (Re. lOO) left outatandiu 
ludmii millet nif)Co pric^^'S rowft from l.M- to 124 pounds, 
progress was nwdt* in imi>n>ving croBS-roads, 
m. In 18ait-54, the rainfall of lit 04 inches was unseasonable, and 

harvest upon the wholo anfaronrahle. Htidth, huth of uien 
cattle, was good. The tillage area rose from 1,171,237 
l,iy8,785 acres; the land reToniic ffir colluction foil from JEH'C.y: 
lo £18V.54 (Ra.l9,fi9,3IO. Us. 18,05,640); £14,777 (lU. 1.47,770) 
were remitted ; and £17 (Ra, 170) loft outstanding. Indian millet 
rupee prio(.i< fl^ll from 124 to IGd pound.'*. One hundnxl milus of fair 
weather roads wore made at a cost of £y8S [Rs. 1)880).* 

In I8o4-5o the rainfall of -30*14 inches was unlavoumble. Roia 
continued after thecaHy crops had npciied, and oonsidorable damase 
was done. The late harvest was good. Except in Xasirabad t£e 
'remissions were comparatively small. The tillage area rose from 
1,198,78.7 to 1,28G,3^4 acres, and tho land rerenuv for cnlliN-tion 
from £180.554 to £200,878 (R». l8,ti5,S40- Bb. 20,08,780) ; £]r)82 
(Rs. I5.«i0) were remitted; and £12 (K«. 120) left outstanding. 
Indian millet rupee prit^'--'* row from l(>8to seventy-six pounds. 

In 18&fi-&Q the rainfall wa» 14-50 incho*. This season was 
extremely on&Toarable owing to want c^ lain and the oon»6qu< 

'TU.ioCTMa»«.fW.JllMww,,, bUu.Oollefltor'. opinion. <hii> to t)>e 
tTWi in «ottoB nrl«fc B<^ Our. Rot. Bou, 2» o( I8S7, pMt II. »S33.d334 
'Ikdii. I.o*. Ruv. Roc. 28 o* I8S8, p»rt 10. 30131 





feiJnro of crops.' TiIUtrnrfiowMnrieo of only 8310 ftcrea ; the laad 
roviuue for cllwtiou fc-il from eiOO.HTS to £157,r.l3 (Bs. 2U,U«,780. 
Its. lG,7tj,i:J0) ; and £4(J,;Jt*0 (R«. 4.li3,<.n)'>) were remitted. ludiAn 
itiill-'t rnpoo [iriccn M\ from wvi-nty-six to I'ighlj'-fuor ponnds. 

In l^^ti-'i?, the raiDfulI of 2/i'l'J inchos wax abiititliint and 
eeosonabk-. the eoMon extremvlj fnvcuirublo, and ihv var\y harvest 
Tnt.1 uiiu.-tucilly pU-iitifuI. The ttllago arcft rose from 1 ,2d4',t><l'l to 
l,UJ>^,t:i1U acTCB, and the land revenue for collection from £iri7,618 
to i2lJl,563 (R«. 15,76,130- Rs. 20.15,ti30): £2384 (Bs. 23,8-W) 
were remicu-d; and £7 (Ka. 70) left outtlaiidinj;. Indian millflt 
rupee prices rose from eighty-four to Boveuty.two pounds. 

In 18.57-uMiio rainfall K.a» 2i92 incliM.' Tins wsMon was an, 
average one. Ilib nuu wtm too late in setting in, and the eurlv 
crops were much below the avern>^'. When the rain came, it fell 
fn»dy and Hciuonably ; and thu late crofM vevrv iniicli aboru the 
■vtngo. The tillage area ro!>e from 1,36^,813 to l.'i-13,)j82 ncron/ 
■nd t£c land revenao for collection fn>m t20\,56S to 12l]3,9U7 
(IU20,i:>,(j3(!-R,. 20,rift.07O) ; £5830 (K«. 58,300) wero Pi>mittvd,» 
and £12 IBs. 120) left oui.3(anding. Indian millet rupee pnces rofle 
from jujTPnty-two to fifty-siit pixiiids. 

In lK'..S-69 the raiiiCalt of 2l-.''i!' incliOH wa-* favourntile, holli for 
early and late cropa. The tillage area rose from 1,413,832 to 
|,&7i,222 acres, and the land revcniio for collucliou from £2(>3,907 
to £2i+,821 (R*. 20,39.070- B». 21,48,210); £0337 (I^i. 03,370) 
wro ivmitted, and £2 (Ba. 20) left outstanding. Indian millet 
rujieti pricwii wore fifty-six pounds. 

In 1H5'.).C(i the minfiiU wilh 2i'3l inches, llie tillage area rose 
from l,o7t,22^ to l,tI2-l,0dO acres, an^ the land rorenuo forcollection 
fn..u £211.821 U) £22o.937 {lis. 21,18,210-11... 22,09,370); 
£5218 (Us. J.2,IWJ) were remitted, and £7 (R8.70) lift outstanding. 
Indian millet rnpeo prices rose from fifty-sir to forly-eight pound*. 

In 1 &ijO>t>l, the rainfiiU of 22'Ot iuchcx vnu* nonii-vrhat unRon.<iu liable. 
Till' hardest waa on the whole favourable, and e3cc«pt a slight 
odtbn^ak of cholera, health, both of men and c^ittle, was good. 
The tillage arcfa n«n from l,62-*,980 to 1 ,685,025 acres, but Ihtf hmil 
roTonoo for collection fell from E22(i,'.»37 lo£223,528 (Ra. 22,t:9,370- 

> Tbn moBKMHi htffto witli ktan nla in thu itiiildla al Juno and iMtod till th« 
bal <rcek of Jaly. A ittntijihi <•( oichi wcului tliiin euttini), during which a l«{^ 
partino of the drop* wu iL->in>y.<J fii Octolior T«la (nl] hiwvfly. (lut lor want of 
tliatinial f^liBthc tKUnrjivt •>! VrivRiitlior. ill* ]aU> crop* ircrc inu<;h faelow tli<raviin^pl« 
Nnrtii of iha Tipti tlic xaMiD WM lUll niara uiifaTonntbl*^ In C)io|Hla. Vival, and 
Hvila. lodiaa miUet UiltJ (mtiroly , aail mi crop yleliled mom than oDtNthuil ot aa' 
•nmge return. Ei-cn in Fchrnarjr field laiiaiinva liad grokt didcolty in |i«ttii) 

r'n anil cantbcn itmt luiving tliBir honwa, and oven tba vdl-t»-do wcm iwloo* 
imit meal a dav uvi that oJ old Bod nnwbotcMina gnda. Trmtvr tliuM 
urcani*Uiii.-(« tbo CV>llcc4ot gMntod a majalon of 7}por cent oq tniid c:ii1lii'at«d 
with >niri'. ui<le2-&pnr eeaton other tnnM. Bom. Got. Rw. Hco. Mof !Hin>. n-ti.uid 
CoUwtM'aRepL WO, l!Hli May IS^fi in H«t. Bw. 19o* ISM, t«rt .1. lOl'J IWl, I02fl.l037. 

* Tbia tncrtaw in ullage nica wai ftty nominiii. due V> nioro ai^cnnit* 
HMaaurnBt<iiti. It icm fMuwsly the pmctica to MiCcr tha ijnatitity of oralilo land 
on ■■timatv. The awray abowcd that in ■oni« ■ub.diriuciu tiM quantity ot arable 
land Kiitcml wa> ortiMatiniatcd. Bat. u a mlo, tii« area Ai>iin by tbts mrvny 
mnaidanldy aiceedod tho focmer eirtimate. In lbi« yoar thm wm ntjll a rary 
bntK an* (IfiO.OO0 acrea) unoMnanrad. Bosn. Rev. Rm. 16 of 1861, 21-32. 

' In SnlUnpur and Cliopda ■cTenJ viltuca wen raraf^ l>y lb« Silpuda Ilhib, and 
ui>iiftJ»niljlB wwiwioailiad tobe granttd. Bom. Oor. Itnv. Biw;. 16 o( IMI, t-ti, 12-13, 16. 



SoMOB R«fMri^ 





FSombay Oautt 



, land 




Be. 2!2.35.28(>) ; £i2,2(>2 (R». 1,22,020) wew remitted. Indian 
nilKti ]irioe.-t nisc from furty- fight tij lliirly-lwo pound)). 

In lUtll-Oj, tUurainfatlof 27*14 iuciiea wan abatidonl and 
ablo. Thf Uiir\'f«t wa« |>lentiful ami public iu-alth f;w>d. 
Ullage lura i-oso from l,(>8o,02.'j to l,814,2tii> lumts, iiiid llm I 
rereoae for collection from Jt22il,528 to £252,816 (Us. 22,^5,2 
Rs. 25,28,160); £1902 (U«. 19.020) were rDiiiitk-d, and £14 (lU. 1 
left iitiMUmdinif. Indian pittlet nipi-e priceii [oil from thirty- 
to fi^'two pniiuda. 

In 18i!2-ii.) ibtt minfall was cnfficiont. But it did not sot in 
September, and lastinff iduiusl lo tbo end of November, 
tnucli (liiiiingu til tbo KAr]y crops. The onttum of ^ntin was m 
1h)1uw Ibct avc'rajfi*, itud cotl'ni irutt v»liTiinl(.^d ( boiTvniln^r 18i 
at about half an average crop. Id sereral Aub-divisiooa cbo 
prevailed, itud u liuyc number of caws |Hx)VL<d fatal. Tbu till 
area rose from 1,81 l,2SQ u> 1,89(>,8:11 ix^rc*, and tbt> Ituid n-veuuD 
ooUcctionfromJE2o2,810 to £261,390 (Re. 25,2»,160 - lU. 20,13,9 
£2709 {Hs. 27,000) were remitted, and £113 (Rx. 1130) li'ft 
standmg, Indiaa millut rupee prices rose from fift^two to fo 
cieht pounds. 

lu laOS-fit thi' niinfall at Dbulia was 16-3* incbivt. lu Otlwr 
of the district ibo Knp]tly vniM tiiucb monr ubimdant, and the earl 
kharif, n-ops wore unoaually fine. The tillage area rose from 1 ,896," 
to 2,084,869 oi-ruii.Rnd tlielnod rovt-nno for collMtiun from £261,: 
to £281,3S7 (Ks. 26,«. 28,13,870); t&OSlJ (Rb. 50, 
were remitti-d. ludian millet nipeo prices toso from forly-oigtit 
thirty-firo (louiida. 

!u 1861-1)5, the total raiufdll M Dhuliit was only 11-12 inchea. 
Still the HeaHon w(ui on tho whole favourable, the cotton erop tvns 
above the arefn^, itsd the cold woathiT cmp w.-w good. Public 
health wm satisfactory. Tho lill»jj:«> nri» rose from 2,084,8(i9 to 
2,330,112 acrv«, and the land revenue for coltet'tioii from £281,3t^7 
to Je3tJ0,996 (!ta. 2H,I3,870-R». 30,lKI,960) ; £^986 (Its. OO.ti 
were n^mittvd, uud £is3 (Its. 830) left outdtaodioff. Indiau mill 
rupee pHces fell from Ihirty-fivo to forty-two poiindit. 

lu 1865.66, the total rainfall at Dhulw wan lS-9t inches. A» 
Gajarit and the nonh Kookau, the i-aiiifall, rathur hmivy itt 
begiuQing of thf season and (icanty at it« clyso, ctiuw^i oouaidL-rable 
damage to thi- r<,tt'>nandotbei'ero|ia. Public- health was mmarkably 
.good. The tillage luwi rose from 2,336,U2 to 2,431,579 acrea, 
,aiid tho land revonne for oolleotioa from £300,»96 to £324,283 
(Kb. 30,09,960. Re. 32,42,830); £7585 (lis. 75.850) wore remiUed, 
and £'13 (Ra. 430) left outetandiug. Indian uiillut rupee pi'icee fell 
from forty-two to fifty-six ixnmdit. 

In 1866-67, the rainfall i>i M-28 inchea waa, aa in tbo year before, 
rabher hcflvy iu tin- bi-ifiDuing of tho soason and >-cauty at the 
The crops, (""pociallv collrm, iigiiiu milfcntd, but public 1- 
wtilinued pood. The tillage area rose from 2,4:11,-579 to 2,471,16ti 
acre.i, and the hind itjvonae for collection from .t^24,28;{ to £330,8* " 
(Rfl. 32, 42,830. K«. 33,08,640); £3491 <It«. 34,910) wore remi 
and £421 (R«. 4210) left outstanding. Indian millet ruy>ix 
rose from lifly-six to forty-two |iouuiIe. 






iId l8(t7-€8 tbv rainfall vns 19*38 inchefl. Tbs eeasnn was «ii 
wholly fiiv()iir»l>Ii-, will) m or>(t«M crop far above the average, 
Tilth WHS (,'11-ii, luid oaitto wei-fi ontin-ly fn-c fruin iltwiteo. 
'1 li _'onnm roBu from 'Jl,4'!l,\tHi to 2,5 Itf, ■Sill m^rpa, but tho binil 

reveuuL- iW eoiiTOii.ui foil rix)m £;JliO,.S(; 1 to £.-J2ti,22!t (R». 33.08,tJ4(J. 
fo. 82.(>2,2y0) ; £1486 (Ila. 14,EJtiO) w.-re remilu-ii, aiid £531 

iRn. 0310) Ii^ft oatxtaiuling, Indiati millot. nipoe prices Cell Erom 
>riy-two to novooly [m>uikU. 

In l'«i'*-f''!', the mouiicinn was most aofavourable, tlie late rmoM 
(■II til! ' I. aud the ruiitfaJI nt Ithnlia waaoulv 11*76 inchoD. In 

the .li I Kuli-diviKi'iuM uf Miilcgiinii, ^And^fiKm, and Ch&lia- 

ron, the raui alumat entirely fiiiled. There were no crops and ni^ 
auuid tor field labour. To ad<l to the local distreea nnmlwrs 
came from M£rwilr and Kiijputjtun, wh4>re llie warcity amounted to 
famine. Road sod pond wDrkx were opened for Hhil» and otlieni 
of < lie loner clMBoa, and public health eontinued f^iierally good. 
Tht- tillttj,-!? an-ii nwo frr.m 2,.M8,.'.lfl (n 2,r.O I ,Ol).'j m-nin, but thu land 
n'v,-Tnir fnT-c^lIeetian fell from i:^J2fi,22y to £;12;i,407 (Rs. :t2,<i2,2i>0- 
; £2528 (1^.25.280) were remitted, and £3111 
,u , 1, — ■■it outriUkudiii}^. Indian tnitlvl rupv« prices row] from 
eeTeutj to tvrenty-four and a half pounda. 

In 1HC9-70, the rainfnit of 32 l>7 iiii'In-M was abundant, and exevpt 
that. Uie hiU- mins filightly damai^-ed the cotton crop, no such 
favfiurable harve.Ht hud been eoen for years. Public beulth was 
(,1-m-n.lly pioti- 'I'ho tillage arw* ro»v from 2.U0.5O8 to 2,249,673 
■erea, and Ihe laud n-vcuiio for eolleetion from £255,247 to £296,827 
(Ba. 28,52,470-Re. ^'.',08,270)',; £72 (B«. 720) were remitted, and 
£m-WJ (Rtt. ri*ir>0) Ic-ft oil t.1 Minding^- Indian inillot rupee prices fell 
Erom tiveotj.fouraud a half to forty -fonr pounds. , 

In lt!7U-71 the rainfall of 2953 inche^^ wii.1 Hliundaut, llw xeason 
btvounilild, and [nibliu biullh good. The tillage area rose from 
2,249,"ir<l to' 2,38.'i,*i05 acres, and tho land revenne for coUoction 
fn.n. £2yt>,827 to £303.062 (Rh. 20,08.270 - Hj.. 80,30,620); £681 
llisi. MU)) Here n-miUH, aud i:>h^ (Us. 55!>0) left outstanding. 
Indian millet rupee prices rose from forty-four to thirty-seven 

In IS7I<72 the rainfall at Dhuliawas only 1004 tnehea. In nomc 
parts there nas a complete 5iihira of crops, and relief works wore 
organised. In Nov etn bur heavy rain (ell, and large iuiportntions ol 
gnun tmiii the Oentrwl Provinces., by lowering; tlio price of Indian 
(iiitlet from Ihirly-seven to fifty puundi, prorcuted anylhinff like 
n i'ii-pi-<^d disirosa. The tillage area rose from 2,385,005 to 
£, acrea, biii ihe land revenue for collection fell from 

i . to £265,1^1 («*■ 31.1,30,020. Rs. 26,51,2)0); £37,621 

<Ka. 3,75,210) were rctnittwl, and £30,736 (K». 3,07,360) -^eft 







T.-Rooe b'.twomtliaM<mdt&efigiiMrM-thanunnyii4r(lB684>) drwlB 
ti.. ^i«tngr*|>fa it An* Vt t&o tntufcr. in lIuiMiwdutrietaflUii^ 

wl u .."LiYitic^ii uf MahgoMi, NAitJipiaa, and (U|^u nitli Ua two MbonlnnUe 

pprMr iltviaioiu, prtAs. 

IBombajr Quet 



iptw Tni. 


isaaon KupurU. 





Jn 187S-73, the rainfall of 30'65 inche* was nbundant wid 
nblc. Kxci'pt in rill»t<i^ ulotif; the ti'traa and ilie Tdnti, wh 
much injured by Qoodn, the harvest was eveiTwiiere abuati 
I'ublic hi-nUh wa« franornlly good. Tbcn- "■ore n fi'w cmm ol' cb 
and thiiwKh tinuiv ^^f^l■n:■d from denjriie fever, few diixt 
tillage an^a fell from ^,:j;('.l.8t0 lo 2,:}.S:),4U acree, while tlie lao 
revenue for colloction r«>"i' fnmi t.2iV,,]2\u>tiQlfi-i'tlll». 2C,51,2l( 
Ra. 30,1 0,2^0): £1701 (lU. 17,UiO) were remiued, and t 
(Bs. 30,(ilO) left ouutandiD^. IndLati millot nipoa prices fell 
fifty to sixty and » half ]K)und4^ 

III lS73~7-(, ibe rainfall of 30'0-l iuchca, thonffh above the avfi 
Cuaa too eariy uid was broken by 1od|; t;trel<'!he8 of fair weatl 
The Mnaon vras on th» wliolu fair. CinwaboppiTs did much mi^cl: 
in Ch&li§gBon and Dholia. In S4vda, neither wheat nor cot 
prospenxl owin;; to cxcx^ssiro rain. The tillage area fell fr 
2,S83,4Hto 2,302,613 iicn-s, and I1m5 land rpvuniii* for cullpcti 
from £301,025 to £i>'J8,l3! (Ra. 30,10,250- Ks. 211,81,310) ; £1^ 

£«. 14,1201 were rvmitlod, and £1706 {Ra. I",0tt0jloft owtjstanil 
dian millet riiix-e \>nvM fell from sixty and a half to n 
tliree and a half pounds. 

lu 1874-75, thu rainfall of 20(14 inches, though suHicicnt, was 
awu-aMiiiahlo, tt>o heavy in Ihv hufpnning and xeanty towards ihv cl 
A long break, with very hot sun, did mueh damnge to millets, cot 
and HewtDUin. The tilliigo arra ronv from 2,302,643 to 2, 
acres, and the land revenue for collection fnim £298,131 to £2P9,1 
(Ra. 29,81,310. R>t.29,SI,7$0) :£22SH (I^i. 22,910) were 
Jt87* (Re, 8740) lell outAtandiiig. Indian millet rapco priooe 
from sixty-tbrpc and a half to eiicty-one pouitda. 

lu ld75-7t>, thu niiiifidl of 299 inches waa plentifal, and in pis 
oxooasive. In iRo central »iul><divi.tioai<, the early cropx, ('*peci 
cotton, were damaged. Cholera and cattle diaease prevailed. \ 
tillage area rosu from 2,375,045 to 2,415,03S acres, and tho Ii 
revenue for collection from £29»,175 to £302,090 (Ra. 20,91,71 
Bs. 30,20.900) J £789 (Rs. 7S90) wero remitted, and £iJJll f Rs. ( 
luft oatoianding. Indian millet rupe« pnoai rose from sixty- 
to forty. sevon pounds. 

In 187(i-77,tb(M-aiuraI),whi(-halDhu]iawaeI3'14inGhee, W8SI 
where scanty, and in some places almost entirely failed. To roli« 
the diKtreKs publiu works had to ho opened, and it was only by 
4ai^ im]>ortatiouii of grain by rail thiit scarcity was proventea I 
■developing into famine. The tilli^e area roiio from 2,4I5,(>38 
2,484,193 Bcree, but the land revenue for collection fell 
JE302.090 to £301,780 (R«. 30,20,'.KI0.Rs. 30,17,800) i £2U 

S 8. 21,290) were remitted, and £216 (Ra. 2160) left outslandir 
diau Diillot rupee prices rose from forty-Beven to twenty^jwi 

In 1877-78, though veiy late of setting in (Angusi 24), the 
fall wa» abundant, 2o' 1 9 inches, and tho harvest teir. Public hoalt _ 
wa« good. The tillage area rose from 2,484,193 to 2,648,638 aorea7 
aad the land rovenuo for collection from £301,780 to £503,801 
{R«.80,17,800-K8. 30.38,010); £1110 (Ra. 11,100) wcixs rfimitkjd. 




uid £23 (Rs. 230) left ontatanding. Indian millet mpoe prices fell 
from twenty-seven to twenty •eight and a half pounds. 

In 1878-79, the rainfall of 35-92 inches was excessive. Too 
much moistare and want of heat damaged the early crops, and 
the late crops suffered from rats and locusts. Between May and 
October, there were some bad outbreaks of cholera, 6000 out of 
12,500 Beizures proving fatal. The tillage area rose from 2,548,038 
to 2,603,073 acres, and the land reveuuo for collection from 
£303,801 to £310,069 (Ra, 30,38,010-Rs. 31,00,690) ; £163 (Rs. 1630) 
were remitted, and £670 (Rs. 6700) left outstanding. Indian millet 
rupee prices fell from twenty -eight and a haif to thirty-one pounds. 

In 1879-80 the rainfall at Dhnlia was 20-71 inches. The seaaoa 
was on the whole favonrablo. Pnblic health was good. The tillage 
area rose from 2,603,073 to 2,759,793 acres, and tho land revenue 
for collection from £310,060 to i3l0,101(Rs.31,00,690.Rs.31,61,010); 
£252 (Rs. 2520) were remitted, and £11 [Rs. 110) left outstanding. 
Indian millet rnpee prices fell from thirty-one to thirty-four 

The following shews in tabular form the chief yearly statistics 
of rainfall, prices, tillage, and land revenue, during the twenty-eight 
years ending 1879-80: 

KhdadtiA Sea»oa .•Hatiiliea, 1S5J-1SS0. 




Rflln U 

































• 12fl 



14 20 






i', i'i 




" flit 


























1, !;■-,'. .irj.i 





27 U 

l.'.l l.LSil 


1 11,(1 1» 



ues-os ... 

I.I'M, 11^1 












11 la 


S0,rl(l,i..-j.1 1 













!ll,l•l.^ 1 












XIH 1 .(IDS 


i::37a ' 



U«H-«a (a)... 











71H 1 






3, »■-,«« 


.^^ 1 .1 



1S71-7S ... 




2fl,. -.1,^07 



W "• 




a i*i,4U 










17, OBI 

in4-7S ... 








\t7i-7e ... 









It ID 










^,3411, lyw 

















a.'. 17 



]si»«a (N... 


so .7 1 

3. ;■"»,";(; 





Chapter Til] 


SeuDD Report 



fa) TtwdcotMlop thtamnd BubBequcnlvwirsareforliie r"*™' KliSmionh only. , ... , 

ft) FlgrnSrSi thl. >«r tadudTlhB tour snb-diyi.lou. which, until IDefrM, formed put ol 


luptw IZ. 

■>r if ho 



Uhcrr tbe MnrAtli^t, jhkIioo, both civW and triniinal, 
■dminiatorcci by lltp rovenne nffiiwra, tbe pritit, (lie 
Mid tilt) Mr iiuli/u^iir, with the Fesjiwaorhia luiui.iUT .- 
j»iirt of Bpppal. fu oft'il wWM't, llm offii-ors wore In 
panchayaU, uf from five to fifty u)i>mliui-!i, lui-n in t 
lu life as lhi> pnrtivH to tbc cam.', or nbl4> to fona a Ht-iiNitjji.' 
on llu' pninl in i|iiiMtiiin. TIk! ^<ifi7 first trk-J to w?ltie tin 
an a friend of the parlioe. If he ^led be coiled lb« coui 
itiqaired into the tnollur and gi»'<i (lu-ir domiott. If tbu ciin 
dill not nwdy to the pdlil, or if he were ntfunvd n coumi) 
diiia))pn)Tea of tbe conncil'a diNrtnion, ho weiii tu the imi. 
tht-n lo tho »<'r suhhfildr. The !a.Ht fiffifter mU-d in ihe 
twf the pi'ilil, with the additional power of bi'iiig nble to i 
defendant either to snlimit ti' tho cunnol's decixiou or {•■ 
the complaiDutit. Unless for aonie grosii injuHtim or sii^piciti; 

corruption, tiio §npcHor milliority would not reriiW the orig. 

dccwion, oxoi-pl on tlie promise to pay u l»rgo snm into conrt. 1b. 
Bome towna tliere was un officor railed ny(iy<WAuA who tri^l oueM 
tjndorlhoPoi<li«V«anth«ritv. Any nthvroathonsed person couI J al^ 
conduct no investifFatiou, the d^oiaiou lieing Kuhjvct to i ~< 
by the Pe^hwa. Tbe decision;; of llic coarta were K^imi': 
out by povoratrtcnt iind Mnitiel iiiiest left U> tho plaiutifl, mho w 
aliywvd, nndcr tli9 iiameof lakkata, or duumnjj-, to a>-v what uienn« 
choHe t<i compel the defendant to jwy. Tiii'sc means varimj from aim 
dunning to plfu;iug a guitnl orer the dofendiint, koepiu^ him 
eating, tying bim up ueclc nnd heels, or setting him in the aun witb 
honvy stono on liid bead. When gurcrnniDut enforced pnyment 
a debt it took very much the sumo ale{» ax the iilaiDtilT, or it 
Brrungod for llu- [wymenl by inKtidinctits, or it nohl the dei>tor*a 
property generally gpnriiijr his boiiHe and taking care not to bring him 
to utier ruin. Detilurs were novor kept in a public prison. Tbu 
dvoro somctimcM nhnt up or tortured by the creditor iit, his own Iio 
^r in some i>thcr dwelling, and in other ea»o:< were made toserv(<t 
creditor till the amonnt of their nominal wages equalled tbe debt. 
Tlio cliicf Kiibjeirts of litigation wcro hoiuulary diaputea, diriKion o' 

Kroperty, inberitance, and money debts. JLmong traders, houiut 
ttnKmptx weru »t*t frcv, hut if frand wua detected full payment waa 
as far aa possible enforced. 

Criminal jneticu, et^)H- dally in the time of the lost Peabwa, w; 
imguhir and corrupt. The right of {lunisbing wan ill dufmikl, oi. 
wa« exercised by each officer according to hia indiiridual jwwer an 
intlnence. Omi fmiil would Hog, fine, and put in tho stocks, whila. 
anothor would not venture even to impriiron. Hie power of lifi; ijnd 
deiith was at first exercised by thowe only who wer« untruated with 



\ Atfpaty'*, mwliililti, neai, ami by great military cliiefa in Uiotr 

Dps uid attatcs. In the latl<>r dayn of Mur^thu rule capital 

were exteadod to the m-imlatdiir and the »ar rnhhcJiir, who, 

rc-furaoM to higliLT luilbunty. <xhi1<1 ban;; rebela and gaug 

ew, and in disturbed districta, uulciw tUey ouiild pay for their 

B, Bhils, simply on the score of notoriety. lu oilier caaca tho 

vd was cxttinined, and if then; Mtomed Gtron;; ground for 

a, vma flogged to make biiu coufejtit. WitnoBses were 

and a summary of their evidence and the statement of 

were taken in writing. Except in cases connected with 

where divinos, shtUtria, were (lOiiiotimM couMultcd, there 

seem to have been no reference &> lawit. C'lMtoni and, 

eiiediency wero the only rules. To a groat extent the nature and 

thu amount of pnnishmeut dt^jx-nded ou tbe criminal's caste. Mm'der, 

markod by special cruelty, was usually atoned by fine. 

jhway robbery and stato otfoocee wwre generally punished with 

Nth, by elephant trampling, blowing from a gun, hanging, 

lin^, cutting to pieces, or crashing the head with a inallot. 

^onien were never sentenced to deatli. Bitthmana worthy of 

_ th, whom iho fooling for their castu prevented from being openly 

'lAain, WL-nt destroyed by poifton or by unwholeaomo food, bread, half 

Odt and Imlf flour, being otlon nsud. In less extreme cases tho 

commoner punishments wore, cutting olT an arm or a log, audiibutting 

hill fortsand dungeoua where the prisouerH were nft«n left U> die 

noglcct or hunger. Flogging was the usual means for discovering 

alen property. Uard mooar, cspociiiUy in building furt«, waa 

mmnioi^ but liku most ignuminious puni»bmttnts, it was confined 

to the Ivwur orders, fine and confiaeatioii wore tho most usuiU 

seotencas. They were often inflicted for the benefit o£ the 

nviiittaldJir, when no uffonoc ha<l been eommittvd, jLnd they often, 

th in murder and mtibery cases, took the plifee of death when 

1 acciLiud cijuld pay well for his life. Apart from disorders and 

Bg robberies, almost all of which were tlie work of Dhils and 

ter lawless triln^s, olTcnooH wore not particularly nnmcrons. 

"XmoDg Mnrilth^ the commonest crime vbb murder, genenilly tho 

result of jealousy or of disputes about land or village rank,' 

After tho Bntish contpii-Ht (1818), 'to prevent sudden and 

sivo cbnngus,* Khitndeah was, till IS27, aaminUtered under tho 

of the Governor in Council.' A Collector and Political 

it was appoinl«d to Khitndcsh subject to tho Cooimissionor at 

and to help t)io nuimlatdArs to admiuiater civil justice,' 

known aa amin» or superintondcnts were choa«u (1822). 

some exceptions tho Mar^thii syNtoin of civil jiuitioe was kept 

achangcd. For the first year or two, owing to the disturbed and 

tserted itfttlo of tho district, there were very few civi! cases. Mi^ny 

gut«3 were settled in a friendly wfty by tho ioSuenco of largo 

~ olderSj and tho possowtion of an order, signed and sealed by toe 

or, to the mnmlaUUr to inquire into the case, was sufliciunt to 




> Mr. rar')>'n*t«<>o'* Rtfort. 31Kh Octobw 1819. 
< ItvKubtiun XSIX. uf 1937, Prcunblo. 

a 411-39 


ipt«r IZ. 


the aui 

- procnrea wUlpnipnt.iif tin' Oil ''.■< ilispiitc. nimn^thetfa 

yoftrs «tidinif I si July 1S22, fi: _ lilK were regis turt'd. Ofl' 

2M were di-oidt-J liy couflriln, panehayat«, frwentj-fonr by i 
agnwiuoDt, fifty>uiDLi by tliO Collt-vUir, miniliitiUn, kdiJ nin-'>'> 
thrw rt'iii&iued pvoding. The L-ooncii, iMiMcAiiyflf, .lyMi'in Im 
*i ixcoiniouM Kiiine the time of Peshwa M£dha'rr&r 11.(1 TT i - 
II vian, in {'aplHiD Rrig)^' opitiion^ wdl uil»ptc<l to s^run- - 
cboap, and ready^rudraM. uut it had ibe nLji'i 
nopowvr Lv force members to sorve, and tberc wu 
in pL'i-Auhdiiig them.* 

In 1827, KtiAndc^ wax, ifjili oertaiu vpnctal etipuktHB^^ 
wbrought uiidor ifa« rcrisi&d rvn^ktioiiH. SOiq^ villn^fTg then 
intwere Added by UegalationX of ISSfLAod in lU*}ti the 

ruions of Killiiliii'l nn<] Varnognon, codrnli; Uis Bi^nms! 
^u 180, were bmuf^ht undrr Uio rcf^ln) ions. 

In 1S27. tli» district of Khiindesb, wiUi a Beiiior --^ --•-"• *- 
und livo Hitlwrdituitv nntiro judfirpfl called commisaico 
was), for judidHl ijuriXBkO:', mitdii imrt of AIiiti<.-tIii;iL 
uiulfir tlie »<u{>erviHiiin of !!i& Aliiueduiipar Iti-ttri't ■' 
iiumber of native conimis.'^irjin.'rs vrjiw 
tliu total dc'ciHifiHit of IIm; w^vi-a i.-"'!!! ; i i .. 

1849, Khimletib bisriuun a HU^iarate jiidioia! ud haai 

Kejiarate^l the present time, «onte limes wi::. „..u ^..^mutimea ■•••<i 
an assiMMnt imlgu. 1« \^^^*> ihvro wuru o'lght cooita und tO,S 
(Ivt^tAtona. The enbortUnue judges werf Iniowti as muHmfft, «wL 
amiiw, and principalwiilai' amiH*," In I860, tbq g|y iTf nint> k)h 
mnd 11,295 doinrtionit. In 1869, thv number olRnie wibord 
judu^ wiw increoAed to eleven, hit in tJio same year, on 
transfer of M&lbgaou »ndB4gUln toN&sik, waAit([itin rudncedtuniue. 
In 1870, there were in all eleven conrts and 2(I,t>o2 decisions. Sit 
1870, the number of suiUi baa Btwidily fallen. In 1878, the noml 
of coart« wtM reduced to t«D, and the decieiioiui f<dl us low as 1 2,( 

The presenfc (18801 details nrt>, a District and Kessious JndiL _ 
stationed nt Plinlia, with jnri«licliim ovor tbo trhotb diiitnci ] and 
nine subardinalejudges with I he average rhftrgwotll "29 squan* niik-« 
andof 114,2!>3«)iilKf Of (li" sob-judgea, one, swfk>n<.-d at DhuJiii, 
has jnriiidiction over the Uhulia »nd Vinlol sub-divieions ; asccoud, 
at Amalner, kao jurisdiction over the Anialncr mib-diviHion ; n third, 
«l^ l-^randol, over the Erandol sub-divifiiou ; a fourth, at Bhadguon^ 
• over the Pachora and CbAlisgaon Biib-d)vii;ionfl ; a fifth, at Jalgao^^ 
over the Nasimbad and Jiinmpr flnl>-'i ti sixth, at RhiiHival, ' 

over the HhiudTai sub-division ; a nevi i i. 'I'inil, over tin- S^ydi 
Bub-diviaiou; an eighth, at Shirpiir, over the Shirpur and Chopi 
Biib'di'visiQnii ; and a ninth, at Nnndurbftr, over the Kandarbd 
'Piftipalner, tShahiida, and Taloda sult-divisioits. Of the nin eu 
iud^ia, five, those at Ohnlia, BhusttraL Jalgaon, Anatner, 
Y&Tal are invested vrilb the povrent of sltAlt cause court jodges. 

> Mr. campling Report, 90th Aogun 182?, pui. 207. 
* B«suljitk>aXXlX.«()S3T. 






















11. ■as 









B7 3a 


ID, 395 





gj n.uw 






•ver&ge distance of the ChuUa snb- judge's conrt from its 8*z 
I yillaffea is thirtr-eight miles ; of the Amalner court twenty- 
les; of the Erondol court eighte^ miles f^ of the Bhadgaou 
lirty-seTen miles ; of the Jalgaou court forty-two miles j of 
osival court twenty-six miles; of the Tival court thirty-si« 
jf the Shirpur conrt fifty-seven miles ; and of the N»ndurb&r 
rty-seren miles. 

isive of suits decided by the fire sab-jadget in the exercise 
of small cause court powers, the 
average number of cases settled 
dnang the lyne years ending 1878 ' - 
i8-'78,646. Excej)t in 1873, when- 
there was a considerable increase^-), m. 
the number of suits has of late yeaft^'?*" 
steadily fallen from 26,632 in 1870 ^" 
to 10,765 in 1877. Jn 1878 there 
was a slight increase to 12,088. . Of - 
the ^ whole number of decisions 
during tiie nine years ending 1878, 
69'91 per cent have, on an average, 
been given against the defendant m 
nee. The proportion of cases decided in this way was in 
high as 73-28 pa» cent. Since 1870, except in 1872, this 
decisions has been on the decrease, a^ in 1878 had fallen to 
T ipnt. Of contested cases, only ^2*72 per oent have during 
9 years jpding 1S7S besn decided for the defendant, the 
onvaryi^from U-60 in 18^ 10-00 in 1878. In 166 or 1-37 
of the whole number of suits decided in 1878, tho decree waa 
i by putting the plaintiff in possession of.the immovable 
T claimed. This class of cases rose from 180 out of 26,632 in 
320 out of 24,324 in 1873 ; it then fell, and in 1878 stood 
a 166 out of 12,038. In 5209 or 43-27 per cent of the 1878 
s, decrees for money due were executed by the attachment or ' 
)roperty. The returns for attachments and saJes of movable 
aovable property show an increase from 3487 attachments 
n salea^ip 1870 to 7019 and 5722 in 1874. Since 1874 
as been a considerable &11> the 1878 figures showing 3651 
enta and T&58 sales. 

g the nine years ending 1878, the number of decrees executed 
.rrest of debtors has fallen from 1790 in 1870 to 173 in 187^^ 
in 1873, the returns show a steady decrease. The following 
howa that dunng the same nine years (1870-1878), the 
of civil prisoners has, except in 1877, ranged from 204 
Qi the 234 prisoners in 1878, 213 were Hindus and 
m4 Musalm^ua. Of their occupation no details are availably 

Chapter ZZ, 


CiTil Sutlrtioa. 



(Bombty OueiM 

















vm .C 








■an _ 








IMS w 








lan . 
















US ::: r 

















. •"» 








' » 





" 1 

nio following sUtcmcnt ithown m tabalftr fonn tho 
tliu (Utttrict civil courtit duriiig the nioe years cadiug 187 

8 J 







■MM ! i 

■MM a 






item ~ 

■MtaiDK'''- timnu*'! 



Tilts registration dupsrtmoul epiploys Hixtfen Bnb-rcfristr 
thirt«on of them epoctal and t)tn<o Wad hirhint of miUnlati' 
'[\u-y nro dt»lribut«a ono ai vuoh Kab-diviitipilnl bc»d-<]uarters. 
luldition bo suporTiaibn by the Cnlltxrlor as DiatrioUittf^Htrar, ^ 
Bpiscinl ttcnitUky is, under thu rontrul of ihii IiisnocOTT Uudoj 
Hc^ietnilion and Stjtiitps, carried on hy » dinsiooal inspe 
Afcurding to the Hogistpation Rtiport fop 1878-79, the rt-jriNtnit 
receipts for thiit jwir auiuuotedto J:17.>-> 14*. lli(. (Rb. 17,."i.'i7-7 
ami the olmrffcs to X1238 I3«. Qtl. (Us. 12,38fi-14), thua loai 
• (;re<3itlM»iai>foof £5171*. 2rf. (tts. 5l70-!)-4). Of 7884, the_ 
jiiii)it)i>r of i-ogisti-ationu, thirtwii wore wills und W5 worei 
affi»c<ing oiovahlo and 7-'iCli docuinonta affwting i 
)ir»|M'rty. Of thu Uttvr 1387 were optional and tilfOcompala 
regiHtmtiona. Of 7r>60 docnmc&t« rvlatitig (o immoviibto pn>pe 
27&G worn d(M!<l» of sale, »i.\ty-four dt^Hi* of ^ft, 'lO?? niortf 
tlMds, and (Iffi) iiiistx-llaneoiia. lucluding £2t)5,(r27 I8«. 
(Rs. 20,50,279-C), the mluA of iminovablo pmperty trauidur 
thu total vrttim vt pitiptTty affected by regiutration ainotmtdd ' 
£2KV;iy 14a. (W. (!U 2I,WJ,l;}7-i). 

' Salt* il««iila>l by Sabotdiiulc Jiidgon iu tlic csuMun ot niuQ camw 
imwcn nro not iudndod. 



t prcMot {1880} forty-five officers simrc tbo ndministratioQ^f 
irinimal justice. Of tUeso ono is the District MiigijttmU-, Huvon una 
■lagistratee of the first, tweWe of the second, and twotity-Gve of 
tko (liihl clneu. Of first cIms mngistrates four nro corooattted 
■ad four uncovennntod civilians. • Except the UiKtrict Magistrate, 
who has a general aupervidion over the whole district, each fint 
BlSM mu^etmto tms nn average clinrge of I73t! square miles and a 

RBpulfttion (if 171,friO jsouls. In 1879, tbe Uislrict Miigistmto 
ecidod thirteen original and ei^ht appeal c»acs, and the five other 
first clou magtstnitos, 541 ori^jinal nnd forty-nine appeal cases. 
Except the husiir or hcad-i)tiitrCer deputy collector who hiw cbargo 
of the treasury department only, the magistrates, as Collector and 
ftsvistniit or depntj collectors, havurevrmuuchargeof the parte of the 
district ill which th«y oxorci.te tnngisWrial j»>wors. Of subordiiiuto 
maKiHtratea of the secimd and third claaaea, there are thirty-seven, 
•U of them natives of India with an avorago chaive of 30!) squaro 
zailes and a {topulntion of SO.fiOl »imh. In 1879 they decided 2999 
original ca.sefl. ~ Ceaidos their magisterial duties, these otficem 
exerci-su revenno powers as nuimlatdArs, mahilkaris, and liead clerks 
of miiuhktdfira and mi^ddkariH. Uesides the»e, 2810 hereditary 
police paiUs, who also do revenne work and receive an average 
yearly allownnco of £1 10s. 4Ji^ (Els. 19-11), are cntmitted with 
hpetty inagUtcnal powerg under the Bomlwy Village Potico Act 
|(VLII. of 1867). Of the whole number sorenty-sovon can, nnder 
Hecliou 15 of tbc Act, fine np to 10*. (Rs. 6) and imprison for forty-